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Definition of Waterfront

 Is a contained land area
or a structure that lies alongside a
body of water


Waterfront Structure is divided


 Off shore Structures –designed to
create a sheltered Harbor.
Example: Breakwater
Breakwater is an offshore barrier, erected to
break the action of the waves and thereby
maintain an area of calm water inside.


A JETTY is a similar structure. except that its main purpose is to direct a current or tidal flow along the line of selected channel 6 .

but less than 2 tons • Class C Rock . is any rock smaller than class B 7 .is the largest rock placed at the top • Class A Rock – is a rock not less than 85% of which consists of pieces weighing more than 2 tons each • Class B Rock – is a rock not less than 60% of which consists of pieces weighing of more than 100 Lbs each .also called quarry waste.Composition of a Rubble-mound or rock-mound breakwater • Cap Rock .

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It is a rubble – mound breakwater topped with a concrete cap structure 9 . or for one with an extra-high tide range.Composite Breakwater • Is a breakwater intended for a deepwater site.

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 Along Shore Structure – designed to establish a definite shoreline and maintain it against wave erosion Example: Seawalls 11 .

Seawalls • It is a vertical or a sloping wall which offers protection to a section of the shoreline against erosion and slippage due to tide and wave action • Seawalls are classified according to the type of construction: Riprap or a solid concrete 12 .

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. Wharfage Structures – designed to make it possible for ships to lie alongside for loading and discharging.

angle pier for one freighter on each side 15 .Types of Wharfage Structures • Quay • Square Pier • Right Angle Pier for one freighter on each side • Right Angle for one freighter and lighter on each side • Acute.

Type of Wharfage Structure • Right –Angle Pier for two freighters on each side • Acute – Angle pier for two freighters on each side • T.type Marginal Wharf for freighter on outer birth and lighter on inner birth • U – Type Marginal Wharf 16 .

its purpose is to support and protect from erosion an area of shore or fill 17 . is a vertical retaining structure used along a shore or the shore end of a pile wharf or approach.Bulkheads • Used in port construction.

Classified According to Type of Construction: • • • • Pile and Sheathing Bulkhead Wood sheet-pile bulkhead Steel sheet-pile bulkhead Concrete sheet-pile bulkhead 18 .

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What is Dredging ? .

disposing of the materials at a different location 23 .Dredging is an operation to excavate material from the bottom of a shallow sea or freshwater area.

The process of Dredging may involve scraping or sucking the seabed and the dredged materials are called Spoils • The machinery for dredging is called Dredge • A ship or boat equipped with dredge is called a Dredger 24 .

and to reclaim areas affected by toxic chemicals and urban run off.Primary Uses of Dredging • • • • To create a new harbor or water ways To maintain navigable waterways or channel Make preparations for future docks and bridges Dredged materials may be used to construct new land elsewhere for flood or erosion control • Historically. dredging has been used for gold mining and other valuable substances • Dredging may also be used to remove trash and debris. Dredging however may adversely affect Aquatic Ecosystem 25 .

Variety of Dredging Operations 26 .

Maintenance Dredging – removal of accumulated sediments from harbor channels and berths to ensure a safe depth of water for navigational purposes 27 .

Environmental Dredging – similar maintenance works to remove sediments to restore an adequate flow of water to mitigate risk of flooding or protect sensitive habitat 28 .

Capital Dredging – excavation of materials to deepen or create navigational channel and berths to provide additional harbor infrastructure or to provide access for deeper draft vessels 29 .

Construction Dredging – applies to removal of areas of the seabed during construction works at sea associated with placement of other structures such as foundations. laying of pipelines and outfalls 30 .

Pre – Sweep Dredging – preparation of the sea bed to level and remove obstruction preparatory to laying of pipelines and cables 31 .

Types of Dredging Equipment 32 .

usually located directly on the shore or positioned offshore by anchor or moorings 33 .Clamshell or Grab Dredger – is a type of dredge of one or more buckets operated by a crane and mounted on a floating vessel or barge.

Clampshell or Grab Dredger 34 .

“Clamshell” type bucket 35 .

Dipper Dredger or Backhoe Dredger – operate somewhat similarly to a land based power shovel. characterize as an excavator and that excavated materials are loaded on to barges or on land 36 .

Ladder Bucket Dredger – this type of dredger is configure with long steel frame which is easily lowered and raised. equipped with multiple buckets passing over sprockets and scoop materials from the bottom and discharge it through a chute into a hopper moored alongside or receiving hopper located on the dredger 37 .

Ladder Bucket Dredger 38 .

Cutter Suction Dredger – is a type of hydraulic dredger used for loosening hard compact materials. The most common feature is the rotating cutter mounted on the lower end of the ladder that support both the cutter drive and suction pipe 39 .

The cutterhead of a hydraulic dredge 40 .

Deep suction can excavate sand from depth of 328 ft (100 m) 41 . It consist of a pipe joined at one end to a centrifugal pump.Hydraulic or Suction Dredger – used to excavate soft fine materials such as sand and mud.

42 .Hydraulic dredging with a pipeline.

Suction Dredge Pipe 43 .

Suction Type Dredger 44 .


Mechanical dredging using a crane and barge 46 .

Trailing Suction Hopper Dredge – are self-propelled hydraulic dredge with large drag arms and a high pumping capacity. This type of dredge is primarily used in clearing channels and offshore sand bars from the mouth of rivers 47 .

Self-propelled hopper dredge 48 .

Environmental Impact of Maintenance Dredging and Disposal 49 .

density and quality of the material Level of water. suspended sediment and turbidity Tidal Range Current. direction and velocity Proximity of marine features to the dredging and disposal activity • Presence and sensitivity of plant and animal communities 50 .Factors Influencing the Potential Effects • • • • • • • • Magnitude and frequency of dredging activity Methods of Dredging and Disposal Channel size and depth Size.

nutrients and contaminants depending on the nature of material in the area • Settlement of these suspended sediments can result in the smothering or blanketing of subtidal communities although beneficially used to raise the level of selected areas to offset rise in sea level or erosion (short term impact vs long term gain 51 . the Potential Impact of Dredging and Disposal can be summarized as follows: • Removal of subtidal Benthic species and communities • Short term increases in the level of suspended sediments can give rise to changes in water quality which can effect marine life due to the increased turbidity and the possible release of organic matter.Generally.

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