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GREEK ARCHITECTURE

CHRONOLOGY OF GREEK ARCHITECTURE
1. HELLADIC PERIOD in the AEGEAN AREA (CRETE)
EARLY PERIOD 3000 – 2000 BC
MIDDLE / MINOAN PERIOD 2000 – 1125 BC
PALACE OF MINOS at KNOSSOS
LATE/ MYCENAEAN PERIOD 1600 – 1050 BC
CITADEL OF MYCENAE
LION GATE at MYCENAE
TREASURY OF ATREUS (TOMB OF AGAMEMNON – THOLOS)
2. GREEK / HELLENIC ARCHITECTURE
THE DARK AGE 1000-750 BCE
ARCHAIC PERIOD 750 – 479 BC
GREEK AGORA
3. CLASSICAL PERIOD 479 – 336 BC
ACROPOLIS- PARTHENON, ERECHTHEON (Temples)
4. HELLENISTIC PERIOD 323 – 30 BC
THEATRE EPIDAURUS,
TOWER OF WINDS

administration Places of manufacture & storage The arrangement of rooms was Asymmetrical Around a central court. House: a totally random asymmetrical agglomeration of rooms found in Asia Minor and Crete MEGARON PLAN: CITADEL OF TROY Included a large rectangular hall consisting of a room which was nearly square with a deep porch formed by extending the side walls This was the basis for all Classical Greek Temples By the 2nd millennium BC the houses developed into an agglomeration of buildings The typologies were: • Palaces – king’s palace. Totally enclosed . Typical house: a free standing hut with a single room found in the mainland and the region of Troy 2.AEGEAN / MINOAN ARCHITECTURE The Aegean period has 2 distinct architectural traditions: 1.

AEGEAN / MINOAN ARCHITECTURE PALACE OF MINOS AT KNOSSOS Typical Minoan Architecture •Arranged around a central open court 170’ x 82.5’ •The building covered 4 acres Exterior planning: •Paved West court •Crossed by raised walks typical Minoan feature •Overlooked by a monumental West Façade •At the S end was the Principle Entrance •Palace building was 2 storeys •Ground floor -storage rooms west wing had oil jars north wing had granaries •Throne room – important room at the W end approached from an Anteroom at a level lower than the Court opened by 4 pairs of Folding Doors the room was for religious purpose rather than royal purpose Stone Throne against the N wall flanked by benches Walls decorated with Frescoes .

opened or partially shut off •Designed to permit cool air or shut out the intense heat of Cretan summer Typical Minoan Character: •Stairways •Light wells •Colonnades •Cypress wood •Drainage & sanitation system •The planning is chaotic but a result of organic growth .AEGEAN / MINOAN ARCHITECTURE PALACE OF MINOS AT KNOSSOS Principal floor- N of Court E wing SE corner 1st floor W wing had spacious state rooms Rooms arranged for functional purpose Ceremonial rather than for symmetry separate Entrance approached from the Theatric Area outside the palace central hall of states accommodate 3 stories of Royal Apartments •Uppermost level with court •Other 2 below the court level •Faces Eastwards facing terraced gardens •Rooms were isolated from the court connected with each other •Passages lit by 3 light wells •Approached by rows of double doors.

AEGEAN / MINOAN ARCHITECTURE PALACE OF MINOS AT KNOSSOS .

AEGEAN / MINOAN ARCHITECTURE PALACE OF MINOS AT KNOSSOS .

MYCENEAN ARCHITECTURE PALACE AT MYCENAE Large fortifications similar to that of Tiryns (neighboring) Principal feature – Entrance protected by flanking Bastions Lion Gate of Mycenae At the inner end Great upright stone jambs 10’ high Support an immense lintel 16’ x 3’6” x 8’ Over an opening 10’ wide Above was a triangular. corbelled opening filled with a stone Relief depicts 2 rampart lions facing a central column of the typicalidownward tapering type Enclosure Inside the fortification is a circular enclosure • Formed by an inner and an outer row of continuous upright stones with horizontal slabs over them • Surrounded the shaft graves of the burial place of kings • Houses inside • Shrine among them Shrine House of idols Had fresco painting depicting a goddess Had terracotta cult figures Palace at the top of the citadel Plastered court led to the Megaron Plan 42’6” x 39’3” .

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MYCENEAN ARCHITECTURE TREASURY OF ATREUS 1350 – 1250 BC •Also known as the Tomb of Agamemnon •The most splendid Tholos at Mycenae •A Tholos is a circular structure •A beehive shaped tomb •Excellent quality Stone Masonry throughout •Dromos: 20’ x118’ •Side walls rises to a max. 45’ at the entrance to the chamber •Chamber: 47’6” Dia. 48’high •34 circular courses of masonry gives curvature by cutting •Capped with single block of stone •Metal decoration on walls •Rock cut Chamber •27’ sq.. 19’ high •Lined with masonry •Place of burial ROCK CUT CHAMBER DROMOS .

doorway Façade Passageway 17’9” high 34’ high 5.5 •On either side of the door are 2 green limestone half columns •Usual tapering form decorated with bands of Chevron pattern •The triangle over the lintel has slabs of deep red stone •Carved with horizontal bands of spirals & mouldings with plain bands in between Lintel .MYCENEAN ARCHITECTURE TREASURY OF ATREUS 1350 – 1250 BC Entrance .a strip of green stone Carved with rows of discs Surmounted by rising spirals and the Triglyph and Metope pattern .4m long •Roofed by 2 enormous limestone lintels 8x5x1.

Argos. the polis was of paramount importance with the individual as a subordinate All aspects of life were under the protection of the Gods Movement of Greek colonies overseas (Italy.GREEK ARCHITECTURE EVOLUTION OF CITY STATES During the Dark Ages Greece underwent depopulation both in the mainland & Aegean. A period of flux in the civilization with pressure from the Persians and rivalry between Athens and Sparta Gradual political chaos and decline of the civilization with a brief transformation by the Macedonian rule and Alexander (Hellenistic) After Alexander in 323 BC the Greek cities established their freedom for the Achaean and Aetolian confederation . The N migrants brought with them the dialect – Dorian. Sparta in the mainland E Aegean. Smyrna. Black sea) was challenged by the rise of major states in the E Greeks supported by Lydian kings who were overwhelmed by Persia in the 6th c.Athens. Sicily. Corinth. Samos. Chios. Laconia. and adjacent areas of Crete & Rhodes Migrants to E Aegean spoke Ionian which was used in Athens These dialects are equated with the principle geographic divisions with the characteristic architectural forms The revival in Greece began in the 8th c. Ephysus & Miletus Each city state was jealous of its autonomy and independence In Classical Greece. N Africa. Evidence of renewal of overseas trading contacts The smaller Greek communities grew richer by amalgamating with their neighbours and formed larger states – Polis (city state) This was the political entity in the classical period The main city states of Greece were. Corinthia.

BC CULTURAL FACTORS Religious belief was constantly changing with new cults introduced time to time Gods were all powerful Regular ritual of sacrifice to the God which required an open altar or space Temple buildings developed later based on the importance and wealth of the cult Buildings were considered as offerings and were hence magnificently executed Other typologies: 1.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – ARCHAIC PERIOD 8TH – 6TH c. Agora: the Greek society and political system was dependent on gatherings With the growth of an organized town. Domestic architecture: houses turned their back on the streets Inward facing a courtyard Division between male and female quarters 3. Greek city: Temple was the principle building – a simple rectangular roofed structure Designed to be admired from outside Buildings were built around a central courtyard or space Appreciated only from within the court Series of separate buildings with porticoes or colonnades Colonnaded courts a feature of Hellenistic cities . the Agora was a central element in the town plan The Agora was an open space with structures required for functioning of the polis at its edge 2.

civic. BC GREEK AGORA – URBAN ARCHITECTURE The Agora was the heart of ancient Athens. Buildings for all of these various purposes were constructed as needed in and around the agora. hence. and the seat of justice. •Drain built in polygonal masonry along the W boundary of the Agora •The civic and the religious buildings were built along the perimeter of the agora .GREEK ARCHITECTURE – ARCHAIC PERIOD 8TH – 6TH c. religious and commercial center of a Greek city. •Situated to the N of the Acropolis •Built during the early Archaic period •An essential stage in its development as a civic core was due to the drainage developed by Peisistratos in the 2nd half of the 6th c. the focus of political. A large. administrative and social activity. the political. commercial. The Greek agora is the predecessor of the forum of imperial Rome. Formal layout of the agora was developed in the Hellenistic period. the religious and cultural centre. open public space which served as a place for assembly of the citizens and.

BC GREEK AGORA – URBAN ARCHITECTURE .GREEK ARCHITECTURE – ARCHAIC PERIOD 8TH – 6TH c.

Stoa of Zeus • Doric stoa on the W • Late 5th c.a portico or a detached colonnade These provided shelter and were multifunctional They were separate self contained rectangular buildings which developed giving the Agora the appearance of a colonnaded courtyard 1. BC GREEK AGORA – URBAN ARCHITECTURE The main typologies in the Greek Agora were: I Temples Temple of Hephaisteion II Stoas. • 2 aisles with projecting wings • Inner ionic colonnade due to greater height which supported a wooden ridge beam .GREEK ARCHITECTURE – ARCHAIC PERIOD 8TH – 6TH c.

Middle stoa 80.5m x 14. BC GREEK AGORA – URBAN ARCHITECTURE 2.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – ARCHAIC PERIOD 8TH – 6TH c.9m square with off center doors and plinths around the walls to accommodate 7 dining couches Superstructure of mud brick Floors and colonnades of beaten earth hence rarely well preserved . Stoa of Attalus • Addition during Hellenistic • 2 storied 116m x 19.Royal stoa 4.4m • Doric in ground floor and Ionic in upper with a balustrade • Marble structure • A row of rooms on both floors 3.South stoa • • • • • • 5.9m Doric colonnade Inner ionic colonnade Behind the colonnade was a row of 15 rooms each 4.

meeting place of the jury Shrine of Theseus – walled enclosure containing famous wall paintings Fountain houses.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – ARCHAIC PERIOD 8TH – 6TH c. BC GREEK AGORA – URBAN ARCHITECTURE III IV V VI VII VIII IX Administrative buildings: Provided closed accommodation a)Bouleuterion was the council house Held 500 people Square building with windows and a pyramidal roof Had an anteroom and an auditorium b)Tholos was a circular hall used for dining by the council Made of unbaked mud brick Conical roof with tiles Heliaea – courtyard structure on the S.stadias added later for the public .colonnaded structures on the S side with a portico Mint – public buildings Altar dedicated to the 12 Olympian gods Gymnasias .

Agora at Athens Temple of Hephaistos Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios Temple of Apollo Patroos Bouleuterion Metroon .

Agora at Athens The Odeion of Agrippa The Royal Stoa (Stoa Basileios). Altar of the Twelve Gods Tholos Gymnasium .

⅔ D Divided into 20 flutes or channels.DORIC The principle orders of Classical Greek architecture are: • Doric • Ionic • Corinthian DORIC ORDER The Doric order was the most commonly used order for the facades of temples and structures till the mid classical period when the ionic orders were also used in the exteriors DORIC COLUMN • The Doric Column stands directly on the Crepis (Crepidoma) • The Crepidoma is normally 1-3 in temples Shaft height: • The columns are thick with the Height = 4D (diameter) • In the 5th c. 24 Sharp “arrises” Slight convex profile called Entasis to counteract concave appearance of straight columns Hypotrachelion: Shaft terminates in the form of 3 grooves or 1 on block which forms the capital . 16. the height was increased to 5½– 5¾ D • In the Hellenistic period the height was increased to 7D Shaft: The shaft tapers to ¾ .18. 12.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK ORDERS .

Capital: The distinctive capital consists of the Abacus and the Echinus Abacus: This is the square slab forming the top of the capital With or without moulding Supported the Entablature Echinus: Near the base of the Echinus are Annulets 3-5 in number which stop the vertical lines of the Arrises and flutes of the shaft It projects considerably and is fuller in outline in the early period In the period of the Parthenon the projection is less with a subtle profile In the Hellenistic period the whole capital is shallow with .

DORIC .GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK ORDERS .

hence amounting to 3 (tri) Aligned over each column and centrally over each intercolumniation 2 Triglyphs meet in the corner to form a beveled edge Doric orders must end with a Triglyph. Frieze – Triglyph: These consist of 2 vertical channels (glyphs) and 2 half channels at each side.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK ORDERS .DORIC DORIC ENTABLATURE Consists of 3 main components: 1. Architrave – The principal beam which is made up of 2 – 3 slabs of stone in depth. the outermost one is moved outwards from its position over center of the column . the outermost showing a vertical face in the façade Taenia: The flat projecting band capping the Architrave Regulae: strips of stone at intervals corresponding to the Triglyphs Guttae: small conical drops below the Regulae normally 6 in number 2.

The Tympanum is the triangular portion with fine relief work depicting scenes from religion .DORIC 3. At the Parthenon Crowns the raking cornice of the pediment Not provided with Mutules Antifixae: ends of cover tiles stopped by an ornamental element The pediment crowns the Doric Entablature consisting of the Tympanum and the Acroterion.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK ORDERS .often omitted eg. Cornice / Geison – The upper or the crowning part Soffit: the underside with an inclination to the slope of the roof Mutules: Flat blocks over each Triglyph and Metope ornamented with 18 Guttae in 3 rows of 6 each Corona: vertical face with an overhanging drip at the bottom Sima: continuous gutter .

44. 40. BC in Athens with a small moulding Shaft: Height is 9 – 10 D (including the base & shaft) 24 flutes with flattened Arrises. fillets or beads •The Volute scroll rests on an Echinus which is circular in plan •Carved with an Egg & Dart Moulding usually with running Palmettes where it disappears under the Volutes •The Abacus is shallow •The Ionic Capital presented difficulties at the corners where a Canted Volute was used •In the Hellenistic period the capital has 4 fronts .IONIC IONIC ORDER The Ionic order includes the Base and the Capital. which developed in the 5th c.48 flutes also present Capital: •Consists of 2 pairs of Volutes or spirals •⅔ D with 1 pair in the front of the column and the other at the back •Joined on the sides by a concave cushion •Plain or ornamented with numerous flutes. It made its appearance in the 4th c.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS . BC IONIC COLUMN Base: There were different forms of the base used in eastern Greek are.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS – IONIC CAPITAL .

used for Temples such as the Erechtheon & Temple of Nike In the mainland a frieze was inserted in the entablature but the dentils were omitted The frieze when present was a continuous band of sculpture The Ionic Temples did not have Antifixae on the flanks. • • Cornice – The cornice supported on a frieze of large Dentils The Entablature was hence light compared to the Columns being only -1/6 H The height was increased by the addition of the vertical parapet Sima with carved decoration as for the Frieze with Dentils under the cornice • • • • • • • • • There were a lot of differences in the order from place to place The order was first used for the treasuries In the 5th c. instead the Sima was carried along the side cornices too Often ornamented with an Acanthus scroll Carved lion heads served to throw rainwater from the roof .GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS . Architrave – Normally a 3 fasciae (3 rows in front face) Capped by 2 mouldings. a low Astragal and a high Ovolo 2.IONIC Entablature: Consisted of 2 components: 1.

1⅓ H •The invention of the Corinthian Capital was due to Callimachus •a famous sculptor in bronze. The basket was placed over the root of the Acanthus plant. BC as a decorative variant of the Ionic •The main difference was in the capital •Used first only for the internal colonnades or fancy monuments •Its use as an external colonnade was in the Hellenistic Period •The distinctive capital is much deeper than the ionic and was of a variable height first •The proportion of the capital was finally . Only the capital and the Height is different] .GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS . He observed a basket over the grave of a maiden.CORINTHIAN CORINTHIAN ORDER •This order 1st made its appearance in the 5th c. the stems and foliage of which grew and turned into volutes at the angle of the tile Corinthian Capital: •A deep inverted bell •The lower part is surrounded by 2 tiers of 8 acanthus leaves •From between the leaves of the upper row rise 8 Caulicoli (caulis-stalk) •Each is surmounted by a calyx from which emerge volutes or helices supporting the angles of the abacus and the central foliated ornaments •Each face of the moulded Abacus is curved outwards to the corners where it ends either in a point or is chamfered [Explain the Ionic shafts and entablature for the Corinthian too.

CORINTHIAN .GREEK ARCHITECTURE – GREEK ORDERS .

IONIC ENTABLATURE IONIC BASE .

GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK TEMPLES The Greeks recognized separate areas as sacred to God in Towns and Villages Some were on sites occupied in the Late Bronze Age where there were remains of earlier walls and some continuity of cult Others were chosen buildings of natural distinctions such as proximity of springs Towns: Some sanctuaries were in walled citadel Several others in the countryside Rarely walled. formal gateways infrequent All sanctuaries included a temple Temples: Varied in detail MEGARON PLAN Consisted of a simple rectangular building to hold the statues of gods The statue stood in the Cella or Naos The width of the Naos was limited by restricted sizes of timber roofs The side wall extended to form Porch (traditional Megaron Plan) Porches were embellished with columns .

on façade +1 Length reflects internal arrangement There may be extra rooms or false porches at the back Externally: Temples made larger and impressive using double rows of external columns Dipteral – 2 rows Tripteral – 3 rows Eg. the No. of columns forming the façade: Peripteral cella surrounded by columns Columns along the flank variable In Doric Temples of 5th c.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK TEMPLES Columns: Placed either between the ends of side walls in ANTIS In a row in front of them – PROSTYLE Description: Conventional consists of a Greek numeral + word STYLE (stylos is the greek word for column) Distyle -2 Tristyle -3 FLANK Tetrastyle -4 Pentastyle -5 Hexastyle -6 Heptastyle -7 Octastyle -8 Enneastyle-9 Decastyle -10 TREASURY NAOS ANTIS (Offering) (Odd nos. were unusual in early buildings) Distyle was common in the Antis PROSTYLE No.of columns on the flank = 2 no. Temple of Athena Nike – Tetrastyle Temple of Athena Delphi – Hexastyle Pseudodipteral the outer columns are spaced as though there were a 2nd or internal row which is not present or omitted .

Treasury. Friezes Screens of columns All sanctuaries had altars Sanctuary: Became full of monuments. with exedrae. Temple of Artemis in Asklepios at Epidaurus Or may be temples constructed at different periods but of equal importance Eg. statues. Exercise ground. Eg. Gymnasium close to stadium Sacred banquet for privileged worshippers who consumed their share of sacrificial meals while reclining on couches Thesaurus. Palastroi. rectangular or semicircular seats and recesses Possible to distinguish the most sacred area which was near the temple and altar Less holy areas devoted to human involvement in cult and ritual Less Holy Areas: Outer areas Theatre. Temple of Selinus in Sicily Altars: Often monumental. Stadium.Building resembling a small peripteral temple offered to God from individual cities Lavishly decorated Commemorating some important event Victory in War – Athenian treasury in Delphi .Rectangular Embellished with architectural motifs and mouldings Triglyphs & Metopes. Hippodrome. other offering rooms Often placed on an elaborate high base.GREEK ARCHITECTURE – CLASSICAL PERIOD 479-336 BC GREEK TEMPLES Temples in Sanctuaries: These may contain more than 1 temple They may include a temple of lesser importance than the principal building.