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Option C

:
Energy

Contents
• What is energy?
• Fossil Fuels
• Nuclear Energy

• Energy is the capability to do work or
required to do anything.
• Energy has many forms and can be
changed from one form to another.
• The conservation of energy states that
energy cannot be created or destroyed.
• Sources of energy can be hot bodies or
release from fuels.
• Fuel is a substance that can release
energy by changing its chemical or
nuclear structure.

What is it?
•Biomass, is a
renewable
energy source
made of
biological
material from
living, or
recently living
organisms.
•Energy is
released by
combustion
(burning).

Disadvantages
•Inefficient (only 30%
efficiency).
•Releases harmful
solid carbon particles
into the atmosphere.

Advantages
•Produces less
pollution than fossil
fuels.
•Does not cause acid
rain.
•Can be found locally.
•It is renewable.

Disadvantages •Harmful radioactive waste is created.What is it? •Radiation is released from the nuclei of metal atoms. •Non-renewable •Radiation may cause cancer Advantages •Green House gases are not made. •Uranium supplies may only last for another 50 years. •The radiation can be used to generate electricity. •Only a small amount of fuel is needed to create a lot of .

Disadvantages •Lots of wind turbines are needed to produce enough power. •Wind is free. •Some people don’t like the look of the turbines. •There are few safety . Advantages •Wind is renewable. •No greenhouse gases are made. •It is not always windy. •Turbines can only be put in windy areas.What is it? •Wind turbines are used to generate electricity from the wind. •The wind turns the large blades and the blades turn a generator.

What is it? •Solar power uses energy from the Sun. •Solar panels transfer the Suns energy to heat water. •Some people don’t like the look of solar panels. Disadvantages •Solar panels are expensive. •When it is cloudy or at night there is not enough light. •The sun will always be there during our . •The sun does not produce greenhouse gases. Advantages •The energy from the Sun is free.

•Solar panels transfer the Suns energy directly into electricity. •The sun will always be there during our . •They only work in Sun light Advantages •The energy from the Sun is free.What is it? •Solar cells use energy from the Sun. •They take up lots of space. Disadvantages •Solar cells are expensive. •The sun does not produce greenhouse gases.

These can be •difficult to control. •Water can be pumped through these hot rocks and warmed up. . Disadvantages •There are not many places where we can build geothermal power stations.What is it? •Rocks under the ground are hot. •Harmful gases and minerals may occasionally come up from the ground below. Advantages •Geothermal energy does not produce greenhouse gases. •The energy source is free and will not run out.

•If it does not rain much we may not have enough water to turn the turbines. Disadvantages •The dam is expensive to build. no greenhouse gases are made. •It is a renewable energy source. the nearby area has to be flooded and this could affect nearby habitats. Advantages •When the electricity is generated. •By building a dam. •The water used is free.What is it? •Flowing water is used to turn a turbine which generates electricity. .

•The air causes a turbine to generate electricity. •Electricity needs to be transported from the sea onto the land. . •The equipment is expensive Advantages •Waves are free and will not run out. •Wave power does not produce greenhouse gases. •There are very few safety risks. Disadvantages •Small waves generate small amounts of electricity.What is it? •Waves force air in and out of a chamber.

. •It is reliable because we know exactly when the tides happen. •Plants and animals that live nearby might get harmed •The tides only happen twice a day. •Solar panels transfer the Suns energy to heat water.What is it? •Solar power uses energy from the Sun. so can only produce electricity at that time. •No greenhouse gases are produced. Disadvantages •A dam to make the water flow through the generators might be needed. Advantages •Tides are free and will not run out.

• The energy density of a fuel is the energy produced per unit volume whereas the specific energy of a fuel is the energy produced per unit mass. • The efficiency of an energy transfer needs to be known. . • The two terms are related via the density of the fuel. • The primary sources are primary sources which are not used directly but converted into secondary sources such as electricity.

• Efficiency is determined using the following equation: Efficiency = useful output energy x 100 total input energy .

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The Octane Number of a Fuel .

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.The Internal Combustion Engine When the petrol and oxygen mixture ignites and explodes evenly and at the correct time the engine runs smoothly.

.Engine Knocking Knocking is noises coming from the car It is a sign that the petrol and air mixture in the engine is burning too soon or not exactly as intended This reduces the efficiency of the engine and over time can cause serious damage.

The Octane Number of a Fuel .

. The lower the octane number the less likely it burns smoothly and so the more likely knocking will occur.The Octane Number of a Fuel The higher the octane number the smoother it burns and the less likely knocking will occur.

4 .Reference Hydrocarbons for assigning octane numbers H H H H H H H H C C C C C C C H H H H H H H Heptane (Octane Number = 0) H H CH3 H CH3 H C C C C C H CH3 H H H 2.trimethylpentane (Octane Number = 100) H H . 2.

Octane Numbers of hydrocarbons Octane Number = .10 Octane Octane Number = 0 Heptane .

Octane Numbers of hydrocarbons Octane Number = 25 Hexane Octane Number = 62 Pentane .

Conclusion 1 • The shorter the carbon chain the higher the octane number and the longer the carbon chain the lower the octane number .

2.10 Octane H H CH3 H CH3 H C C C C C H CH3 H H H 2.Octane Numbers of hydrocarbons Octane Number = .trimethylpentane (Octane Number = 100) H Octane Number = 100 . 4 .

Conclusion 2 • The greater the amount of branching in the chemical structure the higher the octane number and the less branching the lower the octane number .

Octane Numbers of hydrocarbons Benzene Cyclohexane Octane Number = 101 Octane Number = 97 .

Conclusion 3 • Ring & Aromatic Compounds have high octane numbers .

Octane Numbers of other Fuels Methanol Ethanol Octane Number = 113 Octane Number = 117 .

Ethanol used as a biofuel in Brazil .

Conclusion 4 • Oxygen containing organic compounds (oxygenates) have very high octane numbers .

Improving the octane number of a fuel – Addition of Lead Compounds • For years adding lead compounds (like tetraethyllead) to fuels rapidly improved the octane numbers of those fuels. • This no longer occurs as the addition of lead to petrol has been banned in Ireland since 2000. .

.Why Lead Compounds are no longer added to petrol As Lead compounds destroy the catalysts which make up the catalytic converter of the car (automobile) Lead is a highly toxic chemical to living things.

Refining the Octane Number of a Fuel • There are 4 ways a fuel (or chemical) may be refined to improve the octane number of that fuel (chemical): • 1: Catalytic Cracking • 2: Reforming • 3: Isomerisation • 4: Addition of Oxygenates .

Catalytic Cracking Cracking is the changing of longchained hydrocarbons (like from heavy gas oil fraction) to more useful short-chained hydrocarbons .

Reforming & Ring Formation (Dehydrocyclisation) The structure of hydrocarbon molecules with low octane numbers is re-shaped to give molecules with high octane numbers H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C C H H H H H H H C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H Hexane Octane Number = 25 Reformed Heptane Octane Number = 0 Ring Formation Cyclohexane Octane Number = 83 CH3 Methylbenzene Octane Number > 100 Benzene Octane Number > 100 H .