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2004

Presented By:

NEMESIO C. CAEG

Bureau of Research & Standards

ITEM DESCRIPTION
This item consist of:
pavement of Portland cement concrete,
with or without reinforcement
constructed on the prepared base
in accordance with specification
in conformity with lines and grades, thickness
and typical cross-section of the plans.

MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS
1. Portland Cement
Only Type I Portland Cement shall be used unless otherwise
provided for in the Special Provisions.
The use of Portland Pozzolan Cement Type IP meeting the
the requirements of AASHTO M240/ASTM C 695 shall be
allowed, provided that the trial mixes shall be done and
that the mixes meet the concrete strength requirements.
Different brands or the same brands from different mills
shall not be mixed nor shall they be used alternately
unless the mix is approved by the Engineer.

1. Portland Cement
The product of only one mill of any one brand and type of
Portland Cement shall be used on the project unless
otherwise permitted by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide suitable means of storing and
protecting the cement against dampness.
Cement that has become partially set or which contains
lumps of caked cement will be rejected. Likewise, cement
salvaged from discarded or used bags shall not be used.

2. Fine Aggregate
consists of natural sand, stone screenings, or other inert
materials with similar characteristics, or combinations
thereof, having hard, strong and durable particles.
material passing the 0.075 mm ( No. 200 sieve ) shall not
contain more than (3) mass percent by washing nor more
than (1) mass percent each of clay lumps or shale.
when subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate
soundness test, the weighted loss, shall not exceed 10 mass
percent

2. Fine Aggregate
shall be free from injurious amounts of organic
impurities.
if subjected to the calorimetric test for organic impurities
and a color darker than the standard is produced, it shall
be rejected.
when tested for the effect of organic impurities of
strength of mortar, the fine
aggregate may be used if the relative strength at 7 and 28
days is not less than 95 mass percent

Grading Requirements for Fine Aggregates


Sieve Designation
9.5 mm ( 3/8 in. )

Mass Percent Passing


100

4.75 mm ( No. 4 )
2.36 mm ( No. 8 )

95 - 100
-

1.18 mm ( No. 16 )

45 - 80

0.600 mm ( No. 30 )

0.300 mm ( No. 50 )

5 - 30

0.150 mm ( No. 100 )

0 - 10

3. Coarse Aggregate
consists of crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace slag, or other
approved inert materials of similar characteristics, or combinations
thereof, having hard, strong, durable pieces and free from any
adherent coatings.

contain not more than one (1) mass percent of material passing the
0.074 mm ( No. 200 sieve ) by washing nor more than 0.25 mass
percent of clay lumps, nor more than 3.5 mass percent of soft
fragments.

if subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate soundness test,


the weighted loss shall not exceed 12 mass percent.

shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 when tested to


Los Abrasion machine.

Grading Requirement For Coarse Aggregate


Sieve Designation
Standard
mm

Alternate
U.S. Std.

Mass Percent Passing


Grading
A

Grading
B

Grading
C

75
63
50

3 in.
2 in.
2 in.

100
90 100
-

100
90 100

100
95 - 100

37. 5
25
19

1 in.
1 in.
in.

25 60
0 10

35 70
0 15
-

35 70
-

12.5
4.75

in.

05

05

10 30

No. 4

05

4. Water
when used in mixing , curing or other designated application
it shall be reasonably clean and free of oil, salt, acid, alkali,
grass or other substances injurious to the finished product.
water which is drinkable and known of potable quality may
be used without test.
where the source is shallow, the intake shall be so enclosed
as to exclude silt, mud, grass or other foreign materials.
water will be tested in accordance with and shall meet the
requirements of Item 714, Water.

5. Reinforcing Steel
tie bars shall be deformed bars that are to bent and re-straightened
during construction and shall conform to the requirements of
AASTHO M 31 or M 42.

dowel bars shall be plain round bars where one-half of the length
shall be painted with one coat of approved lead or tar paint and
shall conform to the requirements of AASTHO M 31 or M42.

reinforcing steel shall be free from dirt, oil, paint, grease, mill
scale and loose or thick rust which could impair bond of the steel
with the concrete.

6. Joint Fillers
poured joint fillers shall be mixed asphalt or rubber filler
conforming to the requirements of AASTHO M 173.
preformed fillers for joints shall conform to the
requirements of AASTHO M 33 ( ASTM D 994 ), AASTHO
M 153, AASTHO M 213, AASTHO M 220, as specified in the
plans and shall be furnished in a single piece for the depth
and width required for the joint.

7. Admixtures
admixtures should be added only to the concrete mix to
produce some desired modifications to the properties of
concrete where necessary, but not as partial replacement
of cement.
air-entraining admixture shall conform to the
requirements of AASTHO M 154.
chemical admixtures, if specified or permitted, shall
conform to the requirements of AASTHO M 194.
fly ash, if specified or permitted as a mineral admixture
and as 20 % partial replacement of Portland Cement in
concrete mix shall conformed to the requirements of
ASTM C 618.

Reasons for Using Admixtures in Concrete


to reduce the cost of concrete construction,
to achieve certain properties in concrete more effectively
than by other means,
to ensure the quality of concrete during the stages of
mixing, transporting, placing, and curing in adverse
weather conditions,
to overcome certain emergencies during concreting
operations.

Classification of Admixtures According to


Function
1. Air entraining admixtures
2. Water reducing admixtures
3. Retarding admixtures
4. Accelerating admixtures
5. Super - plasticizers
6. Finely divided mineral admixtures
7. Miscellaneous admixtures such as workability, bonding,
damp proofing, permeability-reducing, grouting, gas
forming coloring, corrosion inhibiting and pumping
admixtures.

8. Curing Materials
curing materials shall conform to the following
requirements as specified:
a. Burlap cloth

- AASTHO M 182

b. Liquid membrane forming compound - AASTHO M 148


c. Sheeting ( film ) materials

- AASTHO M 171

Storage of Materials
Cement
cement shall be stored immediately upon delivery at the site
in a weatherproof building which will protect the cement
from dampness.The floor shall be raised from the ground.

bulk cement, if used, shall be transferred to elevated air tight


weathered proof bins.

cement bags shall be stacked closed together to reduce air


circulation but should never be stacked against outside walls.

stack the cement bags so that the first in are the first out
on small jobs where a shed is not available, bags should be
placed on raised wooden platforms at least 4 to 6 inches
above the ground and water coverings should fit over the pile
and extend over the cement and the platform.

Concrete Aggregates
to secure greater uniformity of concrete mix, different
sizes of aggregates shall be stored in separate bins or
separate stockpiles to prevent the material at the edges
of the piles from becoming intermixed.

Reinforcing Steel
steel bars shall be stored immediately upon delivery at
the site in a weatherproof location which will protect the
steel bars from corrosion. The floor shall be raised from
the ground.

PROPORTIONING, CONSISTENCY AND


STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
Minimum Cement Factor:
- to meet the minimum strength requirements for paving
concrete, it is required to have at least 364 kg. of cement
per cubic meter of concrete or a cement content of 9.1
bags/cu.m. of concrete on a 40 kg. per bag of cement

Slump Requirements :
- if vibrated, a slump between 37.5 75 mm (1-1/2 3 inches)
- if not vibrated, a slump between 12.5 37.5 mm ( - 3 inches)

PROPORTIONING, CONSISTENCY AND


STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
Strength Requirements :
- flexural strength @ 14 days of 3.8 MPa (550 psi), when
tested by the third point method or 4.5 MPa (650 psi),
when tested by mid-point method
- compressive strength @ 14 days of 24.1 MPa (3500 psi) for
cores taken and tested in accordance with AASTHO T 24

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
Preparation of Grade

the prepared base shall be checked of the required density,


surface imperfections and finished grade elevation.

the prepared base shall be extended and compacted at least


60 cm. beyond the edge of the proposed concrete pavement
to ensure that the density of the base at the edge of pavement
is the same as on its carriageway that can support the paving
machine when it is used.

the prepared base shall be uniformly moist prior to the placing of


concrete especially during hot/dry weather to keep the dry base
from absorbing too much water from the concrete mixture, thus
decreasing the amount of evaporation from the concrete surface.

Setting of Forms
forms shall be of steel and of equal depth equal to the thickness
of the pavement at the edge and provided with adequate
devices for secure setting.

any roadbed, which at the form line is found below established


grade, shall be filled with approved granular materials to grade
in lifts of 3 cm. or less, and thoroughly re-rolled or tamped.

the forms after setting to the correct grade, it shall not deviate
from the true line by more than one (1) cm at any point.

Placing of Concrete
concrete shall be unloaded into an approved spreading device
and shall be deposited continuously as near as possible to its
final position to prevent segregation of the materials.

placing shall be continuous between transverse joints and the


use of hand spreading shall be done with shovels not rakes.
Workmen shall not be allowed to walk in a freshly mixed
concrete with boots or shoes coated with earth or foreign
substances.
when concrete is to be placed adjoining a previously paved
lane and a mechanical equipment will be operated upon the
newly paved lane, such equipment will be allowed to carry on
that previously constructed lane provided it has attained the
strength for 14 day concrete.

Conditioning of Prepared Base Course


the prepared base material shall be brought to proper
cross-section.
the finished grade shall be maintained in a smooth and
compacted condition until the pavement is placed.
high areas shall be trimmed to proper elevation
low areas shall be filled and compacted to a condition
similar to that of the surrounding grade.

Mixing of Concrete
the concrete may be mixed at the site of the work, in a
central-mix plant, or in truck mixers
concrete mix when supplied by a batching plant, shall only
be allowed in the DPWH projects provided it is duly accredited
by the BRS ( DO # 253, S. of 2003 ).
batching plants installed/used in the DPWH contract projects
shall also be required to be accredited prior to supply the
concrete mix.
concrete when mixed at the site or in a central mixing
plant, the mixing time shall not be less than 50 seconds nor
more than 90 seconds.

Mixing of Concrete
the time elapsed from the time the water is added to the
mix until the concrete is deposited in place at the site, shall
not exceed 45 minutes when concrete is hauled in nonagitating trucks, nor 90 minutes when hauled in truck
mixers.
when volumetric measurements are authorized for small
project requiring less than 75 cu.m. of concrete per day of
pouring, the weight proportions shall be converted to
equivalent volumetric proportions. Use of chute is allowed
provided that a weighing scales for determining the batch
weight will be used.

Mixing of Concrete

re-tempering concrete by adding water or by other means


shall not be permitted, except that when concrete is delivered
in truck mixers, provided all these operations are performed
within 45 minutes after the initial mixing operation and the
water-cement ratio is not exceeded.

Limitation of Mixing
no concrete shall be mixed, placed or finished when the
natural light is insufficient, unless an adequate and
approved artificial lighting system is operated
re-tempering of concrete or mortar which has partially
hardened that is remixing with or without additional cement,
aggregate or water, shall not be permitted.

Placing of Concrete
if only finishing equipment is carried on the newly paved
lane, paving in adjoining lanes may be permitted after 3 days.
concrete shall be thoroughly consolidated by means of a
vibrator inserted in the concrete in a vertical position and
should not be operated longer than 15 seconds in any one
location.
vibrators shall operate at a frequency of 8,300 to 9,600
impulses per minute under load and the space interval of
inserting vibrators should be between 50 cm to 60 cm.

Placing of Concrete
vibrators shall be used for consolidation only, and not be used
for moving concrete horizontally along the forms.
a well consolidated concrete is 20 % to 25 % higher in strength
than that of concrete which is not thoroughly consolidated
concrete not in-place within 90 minutes from the time the
ingredients were charged into the mixing drum or that has
developed initial set shall not be used.

Test Specimens
as work progresses, at least one (1) set consisting of three (3)
concrete beam test specimens, 150 mm x 150 mm x 525 mm
shall be taken from each 330 m2 of pavement,
230 mm depth, or fraction thereof placed each day.
cylinder samples shall not be used as substitute for
determining the adequacy of the strength of concrete.
the beam specimens shall be properly cured and tested at
the specified date.

Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavement


Longitudinal Joints
deformed steel tie bars of specified length, size, spacing shall
be placed perpendicular to the longitudinal joints and may
be bent at right angles against the form of the first lane
constructed and straightened into final position before the
concrete of the adjacent lane is placed.
tie bars shall not be painted or coated with asphalt or other
materials or enclosed in tubes or sleeves.
when shown on the plans and when the adjacent lanes of
pavement are constructed separately, joint steel side forms
shall be used which will form a keyway along the construction.

Longitudinal Joints
longitudinal formed joints shall consists of a groove or cleft,
extending downward from and normal to the surface of the
pavement and shall be continuous and be no gaps in either
transverse or longitudinal joints at the intersections of the
joints.
longitudinal sawed joints shall be cut by means of approved
concrete saws to the depth, width and line shown on the plans
and shall be thoroughly cleaned and immediately filled with
sealer.
the longitudinal joints shall be sawed before the end of the
curing period or shortly thereafter and before any equipment
or vehicles are allowed on the pavement.

Transverse Contraction Joint/ Weakened Joint


consists of planes of weakness created by forming or cutting
grooves in the surface of the pavement and shall include
transfer assemblies.
the depth of the weakened plane joint should at all times
be less than 50 mm and width should not be more than 6 mm.

Longitudinal joints
Width = 6mm,
min.

Depth = 50mm min.

Types of Contraction/Weakened Joint


1. Transverse Strip Contraction Joint
- can be formed by installing a parting strip to be left in
place as shown on the plans.
2. Formed Groove Contraction Joint
- shall be made by depressing an approved tool or device
into the plastic concrete and shall remain in place until
the concrete has attain its initial set and shall then be
removed without disturbing the adjacent concrete,
unless the device is designed to remain in the joint.

Types of Contraction/Weakened Joint


3. Sawed Contraction Joint
- created by sawing grooves in the surface of the pavement
of the width not more than 6 mm and depth of not less than
50 mm and at the spacing and lines as shown on the plans.
- sawing of the joints shall commence as soon as the concrete
has hardened sufficiently to permit sawing without
excessive raveling, usually 4 to 24 hours.
- sawing of any joint shall be omitted if cracks occurs at or
near the joint location prior to the time of sawing.
- after each joint is sawed, it shall be thoroughly cleaned
and immediately be filled with sealer.

Transverse Construction Joint


shall be constructed when there is an interruption of more
than 30 minutes in the concreting operations.
no transverse joint shall be constructed within 1.50 m of an
expansion joint, or plane of weakness.
if sufficient concrete has been mixed at the time of
interruption to form a slab of at least 1.5 m long,
the excess concrete from the last preceding joint shall
be removed and disposed off as directed.

Load Transfer Device


dowel bar of specified size, length and spacing is used in
transverse contraction joint as load transfer device to the
succeeding plane of weakness and shall be held in position
parallel to the surface and center line of the slab that is
left in the pavement.
the portion of each dowel shall be painted with one coat of
lead or tar and be thoroughly coated of an approved lubricant
to prevent the concrete from binding to that portion of the
dowel.

Final Finish
brooming operation should be executed that the corrugations
produced in the surface shall be uniform in appearance and
not more than 1.5 mm in depth.
the hardened surface of the finished pavement shall have a
coefficient of friction less than 0.25 or more. Completed
pavement that is found to have a coefficient of friction less
than 0.25 shall be grounded or scored by the contractor at
his own expense to provide the required coefficient of friction.

Surface Test
the hardened finished pavement shall be tested with a
3-m straight-edge or other specified device.
areas showing high spots of more than 3 mm but not
exceeding 12 mm shall be marked and immediately ground
down with an approved grinding tool to an elevation where
there area or spot will not show surface deviations in excess
of 3 mm when tested with 3 m straight
areas showing high spots of more than 12 mm, the pavement
shall be removed and replaced by and at the expense of the
contractor.

Surface Test

any area or section to be removed shall not be less than


1.5 m in length and not less than the full width of the
lane involved.
any remaining portion of the slab to be removed and
replaced adjacent to the joints that is less than 1.5 m in
length, shall also be removed and replaced.

Curing
Immediately after the finishing operations have been
completed and the concrete has sufficiently set, the surface
of the newly placed concrete shall be cured for a period of
72 hours, with any of the following methods:
1. By covering the pavement with cotton or burlap mats
saturated with water.
2. By thoroughly wetting the pavement and covering its top
surface and sides with waterproof paper.

Curing

3. By ponding which involves maintaining a layer of water


on the surface of the pavement by means of earth or
sand dikes.
4. By spraying uniformly with white pigmented curing
compound
(Impervious
Membrane
Method)
immediately after finishing of the surface and before the
set of concrete has taken place.

Removal of Forms
forms for concrete shall remain in place undisturbed for
not less than24 hours after concrete pouring.
in case portions of the concrete are spalled during the
removal of forms, they shall be immediately repaired with
fresh mortar mixed in the proportioned of one part of
Portland Cement and two parts of fine aggregates.
in case major honeycombs occurs on sides of the pavement,
it shall be removed and replaced at the expense of the
contractor.

Sealing of Joints
joints shall be sealed with asphalt sealant soon after the
completion of the curing period and before the pavement is
opened to traffic.
prior to sealing of joints, it shall be thoroughly cleaned of all
foreign materials including membrane curing compound and
joint faces and shall be in a surface dry condition when the
seal is applied.
the pouring of sealant shall be done in such a manner that
the material will not spilled on the exposed surfaces of the
concrete.
the use of sand or similar material as a cover for the seal will
not be permitted.

Protection of Pavement
the contractor shall protect the pavement and its appurtenances
against both public traffic and traffic caused by his own
employees and shall include watchmen to direct the traffic and
the erection of and maintenance of warning signs, lights
pavement, bridges, etc.

all boreholes after thickness and/or strength determinations


of newly constructed concrete pavements shall be
immediately filled/restored with the prescribed concrete mix
after completion of the drilling works.
( Dept. Memo Circular No. 97, dated August 9,1991 )
any damage to the pavement, occurring prior to final
acceptance shall be repaired or the pavement shall be
replaced.

Acceptance of Concrete
the strength level of the concrete will be considered satisfactory
if the averages of all sets of three (3) consecutive strength test
results equals or exceed the specified strength and no individual
strength test result is deficient by more than 15 % of the
specified strength.
Concrete deemed to be not acceptable using the above criteria may
be rejected unless the contractor can provide evidence, by means of
core tests, that the quality of concrete represented by failed test is
acceptable in place.

Concrete in the area represented by the cores will be considered


adequate if the average strength of the cores is equal to at least
85% of and if no single core is less than 75% of the specified
strength.

Acceptance of Concrete

if the strength of control specimens does not meet the strength requirements and
it is not advisable to obtain cores from the structure due to structural considerations,
payment of the concrete will be made at an adjusted price due to strength deficiency of
concrete specimens as specified hereunder:
Deficiency in Strength of Concrete Specimens
Percent (%)

Less than 5

Percent (%) of Contract


Price Allowed

100

5 to less than 10

80

10 to less than 15

70

15 to less than 20

60

20 to less than 25

50

25 or more

Opening to Traffic
the concrete pavement will not be opened to traffic until
the test specimens molded and cured have attained the
minimum strength requirements.

if tests are not conducted prior to the specified age,


the pavement shall not be operated to traffic until 14 days
after the concrete was placed.

Tolerance and Pavement Thickness


the thickness of the pavement will be determined by
measurement of cores from the completed pavement.
the completed pavement shall be accepted on a lot basis
when :
a. Pavement length of 1000 lm when single lane is poured.
b. Pavement length of 500 lm when two lanes are poured
concurrently.
c. The last unit in each slab constitutes a lot in itself when
its length is at least of the normal length, however, if it
is shorter than of the normal length, it shall be included
in the previous lot.

Tolerance and Pavement Thickness

d. Other areas such as intersections, entrances, cross-overs,


ramps, etc., will be grouped together to form a lot.
e. Each lot will be divided into five (5) equal segments
and one core will be obtained from each segment.

Rules in Calculating the Average Thickness of


Pavement
1. Individual measurements which are in excess of the
specified thickness by more than 5 mm will be considered
as the specified thickness plus 5 mm
2. Measurement which are less than the specified thickness
by more than 25 mm shall not be included in the average.
3. When the average thickness for the lot is deficient, the
contract unit price will be adjusted for thickness.

Rules in Calculating the Average Thickness of


Pavement
4. When measurement of any core is less than the specified
thickness by more than 25 mm, the actual thickness of the
pavement in this area will be determined by taking
additional cores at no less than 5 m intervals parallel to
the centerline in each direction from the affected
location until a core is found in each direction, which is
not deficient by more than 25 mm.

Rules in Calculating the Average Thickness of


Pavement
5. The area of slab for which no payment will be made shall
be the product of the paving width multiplied by the
distance along the center line of the road between
transverse sections found not deficient in thickness by more
than 25 mm .
6. The remainder of the segment to be used to get the
average thickness of each lot shall be determined by
taking the average thickness of additional cores which
are not deficient by more than 25 mm .

Adjustment for Thickness


when the average thickness of the pavement per lot is deficient
payment for the lot shall be adjusted as follows:
Percentage Contract
Deficiency in the Average
Thickness, per lot (mm)
Price Per Lot
05
6 10

100% payment
95% payment

11 15

85% payment

16 20

70% payment

21 25

50% payment

More than 25

Remove and replace/No Payment

Method of Measurement

the area to be paid under this item shall be the number


of square meters (m2) of concrete pavement placed and
accepted in the completed pavement

the width for measurements will be the width from


outside edge to outside edge of completed pavement as
placed

the length will be measured horizontally along the


centerline of each roadway or ramp

Basis of Payment
The accepted quantity, measured shall be paid for at the
contract unit price for Portland Cement Concrete
Pavement, which price and payment shall be full
compensation for preparation of road bed and finishing of
shoulders, unless otherwise provided by the Special
Provision, furnishing all materials, for mixing, placing,
finishing and curing all concrete, for furnishing and placing
all joint materials, for sawing weakened plane joints, for
fitting the pre-fabricated center metal joint, for facilitating
and controlling traffic and for furnishing all labor,
equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to completed the
item.

ITEM DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of furnishing, placing and finishing
concrete in all structures except pavements in accordance
with this Specification and conforming to the lines, grades
and dimensions shown on the plans.
Concrete shall consist of a mixture of Portland cement, fine
aggregate, coarse aggregate, admixture, when specified and
water in proportions specified or approved by the Engineer.

Classes and Uses of Structural Concrete


Class A - All superstructures and heavily reinforced
substructures such as slabs, beams, girders,
columns, arch ribs, box culverts, reinforced
abutments, retaining walls and reinforced
footings.
Class B - Footings, pedestals, massive pier shafts, pipe
bedding, and gravity walls, unreinforced or
with only a small reinforcement
Class C - Thin reinforced sections, railings, precast R.C.
piles and cribbing and for filler in steel grid
floors
Class P - Prestressed concrete structures and members
Seal
- Concrete deposited in water

MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS
Portland Cement
Type I Portland Cement shall be used unless otherwise
provided for in the Special Provisions
Use of Portland Pozzolan Cement Type IP meeting the
requirements of AASHTO
M 240/ASTM
C 695,
Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cement shall be
allowed, provided that trial mixes shall be done and that
the mixes meet the concrete strength requirements.

Fine Aggregates

It shall consist of natural sand, stone screenings or other


inert materials with similar characteristics, or
combinations, thereof, having hard, strong and durable
particles.
It shall not contain more than three (3) mass percent of
material passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200 sieve) by washing
nor more than one (1) mass percent each of clay lumps
or shale.

Fine Aggregates

When subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate


soundness test the weighted loss shall not exceed 10 mass
percent
When tested for the effect of organic impurities of
strength of mortar by AASHTO T 71, the fine aggregates
may be used if the relative strength at 7 and 28 days is not
less than 95 mass percent.

Grading Requirements for Fine Aggregates


Sieve Designation

Mass Percent Passing

9.5 mm ( 3/8 in. )

100

4.75 mm ( No. 4 )
2.36 mm ( No. 8 )

95 - 100
-

1.18 mm ( No. 16 )

45 - 80

0.600 mm ( No. 30 )

0.300 mm ( No. 50 )

5 - 30

0.150 mm ( No. 100 )

0 - 10

Coarse Aggregates
It shall consist of crushed stone, gravel, blast
furnace slag, or other approved inert
materials of similar characteristics or
combinations thereof, having hard, strong,
durable pieces and free from any adherent
coatings.
It shall contain not more than one (1) mass
percent of materials passing the 0.075 mm
(No. 200 Sieve), nor more than 0.25 mass
percent of clay lumps, nor more than 3.5 mass
percent of soft fragments.

Coarse Aggregates

If subjected to five (5) cycles of the sodium sulfate


soundness test, the weighted loss shall not exceed 12
mass percent.

It shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40


when tested by AASHTO T 96.

Grading Requirements for Coarse Aggregates


Sieve Designation

Mass Percent Passing

Standard Alternative Class A Class B Class C

63.0

2 1/2 in

100

50.0

2 in

100

95 - 100

37.5

1-1/2 in 95100

Class P

25.0

1 in

35-70

19.0

34 in

35-70

12.5

1/2 in

9.5

3/8 in

4.75

No. 4

Class
Seal

100
100

95-100

100

95 - 100

10-30

90-100

25-60

10-30

40-70

20-55

0-5

0-5

0-15

0-10

0-10

Water
It shall be reasonably clean and free of oil, salt, acid,
alkali, grass of other substances, injurious to the
finished product.
water which is drinkable may be used without test.
where the source is shallow, the intake shall be so
enclosed as to exclude silty, mud, grass or other
materials.

Reinforcing Steel
it shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 31
(ASTM A 615) Deformed Billet Steel Bars for
Concrete Reinforcement
bar reinforcement for concrete structures, except No. 2
bars shall be deformed in accordance with AASTHO M 42,
M 31 and M 53 for Nos. 3 through 11.
specification requires the use of structural or intermediate
grades of steel with suitable chemical composition, tensile
and bending properties.
reinforcing steel should be clean and free of loose rust or
mill scale when concrete is placed.

Admixtures
admixtures are used in concrete to improve concrete
properties, to aid in construction procedures, to provide
economy and to fulfill other special purposes.
air-entraining admixtures shall conform to the
requirements of AASHTO M 154
chemical admixtures such as water-reducing, set-retarding
and set accelerating or combinations thereof, shall conform
to the requirements of AASHTO M 194
the effectiveness of an admixtures depends upon such
factors as type, brand, and amount of cement, water
content; aggregate shape, gradation and proportions;
mixing time; slump; and temperatures of concrete and air.

Concrete Properties Commonly Modified By


Admixtures
1. Rate of hydration or setting time
2. Workability
3. Dispersion
4. Air-entrainment
Commonly Used Admixtures In Concrete Construction
Accelerators - used to speed up the initial set of concrete
These are added to concrete either:
a. to increase the rate of hydration of cement,
and hence to increase the rate of development
of strength, or
b. Shorten the setting time

Commonly Used Admixtures In Concrete


Construction
Retarders
used to slow down the setting of concrete and can delay
initial setting time up to 4 hours
useful in concreting during hot weather, when the
normal setting time is shortened by the higher
temperature, and in preventing the formation of cold
joints.
also used to reduce the incidence of thermal cracking
and to maintain concrete workability during large
pours or long ready-mix hauls.

Commonly Used Admixtures In Concrete


Construction
Water - Reducers
water reducers or plasticizers are used to :
a. Obtain a higher strength by decreasing the watercement ratio at the same workability as an ordinary
mix;
b. Achieve the same workability by decreasing the
cement content; and
c. Increase the workability so as to ease placing of
mix in inaccessible locations.
the reduction in the quantity of mixing water varies
between 5 and 15 percent.

Commonly Used Admixtures In Concrete


Construction
Superplasticizers
new type of water-reducing admixtures that are used to
produce flowing concrete which is useful for placing in
very heavily reinforced sections, inaccessible locations, or
where very rapid placing is required.
another use of superplasticizers is in the production of
concrete of normal workability but with an extremely
high strength due to a very low water/cement ratio.
superplasticizers can reduce the water content by 25 to
35 percent, and increase the 24-hour strength by 50 to
70 percent.

Commonly Used Admixtures In Concrete


Construction
Air entraining Admixtures
these admixtures help incorporate a controlled amount
of air in the form of minute bubbles (approximately
0.01 to 0.25 mm diameter) in concrete during mixing,
without significantly altering the setting or the rate of
hardening characteristics of concrete.
air-entrained concrete is used where improved
workability, easier placing, and increased durability
are required and also useful in making lightweight
aggregate concrete

Commonly Used Admixtures In Concrete


Construction

air-entrainment, while improving the durability and


plasticity, may have an adverse effect on the strength of
concrete. Within the normal range of air content, the
maximum reduction in compressive strength and flexural
strength rarely exceeds 15 to 10 percent, respectively.

Curing Materials
curing means preventing or delaying drying up of intrinsic
moisture inside the capillaries of concrete for adequate
hydration of cement in the mix in order that it may
continue to gain strength.
Curing materials for concrete such as cotton mats,
burlap cloth, water-proof paper, liquid membrane
forming compounds or sheeting (film) materials shall
conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 182,
AASHTO M 171 and AASHTO M 148, respectively

Curing Materials

immediately after the finishing operations have been


completed and the concrete has sufficiently set, the surface
of the newly placed concrete shall be cured for a period of
72 hours with any of the methods as in Item 311-Portland
Cement Concrete Pavement.

Elastomeric, Compression Joint Seals


It shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 220

Elastomeric Bearing Pads


the main function of these material is to transfer loads or
accommodate relative movement between a bridge
structure and its supporting structure, or both while
avoiding damaging strain and additional tension.
It shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M
251
For classification and use, material requirements, physical
requirements, construction requirements, refer to Item No.
412 Elastomeric Bearing Pads

Sampling and testing of Structural Concrete


As work progresses, at least one (1) sample consisting of
three (3) concrete cylinder test specimens; 150 mm x 300
mm (6 x 12 inches), shall be taken from each 75 cubic
meters of each class of concrete or fraction thereof
placed each day.
the cylinder shall be prepared, cured and tested at the
specified date.

Composition and Strength of Concrete for Use


in Structures
Min. Cement
Class of
Content per m3
Concrete
kg (bag**)
A

360

Min. Compressive
Designated Strength of Concrete
Consistency
Max.
Size of Coarse Cylinder Specimens @
Water/Cement Range in Slump
Aggregate
Ratio kg/kg
28 days
Mm (inch)
Std. Mm (inch)
MN/m2 (psi)
0.53

(9 bags)
B

320

0.58

(8 bags)
C

380

0.55

(9.5 bags)
P

440

0.49

(11 bags)
Seal

380
(9.5 bags)

0.58

50 100

37.5 4.75

20.7

(2 4)

(1-1/2 No. 4)

(3,000)

50 100

5.0 4.75

16.5

(2 4)

(2 No. 4)

(2,400)

50 100

12.5 4.75

20.7

(2 4)

(1/2 No. 4*)

(3,000)

100 max

19.0 4.75

37.7

(4 max.)

(3/4 No. 4*)

(5,000)

100 200

25 4.75

20.7

(4 8)

(1 No. 4*)

(3,000)

The measured cement content shall be within plus or minus and mass percent of the
design cement content

**

Based of 40 kg/bag

Consistency of Concrete
concrete shall have a consistency such
that it will be workable in the required
position.
it shall have a consistency that will flow around
reinforcing steel but individual particles of the coarse
aggregates when isolated shall show a coating of mortar
containing its proportionate amount of sand.
the consistency of concrete shall be gauged by the ability
of the equipment to properly place it and not by the
difficulty in mixing and transporting.
consistency of the mixture shall be checked frequently by
means of the slump test.

Mixing and Delivery of Concrete


Concrete may be mixed at the site of
construction, at a central plant or by
a combination of central plant and
truck mixing or by a combination of
central plant and truck agitating.
concrete mix when supplied by a batching plant, shall only
be allowed in the DPWH projects provided it is duly
accredited by the BRS ( DO # 253, S. of 2003 ).
batching plants installed/used in the DPWH contract
projects shall also be required to be accredited prior to
supply of the concrete mix.

Mixing and Delivery of Concrete


the intervals between delivery of
batches shall not be so great as to allow
the concrete inplace to harden partially,
and in no case shall such an interval
exceed 30 minutes.
when volumetric measurements are
authorized for small project requiring less
than 75 cu.m. of concrete per day of
pouring, the weight proportions shall be
converted to equivalent volumetric
proportions.
concrete mixing, by chute is allowed provided that a
weighing scales for determining the batch weight will be
used.

Mixing and Delivery of Concrete

mixer having a rated capacity of less than a one-bag batch


shall not be used and the volume of concrete mixed per
batch shall not exceed the mixers nominal capacity.
mixing time shall be measured from the time all
materials, except water, are in the drum and shall not be
less than 60 seconds for mixers having a capacity of 1.5
cu.m. or less. While for mixers having a capacity greater
than 1.5 cu.m., the mixing time shall not be less than 90
seconds.

Mixing and Delivery of Concrete


Re-tempering concrete will not be
permitted.
Admixtures for increasing the workability, for retarding the
set or improving characteristics of the concrete will be
permitted only when specifically provided for in the contract,
or authorized in writing by the Engineer.
All concrete shall be mixed for a period of not less than
1-1/2 minutes after all materials, including water are in
the mixer.

Placing of Concrete
Concrete shall not be placed until forms and
reinforcing steel have been checked and approved by the
Engineer.
To avoid segregation of the materials and the
displacement of the reinforcement, the use of long
troughs, chutes and pipes for conveying concrete to the
forms shall be permitted only on written authorization of
the Engineer.
Open troughs and chutes shall be of metal lined, where
steep slopes are required, the chutes shall be equipped
with baffles or be in short lengths that reverse the
direction of movement to avoid segregation.

Placing of Concrete
Concrete during and immediately after placing shall be
thoroughly compacted., The concrete in walls, beams,
columns and the likes shall be placed in horizontal layers
not more than 30 cm thick.
a well consolidated concrete is 20% to 25% higher than that
of concrete which is not thoroughly consolidated.
Vibrators shall be inserted into and withdrawn slowly and
vertically from the concrete to penetrate underlying lift for
homogeneity between lifts.

Placing of Concrete
Application of vibrators shall be at points uniformly spaced,
and not further apart than twice the radius over which the
vibration is visibly effective.
the time of consolidation/compaction of structural concrete
must not exceed 15 seconds and the space interval of
inserting vibrators should be between 50 cm to 60 cm.
Joints in the concrete due to stopping work shall be avoided
as much as possible. When placing of concrete is
temporarily discontinued, the concrete, after becoming firm
enough to retain its shape, shall be cleaned of laitance and
other objectionable materials to a sufficient depth to expose
sound concrete.

Curing of Concrete
Curing of concrete shall be done by any of the following
method:
1. Water Method
The concrete shall be kept continuously wet by the application of
water for a minimum period of 7 days after the concrete has been
placed. Cotton mats, rugs, carpets, or earth or sand blankets may be
used to retain the moisture.

2. Curing Compound
Surfaces exposed to the air may be cured by the application of an
impervious membrane and shall be practically colorless liquid. The
compound shall be applied with a pressurized spray to cover the
entire concrete surface with a uniform film and shall be of such
character that it will harden within 30 minutes after application.

Curing of Concrete
3. Waterproof Membrane Method
The exposed finished surfaces of concrete shall be sprayed with water,
using a nozzle that so atomizes the flow that a mist and not a spray is
form until the concrete has set, after which a curing membrane of
waterproof paper or plastic sheeting shall be placed.
Curing membrane shall remain in place for a period of not less than
72 hours.

Curing of Concrete
4. Forms in-place Method
Formed surfaces of concrete may
be cured by retaining the form-inplace and shall remain in place for a
minimum period of 7 days after the
concrete has been placed, except that
for members over 50 cm in least
dimensions, the form shall remain
in-place for a minimum period of 5
days. Wooden forms shall be kept
wet by watering during the curing
period.

Curing of Concrete
5. Steam Curing Method
this method is applicable on pre-cast concrete members.
After placement of the concrete, members shall be held for a

minimum 4 hours pre-steaming period.


to prevent moisture loss on exposed surfaces during the pre-steaming
period, members shall be covered immediately after casting or the
exposed surface shall be kept wet by fog spray or wet blankets.

Removal of Forms and Falsework


forms and false work shall not be removed without the consent of the
Engineer.
when concrete strength tests are used for removal of forms and supports, such
removal should not begin until the concrete has attained the percentage of the
specified design strength as shown below:

Part of Concrete Structure

Minimum Time

Min. % Design Str.

Centering under Girders, Beams


Frames or Arches

14 days

80 %

Floor Slabs

14 days

70 %

Walls

1 day

70 %

Columns

2 days

70 %

Sides of Beams and all other


Vertical surfaces

1 day

70 %

Method of Payment

The quantity of structural concrete to be paid for will be


the final quantity placed and accepted in the completed
structure. No deductions will be made for the volume
occupied by pipe less than 100 mm (4 inches) in diameter or
by reinforcing steel, anchors, conduits, weepholes or
expansion joint materials

Basis of Payment

payment shall constitute full compensation for furnishing, placing and


finishing concrete including all labor, equipment, tools and incidentals
necessary to complete the work prescribed in the item.
Payment will be made under :

Pay Item No.


405 (1)
405 (2)
405 (3)
405 (4)
405 (5)

Description
Structural Concrete,
Class A
Structural Concrete,
Class B
Structural Concrete,
Class C
Structural Concrete,
Class P
Seal Concrete

Unit of Measurement
Cubic Meter
Cubic Meter
Cubic Meter
Cubic Meter
Cubic Meter

Item Description

A structure which is built of stone only or stone, cement,


fine aggregates and water, with or without filter backing
which is commonly used in slope protection works,
drainage canals and other places as called for in the plans,
and constructed on the prepared foundation bed in
accordance with the lines and grades, sections and
dimensions shown on the plans.

Materials Requirements
Stones consist of rock as nearly rectangular in section as is
practical, except that riprap of Class A may consist
of round natural stones. The stones shall be sound,
tough, durable, dense, resistant to the action of air
and water, and suitable in all respects for the
purpose intended.
-

Sound pieces of concrete obtained from the


removal of bridges, culverts and other
structures may be substituted for stone with
the approval of the Engineer.

Classes of Stones Intended for Riprap


Class A -

Stones ranging from a minimum of 15 kg to a


maximum of 25 kg., with at least 50 percent of
the stones weighing more than 20 kg.

Class B

Stones ranging from a minimum of 30 kg to a maximum of


70 kg. with at least 50 percent of the stones weighing more
than 50 kg.

Class C

Stones ranging from a minimum of 60 kg to a maximum of


100 kg with at least 50 percent of the stones weighing more
than 80 kg.

Class D

Stones ranging from a minimum of 100 kg to a maximum


of 200 kg with at least 50 percent of the stones weighing
more than 150 kg.

Mortar
shall consists of sand, cement and water conforming to the
requirements under Item 405 Structural Concrete.
shall be mixed in the proportion of one part cement to three parts
sand by volume and sufficient water to obtain the required
consistency
Portland Cement Type I conforming to the requirements of
AASHTO M 85 (ASTM C 150) shall be used.
Use of Portland Pozzolan Type IP meeting the requirements of
AASHTO M 240 (ASTM C 595) Specifications for Blended
Hydraulic Cement shall be allowed, provided that trial mix shall
be done and that the mixes meet the strength requirement.

Mortar

Fine aggregates shall conform to the requirements as specified in Item


405, Structural Concrete and have the following grading requirements:

Grading Requirements for Structural Concrete

Sieve Designation
9.5

mm ( 3/8 )

Mass Percent Passing


100

4.75 mm ( No.4 )

95 - 100

2.36 mm ( No. 8 )
1.18 mm ( No.16 )

45 - 80

0.600 mm ( No. 30 )

0.300 mm ( No. 50 )

5 - 30

0.150 mm ( No. 100 )

0 - 10

Mortar
the horizontal and vertical contact surface between stones
shall be embedded by cement mortar having a minimum
thickness of 20 mm.
sufficient mortar shall be used to completely fill all voids
leaving the face of the stones exposed.

Filter Materials
when required, the riprap shall be placed on a filter layer
to prevent fine embankment materials to be washed out
through the voids of the faces of stones.

Filter Materials
the grading of the filter material shall be specified on the
Plans or in the Special Provisions.
if not so specified, fine aggregate passing the grading
requirements for Item 405, Structural Concrete, will satisfy
for the filter materials.

Construction Requirements
the bed for riprap shall be excavated to the required
depths and properly compacted, trimmed and shaped.
stones placed below the water line shall be distributed so
that the minimum thickness of the riprap is not less than
that of the specified.
stones above the water line shall be placed by hand or
individually by machines and they shall be laid with close,
broken joints and shall be firmly bedded into the slope and
against the adjoining stones.

Stones shall be laid with its larger axis perpendicular to the


slope in close contact with each adjacent stone.
For dry riprap, interstices between stones shall be filled
with small broken fragments firmly rammed into place

Construction Requirements
the surface of riprap shall not vary from the theoretical
surface by more than 100 mm at any point.
Grouted riprap shall be cured for a period of at least three
(3) days.
For grouted riprap, spaces between the stones shall be
filled with cement mortar throughout the thickness of the
riprap and sufficient mortar shall be used to completely fill
all voids except that the face surface of the stone shall be
left exposed.

Construction Requirements
Riprap shall have the following minimum thickness,
measured perpendicular to the slope
Class A - 300 mm
Class B - 500 mm
Class C - 600 mm
Class D - 800 mm

Construction Requirements
weepholes shall be placed horizontally at the lowest points
where free outlets for water can be obtained and shall be
spaced at not more than 2 m center to center in a staggered
manner.
the length of the weepholes shall not be less than the
thickness of the walls of the completed riprap and shall be
at least 50 mm diameter PVC or other pipe materials
acceptable to the Engineer
weepholes must be provided with filter bags as specified in
the plans, special provisions or as directed by the Engineer.

Method of Measurement
the quantities to be measured for payment shall be the
number of cubic meters of riprap or grouted riprap as
the case may be, including stones placed in the toe trench
laid in position and accepted.
filter layer of granular material, when required, shall be
measured separately by the cubic meter in place and
accepted.

Basis of Payment

It shall be paid for at the contract unit price which price


and payment shall be full compensation for excavation and
preparation of the bed, for furnishing and placing all
materials including backfill and all additional fill to bring
the riprap bed up to the lines, grades and dimensions as
shown on the plans, and all labor equipment, tools and
incidentals necessary to complete the item.

Basis of Payment
Payment shall be made under:
Pay Item No.

Description

Unit of Measurement

505 (1)

Riprap, Class A

Cubic Meter

505 (2)
505 (3)

Riprap, Class B
Riprap, Class C

Cubic Meter
Cubic Meter

505 (4)

Riprap, Class D

Cubic Meter

505 (5)

Grouted Riprap, Class A

Cubic Meter

505 (6)

Grouted Riprap, Class B

Cubic Meter

505 (7)

Grouted Riprap, Class C

Cubic Meter

505 (8)

Grouted Riprap, Class D

Cubic Meter

505 (9)

Filter Layer of Granular Matls.

Cubic Meter

THANK YOU ! ! !
Maraming Salamat po!