Liner

Liners 
Any string of casing whose top is located below

the surface, hung inside the previous casing and is run to its setting depth by drill pipe.

LINER HANGE R CASING SHOE

OVERLAP 50 - 500 FT

2

Liner

Why Liners ? 
Prime reason: ± Save $$ ± (Cost of 1 Joint of Casing can be $3,000!)  Cover Corroded/Damaged Casing  Cover: ± Lost Circulation Zones. ± Shales or Plastic Formations ± Salt Zones  Deep Wells: ± Rig Unable to Lift Long String of Casing. 3 Liner

Types of Liners 
Production: ± Most common ± Save $$ ± Slotted liner  Intermediate/drilling: ± Cover problem zone in order to be able to continue drilling  Tie-back/liner complement: ± From top of existing liner to surface, or further up casing to cover corroded or damaged zone.
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Tie-Back (Liner Complement)
The integration of the liner with casing run to surface

5

Liner

Tie-Back (Liner Complement)
The integration of the liner with casing run to surface

TIE BACK STINGER WITH SEALS

LINER

6

Liner

Tie-Back (Liner Complement)
The integration of the liner with casing run to surface
TIE BACK STINGER WITH SEALS

LINER

‡ This is often done if production is commercially viable or there is damage to casing above the liner
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Hardware
DP Wiper Plug or Dart

Liner Hanger

Landing Collar/Plate Casing Shoe
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Hardware
Running Tool

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Liner

Procedure for Setting Liner 
RIH with drillpipe  At liner hanger depth, condition mud

± (Reciprocation / Rotation)  Release slips (liner hanger) ± (Rotation - mechanical pressure - hydraulic)  Set slips, release liner weight, check to see if running tool is free  Pump mud - to ensure free circulation  Cement / Displace / Bump plug / Bleed off  Release setting tool  POOH above TOC and circulate ± NOTE: A liner swivel can be run below the hanger to ensure that the tool can be rotated even if the liner is stuck 10 Liner or set.

Animation

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Job Procedure Liner 
Pressure test lines.  Pump wash/spacer.  Pump slurry.  Drop "Pump Down" plug (or drill pipe wiper dart).  Displace ± To running tool ± Shear "Wiper Plug´ ± Displace to Float Collar  Bump plug/check for returns.  Release tool.  Pull up to T.O.C. and circulate.
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Liner Overlap 
Cementing the liner ³lap´ is critical .  Too much cement above the liner hanger is not

recommended  So make sure that ³uncontaminated´ cement is present at the liner lap - washes and spacers / WELLCLEAN II  If not, there is communication from the annulus to the formation

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Recommendations for Liner Cementing 
Ensure rheology of cement system is adequate      

for 100% mud removal Turbulent flow, if possible Consider 5 - 10 min. ³contact time´ at liner lap Batch mix cement Minimize U-tubing effect Rotation of liner during cementing (special bearing in tool) Adequate mud conditioning prior to cementing

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Example Calculation - Liner 
Well Information:

± 9-5/8" 47 lb/ft intermediate casing from surface to 6500 feet ± 7" 29 lb/ft intermediate liner from 6200 ft to 10,500 feet ± 6" open hole to TD at 14,500 feet ± Drill pipe 3-1/2" 13.30 lb/ft ± 4-1/2" 16.60 lb/ft liner required from 14,400 ft to 400 ft inside 7" liner. ± Float collar 80 feet above shoe. 
Cement required to top of liner with 20% excess in open

hole 
Calculate:
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± Slurry Volume and Displacement

Production Liner Cementing Job
9 5/8´ casing 47 lb/ft 3 1/2´ drill pipe 13.3 lb/ft

9 5/8´ casing shoe at 6500 ft 7´ liner 29 lb/ft Top at 6200 ft

7´ liner shoe at 10500 ft 6´ Open hole + 20% Excess 4 1/2´ liner 16.6 lb/ft top at 10100ft Collar at 14320 ft 4 1/2´ liner shoe at 14400 ft

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Liner Example Calculations - Results
Slurry Volume: 
Volume #1: 0.0981 ft3/ft x 400 ft = 39.2 ft3  Volume #2: 0.0859 ft3/ft x 3900 ft x 1.20 = 402 ft3  Volume #3: 0.0769 ft3/ft x 80 ft = 6.2 ft3  Total Volume:

447.4 ft3

Displacement: 
Drill Pipe:  Liner:

0.00742 bbl/ft x 10,100 ft = 74.9 bbls 0.0137 bbl/ft x 4220 ft = 57.8 bbls 

Total Displacement = 132.7 bbls  Max. overdisplacement = (80 x 0.0137) / 2 = 0.55 bbls
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Conclusion 
Liners have many applications  The main feature is that normally you have small volumes of

slurry and high pressures during the job. 
Liner overlap is the most critical part to cement correctly  Even though most of the times we are not at charge of the

hardware (liner hanger, cement head, etc.), we must have knowledge of what has been run in the hole, and the way it works. 
It is important to slow down the displacement to avoid

excessive pressures (shear pins, end of displacement)
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Case Study
North Africa

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* Mark of Schlumberger

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