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Principal main functions is to organize so that there is
optimum learning for students, by deploying people, time
and space to best advantage.
A principal need to be ambitious and always looking for
new ideas to enhance and improve teaching and learning
Principal responsibilities covers three dimensions, which
are teachers & supporting staff, students, and society.

School Principal is..

Principal is the head administrator of a school who
has been appointed to his position by the ministry of
education. The principal have the legitimate power
and makes the executive decisions that govern the
school, as well as having the authority over the
teachers/staff. The principal is usually also the chief
displinarian of the students.


The principalship is a moving, dynamic occupation in almost a

literal sense: the rhythm of the job, from arrival at the parking
lot to the close of business day is typified by pace and
movement, by frequent and abrupt shift from one concern to
another, and by the excitement pervading any institution
dealings with young people., the principals job is different
from other managerial positions because it is essentially an oral
occupation, a job of talking. The principal governs the school
mostly by talking with other people, usually one at a time,
throughout the day. (Van Cleve Morris (1984)

In larger schools the principal is assisted by one or

more vice, assistant or deputy principals. They are
second in position behind the principal in running the
Assistant principals typically handle specific
responsibilities, such as student discipline or
curriculum, whereas the principal has overall
responsibility for school functions.


i. Definitions of the principals roles and responsibilities
have changed over time.
ii. Traditional definitions :
a. Focused on the administrative processes & functions
b. Effective principals are responsible for :



iii. Gradually, lists of tasks & roles have given way to list of
competencies & proficiencies as the favored way to map
out the territory of educational administration.
iv. The categories of principals competencies &
proficiencies ;


Leadership behavior
Communication skills
Group processes
Curriculum & instruction


5.To enlist the expertise of staff for improving

6. Assessment
7. Organizational management
8. Fiscal management
9. Political management

Tasks and Roles

1. Leadership Behavior

Inspire all concern to join in accomplishing the

schools mission..
Apply effective human relations skills
Encourage the leadership of others..

2. Communication Skills
Persuasively articulate their beliefs and effective defend
their decisions..
Write clearly and concisely so that the message is
understood by the intended audience
Apply facts and data to determine priorities


3. Group Processes

Involve others in setting short- and long- term goals

Apply validated principles of group dynamics and
facilitation skills
Understand how to resolve difficult situations by use
of conflict-resolution methods


4. Curriculum

Understand the communitys values and goals and

what it wants the curriculum to achieve
Set forth, as a continuum, the skills and concepts the
curriculum is designed to provide
Monitor the curriculum to ensure that the appropriate
content and sequence are followed


5. Instruction

Understand and apply the principles of growth and

Regularly assess the teaching methods and
strategies being used at the school to ensure that
they are appropriate and varied
Understand and apply validated principles of
teaching and learning

6. Performance

Set high expectations for students, staff, parents and

Appropriately match particular learning styles with
particular teaching styles
Understand and apply validated principles of teaching
and learning


7. Evaluation
Set a variety of techniques and strategies to assess
Assess progress toward achieving goals established
for students, teachers, the principalship, and the
involvement of parents and the community at large..
Seek and encourage input from variety of sources to
improve the schools program


8. Organization

Comprehend and employ validated principles of

effective time management
Capitalize on the findings of research and making
program decisions
Develop and implement equitable and effective


9. Fiscal

Understand the school district budget and its

specific implications for the school
Plan, prepare, justify, and defend school
Manage the school within the allocated


10. Political

Understand the dynamics of local, state, and

national politics
Develop plans and strategies for helping to achieve
appropriate financial support of education
Involve the communitys movers and shakers in
development and support of the schools

Functions of School Principal

The functions of a school principal
can be divided into three categories:

The Principal as a Manager

The Principal as a Leader, and
The Principal as a Motivator.


The Principal as a Manager

Instructional managers

To do budgeting and financial

The principal uses his judgment to
determine which parts of the budget need
more funding and which could be cut back.

The principal also elicits the help of the

community and businesses to raise funds
for the school and activities.

The principal needs to make sure each step of

the education system is communicating.
The principal functions as an intermediary
between the community, the district school
board, and state administrators.
All of these groups influence the principal and
he or she needs to make sure their concerns
and goals are being dealt with and they all
have a voice in the school and educational


The Principal as a Leader

Principals are required to lead by example
and show their followers an effective way
of doing things.
Leading is not dictating. Although the
principal is required to lead, he or she is
not supposed to be the sole decision

Including the parents and teachers in

decision making is one of the best ways to
ensure their support on a certain change
or policy.
Acknowledging the different needs of
people allows for more persons to benefit
from a new idea or way of doing a certain

The Principal as a Motivator

The principal must learn to sustain a high moral standard with his
or her faculty.

Listening to everyone will ensure a higher overall morale and
better relationships between the faculty and administrators

Giving praise is a great way to motivate students and staff.

Keeping the staff and students happy will improve
performance and classroom relationships

Spending time.
Spending one-on-one time with a teacher or having lunch
with a group of students are ways a principal can show he or
she understands each person has individual needs.

The 15 behaviors of principals

Rutherford et al. (1983)

1. They have a clear vision of long-range goals

for the school.
2. They work intensely with brute persistence,
to attain their vision.
3. Achievement and happiness of students is
their first priority.
4. They have high expectations for students,
teachers and themselves.

5. They are actively involved in decisionmaking relative to instructional and

administrative affairs.
6. They attend to instructional objectives as
well as instructional strategies and planning.
7. They collect information that keeps them
well informed about the performance of
their teachers.
8. They will involve teachers in decisionmaking but within the framework of
established goals and expectations.

9. Directly or indirectly they provide for

development of teachers knowledge
and skills.
10.They protect the school and faculty
from unnecessary instructions.
11.They will seek policy changes at the
district level for benefit of the school.
12.They give enthusiastic support for
change .

13.They provide for the personal welfare

of teachers.
14.They model the norms they want
teachers to support.
15.They aggressively seek support for
resources within and outside the school
to foster goals of the school.


Characters of Principal
Daniel D. Trotter would suggest to any principal
who cares to be respected and admired by both
students and teachers;
1.Always be completely open to teachers.
2.It is important that you always speak pleasantly to your
teachers and never put them down in the presence of others.
3.Be generous with praise and cautious with criticism. Be
quick to give credit to others when it is due to them.

4. Always tell the truth even when it

5. Be easily approachable.
6. Be seen! A principal should be in the
school halls when students are in the
7. Make discipline your number one

8. Never accept an accusation against a

teacher until you first speak with that
9. Be open to teachers suggestions and, if you
disagree, be pleasant in your discussion.
10.When you deal with teachers, remember
two things: Tell the truth and treat others
like you would want to be treated.


Prerequisites to Good School Management

Common vision


Know what is going on at your school

Ask Questions
Probe; dont cross examine
But remember

Probe; dont coach

Inquire; dont challenge
Uncover; dont trap
Draw out; dont pump
Guide; dont dominate

Get out of your office and see what is going on

Walk the halls
Get into classrooms
Talk to teachers and other school
employees in a tactful, nonthreatening


Create a Positive Atmosphere

Dont let the desk be a barricade
Begin conversations in a friendly and informal
Be goal oriented and accomplish identified tasks,
but remembering people are people first!


Practice active listening

1. Paraphrase feelings accurately
2. Paraphrase content accuratelyrepeat the content of
what is heard in own words
3. Use door openers Tell me more; Sounds
4. Use acknowledgment responses Mm-mm; Yes;
Right; Certainly
5. Use non-verbal Look at the person; nod head; lean

Teacher begins crying

Let the teacher cry; then try to reassure
Offer a tissue; remain silent for a while; use a soothing
tone of voice
In extreme cases, stop the conversation and reschedule
for another time
Try to change the subject; find something in common or
something positive to discuss

Teacher is angry
Smile and give positive responses
Ask, Is there anything you would like to discuss before with me
before we..
State, Remember, we are here to work together
Be confident; maintain good eye contact
Put some distance between you and the teacher
DONT Argue
DONT allow the teacher to be abusive
Ignore offensive language
Remain CALM

Teacher shows confusion

Ask --Would you like for me to clarify
Rephrase the statement
Ask --What is the nature of your confusion?
State --Ill help if I can, or if I dont know, Ill
find the answer

Teacher is frustrated
Try to minimize stress by talking informally for a brief
Take a short break, if possible
Explain that perfection is not expected
Emphasize strengths
Try to identify the cause of frustration
Be supportive
Try to make a positive statement

Teacher receives suggestions, but becomes defensive

Use another term for need, such as area to strength, area
for refinement, or area for improvement
Prepare the teacher during orientation to expect suggestions
Emphasize that everyone can improve
State-- This is one area I noticed that you might want to work
Ask-- Could you add something to this suggestion?
Encourage the teacher to express his feelings

Be an Empathetic Listener
Demonstrate an open, accepting attitude through body
language and furniture placement
Give the staff member complete attention and
concentrate on the their words and body language
Limit remarkslet the staff member do most of the
Listen and look for feelings
Help the them stay on the subject

Dont think ahead planning an answer think about

what the person is saying
Dont attempt to analyze the person
Dont judge or categorize the person or form a biased
Dont tell a someone not to feel that way that is
beside the pointthe fact is the they do feel that way
Dont complete sentences for them


Responsibilities of School

The principal are responsible to lead

professional knowledge
organizational and administrative
ability to work out a good school policy and
put it into effect


skill in the delegation of authority

ability to understand the professional
problems of teachers, especially young
and inexperienced teachers, and to give
professional guidance; and
ability to establish good working
relationships with staff and parents.


Characteristics of Successful Principals

1. Intended to teach than encourage to
become principals.
2. Expressed a sincere faith in children.
3. Ability to work effectively with people and
to secure their cooperation.
4. Aggressive in securing recognition of the
needs of their school.




Enthusiastic as principals and accepted their

responsibilities as a mission rather than as a
Committed to education and could distinguish
between long-term & short-term educational
They were adaptable.
They were able strategists.


Overall, the school principal functions and resposibilities
that are desired by the teachers are:
To design task that focus on content, functions, and work
relations in achieving school purpose and job satisfaction
among teachers
Job rotation by either transfering teachers to other schools or
allocating different task in order to avoid annoyance, bored,
or hatred towards duties.
Job enrichment by providing various tasks and giving
complete authority and responsibility to the teachers until the
task finished. Only minimum supervision and guidance are

More responsibilities being put on the teachers with less

control. Gives only minimum supervision and
monitoring in order to enhance the creativity of
Decision making is not solely be made by the principal.
Job performance must be clearly informed to the
teachers whether it is good or bad. Teachers can
improve their performance in the future if the appraisal
is fair and transparent.