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Review – the Parts of

Speech
Nouns

Prepositions

Verbs

Conjunctions

Adjectives

Pronouns

Determiners

Adverbs

(Auxiliari
es)

Identifying parts of speech
Most important rule:

You do not need to guess!!!
Parts of speech are identified based
on…

Distribution!

The distribution of Nouns

I. Nouns may follow
determiners –
The house, most people, some
ideas, few years, each person,
their dog
II. Nouns may follow

The distribution of Nouns

I. Proper Nouns are simply
names, and they do NOT follow
determiners –
John, Queens College, U.S.A
II. Count Nouns follow “many”

many houses, many people,
many ideas

a number of people. a bunch of people. John knows a lot of people.Question How many nouns are below? 1. .

4. *The New York is a great city. *I have now few money than before. . *She needs to get a furniture. *John ate many rice. 2. 3.Question Why are the following sentences starred? 1.

have eaten II.The distribution of Verbs I. to have. must do. Verbs may follow auxiliaries – should go. Verbs may follow infinitive to – to go. is studying. will come. to do. to believe .

sold her car. Transitive Verbs are followed by NPs Met Sam.The distribution of Verbs I. feels great II. Linking Verbs may be followed by Adj. saw a movie. is thirsty. . was cold.

2. 4. *Mary slept her child. *He loves to me. *Who did you die? 7. *What did you laugh? . 5. *She washed tired. *He loves great. *John bought. 6.Question Why are the following sentences starred? 1. 3.

The distribution of Adjectives I. Adjectives may come between a determiner and a noun – a nice boy. one lovely afternoon. that incredible book II. the perfect time. Adjectives may follow .

2. .Question Why are the following phrases starred? 1. *the lovely. *these kids happy.

these movies.The distribution of Determiners Determiners are followed by nouns – a boy. those chairs. that book. every summer . some people. his laughter. one afternoon. the desk.

. 2. *the.Question Why are the following phrases starred? 1. *an.

. over the rainbow. on your shirt. at school. in her apt. before class. across the street. by my side. . from Mary. around that time. near this lake. up the hill. out the door.The distribution of Prepositions Prepositions are followed by NPs – for the man. with her.

5. *it’s around corner . 2. *She asked for. 3. *We believe in so.Question Why are the following sentences starred? 1. *I put it on table. 4. *He lives in.

[She ate] after [she ran].The distribution of Conjunctions Conjunctions must relate constituents of the same category: relating nouns: John and Mary relating adjectives: sad but true Relating verbs: eat or drink relating clauses: [He thinks] that [he is smart] [Mary slept] while [John studied]. .

.Question Why are the following phrases starred? 1. 2. *He reads while he. *apples and happy.

she.The distribution of Pronouns Pronouns have the distribution of NPs! Subject Pronouns: Can only be the subject of a sentence – I. you. it. we. they Object Pronouns: . he.

itself.The distribution of Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns: Must have an antecedent in their clausemyself. themselves Demonstrative Pronouns: Can NOT be followed by a Noun – . herself. yourself. himself. ourselves.

yours. where.The distribution of Pronouns Possessive Pronouns: Can NOT be followed by a Noun – mine. when. its. . which. what. hers. ours. his. theirs Interrogative Pronouns: Are used to ask a question – how.

The distribution of Pronouns Relative Pronouns: Follow a NP (which they replace) and start a relative clause (which describes the NP)The man [who lives here]… That book [which you told me about]… A woman [that I met]… .

*Sam believes in he.Question Why are the following sentences starred? 1. 6. 4. *Mary is proud of himself. 2. 5. 3. *Yours laptop works well. *They live near she. *Him loves she. . *He saw they in the street.

Adverbs may precede adjectives – very happy. quite wonderful . sleep peacefully. speak well II. Adverbs may follow verbs – Eat quietly.The distribution of Adverbs I. so tired.

*She runs quick. 3.Question Why are the following sentences starred? 1. 2. *He speaks English good. . *You are very intelligence.

must see Have precedes verbs in Past Participle: Have eaten.The distribution of Auxiliaries Auxiliaries precede verbs. has seen. Modals precede verbs in Base Form: Should eat. or other Aux. have . will have.

5. *They will at. *John has ate. *Mary must beautiful.Question Why are the following sentences starred? 1. *She is sing. *I have drove. 7. 4. 3. *John should coffee. 6. *Bill may coming to the party. . 2.

then “fax” is… Adjective . then “fax” is… Verb If the following word is “machine”.Distribution exists only in Question: Whatcontext part of speech is the word “fax”? Answer: It depends! If the preceding word is “the”. then “fax” is… Noun But if the preceding word is “to”.

The man that lives here is nice. John likes that.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “that”? 1. John thinks that the movie is good. Relative Pronoun 4. Determiner 2. Conjunction 3. John likes that movie. .

Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “when”? 1. Conjunction 2. When are you coming? Interrogative Pronoun 3. That time when you came over was great. Relative Pronoun . John knows when the movie is over.

John studies before he watches T. We had lunch before our long class. Preposition 3.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “before”? 1. Adverb . I never realized this before. Conjunction 2.V.

. Can I please book a flight to Denver? Verb 3. I love this book. Noun 2.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “book”? 1. Mary enjoys attending her book club.

Who is the best one here? Interrogative Pronoun 2. Relative Pronoun . I wonder who is the best one here? Conjunction 3.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “who”? 1. The student who is absent is sick.

We didn’t see you since last year. Preposition 2.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “since”? 1. Let’s order lunch since we’re both hungry. Conjunction .

Why did you even come here? Interrogative Pronoun 3. We don’t know why you even came here. Conjunction 2. . The reason why he came here is unclear.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “why”? 1.

Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “have”? 1. Verb 2. Have you ever been to Disneyland? Auxiliary . They have so much homework to do.

Adjective 2. The lights are on. You’ll see the supermarket on Elm street. Preposition .Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “on”? 1.

Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “out”? 1. you came in through the out door. John went out. Preposition 2. Silly John. Adverb 3. The birds flew out the window. Adjective .

Auxiliary 3. Weren’t you going to the movies tonight? . Verb 2. Sam and Rachel were traveling together. They were homesick.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “were”? 1.

Noun 4. I work from home. . Noun 2.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “home”? 1. She has been home all day. Adverb 3. Sam is going home now. They miss their home in Chicago.

Verb 2. You are wrong. Mary did do her .V? Auxiliary 4. They did their homework.Distribution is relevant only in context Question: What part of speech is “did”? 1. Auxiliary 3. Did you see me on T. Sam didn’t laugh at that joke.

. Adj. Conj.List 12-15 possible combinations of categories. D. P..Combining categories These are the word categories: N. V. Adv.. .. .Give two example sentences for each combination. Aux. Pro. Example: N – Aux.. – V – D – N John should eat an apple.

She will find a useful answer tomorrow. 4. 3. Charles stopped at the garage outside. 2. His confession is surprising. 7. I have seen the Eiffel Tower last year. 9. The experienced physician made a correct diagnosis. 5. Has the board made a decision yet? 10. Children usually like ice cream. Valerie was uncomfortable in that situation. .Identify the part of speech of all words 1. 8. He is sitting in the grand library. Her sister resembles her. 6.

I can’t decide between those two options. 7. 4.Identify the part of speech all words 1. 5. 8. Do you worryof about their actions? 2. around that corner. 9. . 3. 6. Teachers who have large classes have assistants. Melissa received good nursing care as a child. He had worked at a mortgage company in Texas. They had dinner after he arrived. 10. That aqueduct has been bringing water to the city for many years. The man at the airport carried the luggage up. The horse which won the race was very quick. His house is near the school.