117 views

Uploaded by Joanna Luz Bagnol

enercon ppt

- Charging and Ignition Systems Nbr 18
- Circuits 2
- AC
- Catalog Number 40 PDF
- dio
- Electrical Drives & Control _ S5 EC
- generator protection
- Mcq of Dc Machines Madhuri New
- Power Generation
- The Physcis Teacher (1)
- ANSI C50-13(89)
- Electrical Machines I.pdf
- AC250 Data Sheet
- Electricity – Innovative Technologies towards Sustainable Development.pdf
- ac-dc-lab
- Vibration Analysis Gt6 Generator Libya
- Data Sheet-DG Set_Rev 0
- gm_elec_sys
- Swinburne Theory
- Exercise Problems on DC Generators

You are on page 1of 73

CONVERSION

energy from one form to another.

Basically, energy in the forms provided by

nature is converted to forms that can be

used by humans, such as ELECTRICITY

Two

General

Conversion:

DIRECT

OR

CONVERSION

Methods

STATIC

of

Energy

ENERGY

ENERGY SOURCES

PRESSURE

HEAT

CHEMICAL REACTION

LIGHT or SOLAR

ELECTRICAL OUTPUT : DC

DYNAMIC ENERGY

CONVERSION

ENERGY SOURCES

WIND

HYDROPOWER

GEOTHERMAL

NUCLEAR

FOSSIL FUELS

TIDAL WAVE

ELECTRICAL OUTPUT : AC or DC

PRESSURE

Sources:

Piezoelectric Material

Piezoelectricity

is the charge which accumulates in certain solid materials

in response to applied mechanical strain

The first demonstration of the direct piezoelectric effect

was in 1880 by the brothers Pierre Curie and Jacques

Curie.

HEAT

Sources

Thermocouple

Seebeck effect

production of an electromotive force (emf) and

consequently an electric current in a loop of material

consisting of at least two dissimilar conductors when

two

junctions

are

maintained

at

different

temperatures.

LIGHT or SOLAR

Sources:

Photocell, Photovoltaic, Photoelectric, &

Solar Cells

Photoelectric effect

electrons are emitted from matter (metals and nonmetallic solids, liquids or gases) as a consequence of their

absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation of

very short wavelength, such as visible or ultraviolet light.

CHEMICAL REACTION

Sources

Cell, Battery, & Fuel Cells

Electrochemistry

a branch of chemistry that studies chemical

reactions which take place in a solution at the

interface of an electron conductor (a metal or

a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the

electrolyte), and which involve electron

transfer between the electrode and the

electrolyte or species in solution.

TERMINOLOGIES

Ampere-Hour product of the current

strength (measured in amperes) and the

duration (in hours) of the current. The

quantity of electricity of a battery or cell.

Cell the smallest unit of a battery, consisting

of a positive and a negative electrode, a

separator and the electrolyte. It stores

electrical energy and forms the fundamental

cornerstone of a battery if it is placed into a

case and equipped with electrical connectors.

TERMINOLOGIES

Electrolyte is the solution that acts upon the

electrodes. The electrolyte, which provides a

path for electron flow, may be a salt, an acid,

or an alkaline solution

Open circuit voltage the terminal voltage of

the battery when no load connected

Operating Voltage the terminal voltage of the

battery with the load connected

Shelf Life the period the cell may be stored

and still be usable.

SIZE

D

C

AA

AAA

HEIGHT

(inch)

2.25

1.75

1.875

1.75

DIAMETER (inch)

1.25

1

9/16

3/8

Primary Cells cells that cannot be returned

to good condition, or recharged after their

voltage output has dropped to a value that is

not usable.

(non-rechargeable)

Secondary Cells cells that can be recharged

to nearly their original condition after being

used up

(rechargeable)

SAMPLE PROBLEM

A 12-V auto battery is rated 36 Ah. If a 100W,

12VDC bulb is connected across the battery,

about how long will the bulb stay lit, if the battery

has been fully charged?

DEVICES

ELECTRICAL MACHINES refers to the rotating

machines that convert energy from one form

to another.

GENERATORS converts mechanical to

electrical energy

MOTORS converts electrical energy to

mechanical energy

For generators, the machine that drives it

during operation is called the prime mover. It

may be a steam turbine, a gasoline engine, an

electric motor, or even a hand operated crank

TYPES OF ELECTRICITY

GENERATING PLANTS

DIESEL FUEL/GASOLINE prime mover is run by

combustion engines using either diesel of petroleum

GAS TURBINE the prime mover in a turbine system

is driven by highly pressurized steam

HYDROELECTRIC prime mover is run by the force

of a water flow. The water flow is controlled and

regulated in a site called a dam.

GEOTHERMAL prime mover uses the natural heat

that comes from beneath the earth s surface

NUCLEAR REACTOR prime mover utilizes heat

derived from nuclear rection

WIND GENERATOR wind is used to drive a huge

fan which is then coupled to the generator.

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1

Which country ranks 1st in geothermal electricity

production?

Answer: USA

ELECTROMAGNETIC

INDUCTION

Is the production of electromotive force across a

conductor exposed to time varying magnetic

fields. First discovered by Michael Faraday.

FARADAYS FIRST LAW EMF is induced

whenever a conductor

cuts magnetic flux

FARADAYS SECOND LAW the magnitude of the

induced EMF in a coil is directly proportional to the

rate of change of flux. If there are N turns of a coil,

then each flux line will link these circuit N times.

GENERATED VOLTAGE IN A

CONDUCTOR

B = Magnetic Flux Density or Magnetic Field

(Tesla or in Gauss)

L = length of the conductor

= angle the conductor makes with respect to

the flux direction

Where,

EAV = average voltage generated,

(volt)

= total flux cut, (weber)

t = time needed to cut , (sec)

Sample Problem 2

A wire moving at a speed of 18.6 meters

per second passes through a magnetic

field whose magnetic flux density is 2T.

Find the length of the wire if it cuts an

average of 2.8Wb of flux in 0.5 sec.

Answer: 15cm

increased by

Increasing the number of turns of the

wire in the coil

Increasing the speed of the relative

motion between the coil and the magnet

Increasing the strength of the magnetic

field

GENERATORS

works on the production of dynamically (or

motionally) induced EMF.

Has two important parts: FIELD POLES, which

is an even set of electromagnets of permanent

magnets, which provides excitation or flux to

the armature; and the ARMATURE WINDING,

which is a laminated core with current carrying

copper wires. Responsible for the cutting of the

flux supplied by the field poles

of a generator are:

(a) a magnetic field

(b) conductor or a group of

conductors

(c) motion of conductor with respect

to the magnetic field.

AC GENERATORS

26

27

DC GENERATORS

converts the alternating voltage generated in the

armature winding into direct voltage across the

brushes.

More coils

29

WINDINGS

Gramme-ring armature are placed on an iron ring. A

disadvantage of this arrangement is that the windings

located on the inner side of the iron ring cut few lines

of flux. Therefore, they have little, if any,

voltage induced in them. For this reason, the

Gramme-ring armature is not widely used.

WINDINGS

DRUM TYPE ARMATURE the armature windings

are placed in slots cut in a drum shaped iron core

CURRENT APPLICATIONS. The windings are connected to

provide several parallel paths for current in the armature.

Wave winding: This type of winding is used in dc generators

employed in high-voltage applications. This configuration allows the

series addition of the voltages in all the windings between brushes.

VOLTAGE (DC Generator)

Given,

Eg =

(volt)

=

(weber)

P =

N =

Z =

effective flux per pole,

no. of poles (an even no.)

speed of rotation, (rpm)

total number of conductors

a P m (lap wound)

a 2 m (wave wound)

Sample Problem 3

What is the average voltage generated

in a single conductor of a four pole dc

generator if the effective flux per pole is

2.8mWb and the speed of the armature

is 1800 rpm?

Answer : 0.336V

Sample Problem 7

A six-pole, duplex wave wound

armature has 640 conductors. If the flux

per pole is 16mWb, at what speed must

the armature be driven in order to

generate 256 volts?

phase)

Where,

kp = Pitch factor

kd = Distribution factor

f = Frequency (Hz)

= Flux per pole (Weber)

Z = Total no. of conductors in series per

phase

VOLTAGE

f = frequency (Hertz)

P = no. of poles (even no.)

N = prime mover speed (rpm)

TYPES OF ALTERNATORS

Single Phase Alternator used for low power

applications

TYPES OF ALTERNATORS

Three Phase Alternator

used for high power applications

Has two types : WYE or STARCONNECTED (which is used for highvoltage, low current applications) ; DELTA

or MESH-CONNECTED (which is used

for low voltage, high current applications)

equations

total voltage, or line voltage, across any two of

the three line leads is the vector sum of the

individual phase voltages. Each line voltage is

1.73 times one of the phase voltages. Because

the windings form only one path for current flow

between phases, the line and phase currents are

equations

equal to phase voltages, but each line current

is equal to 1.73 times the phase current.

Sample Problem 4

The following are the particulars of a given alternator:

Speed = 750 rpm

Poles = 8

No. of Slots = 56

No. of conductors per slot = 12

Flux per pole = 18mWb

Winding = Three phase, Star

Pitch factor = 97%

Distribution Factor = 95%

Calculate the voltage between the generator

terminals

Sample Problem 5

A three phase, delta connected alternator

supplies 3000W of power to a three-phase

load at a line voltage of 250V with 88% load

power factor. If the alternator coil has a

resistance of 0.25 per phase, determine the

power wasted in the windings.

Answer: 15.5 W

ARMATURE REACTION

All current-carrying conductors produce

magnetic fields. The magnetic field produced

by current in the armature of a DC generator

affects flux pattern and distorts the main field.

EFFECTS :

It demagnetizes or weakens the main flux

which leads to the reduction of the

generated voltage

It distorts the main flux causing sparking at

the brushes

EFFECTS :

It demagnetizes or weakens the main flux

which leads to the reduction of the

generated voltage

It distorts the main flux causing sparking at

OF ARMATURE REACTION

coils embedded in slots in the pole faces. These

windings produce a magnetic field, which

opposes the magnetic field of the armature

and tends to cancel out the effects of armature

magnetic field.

INTERPOLES are small auxillary poles placed

between the main field poles. The field generated

produces the same effect as the compensating

winding.

In dc generators, as in most electrical devices,

certain forces act to decrease the efficiency. These

forces, as they affect the armature, are considered

as losses.

heat in the armature winding of a generator is

known as COPPER LOSS. Heat is generated

any time current flows in a conductor. Copper

loss is an I2R loss, which increases as current

increases.

EDDY CURRENT LOSS- Any conductor will

have currents induced in it when it is rotated

in a magnetic field. These currents that are

induced in the generator armature core are

called

EDDY

CURRENTS.

The

power

dissipated in the form of heat, as a result

of the eddy currents, is considered a

Note: can be reduced by laminating

loss.

the core. The currents in each piece

of

the

laminated

core

are

considerably less than in the solid

core because the resistance of the

pieces is much higher

HYSTERESIS LOSS - Hysteresis loss is a

properties of the armature. The continuous

movement of the magnetic particles, as

they try to align themselves with the

magnetic field, produces molecular friction.

This, in turn, produces heat. This heat is

transmitted to the armature windings. The

heat causes armature resistances to

increase.

Sample Problem 6

A 5-hp electric generator is driven by a

prime mover. At rated load, friction

losses were found to be 250 watts and

iron losses amount to 195 watts. If the

brake horsepower of the driving engine

is 6-hp, how much power is wasted in

the copper wires?

horsepower of an engine. It is the measure of

an engines horsepower BEFORE THE LOSS in

power caused by the gearbox, alternator, and

other auxillary components.

It is the amount of work generated by a motor

under IDEAL CONDITIONS. This work is

calculated without the effects of any auxillary

component that may slow down the actual

speed of te motor

Sample Problem

A 5-hp electric generator is driven by a

prime mover. At rated load, friction

losses were found to be 250 watts and

iron losses amount to 195 watts. If the

brake horsepower of the driving engine

is 6-hp, how much power is wasted in

the copper wires?

Answer : 301 W

FIELD EXCITATION

When a dc voltage is applied to the field

windings of a dc generator, current flows

through the windings and sets up a steady

magnetic field. This is called FIELD

EXCITATION.

HAS TWO METHODS

SEPARATELY EXCITED GENERATORS

SELF-EXCITED GENERATORS

SEPARATELY EXCITED

GENERATORS

These are generators whose field

magnets are energized (or excited) from

an external source such as a battery or

a small generator called exciter

Sample Problem 8

A separately excited generator develops

a no-load EMF of 180V at an armature

speed of 15 rev/sec and a flux per pole

of 0.20Wb. Calculate the generated EMF

when the speed increases to 25 rev/sec

and the pole flux is decreased to

0.18Wb

Answer : 270 V

These are generators whose field

magnets are energized (or excited) by

the current produced by the generators

themselves.

Types of Self-Excited Generators

SERIES WOUND GENERATOR

SHUNT WOUND GENERATOR

COMPOUND WOUND (short shunt and long

shunt)

The armature and the field

windings are connected in

series

The armature and the field

windings are connected in

parallel

Sample Problem 9

A shunt generator is connected to a 50

load which draws a line current of 5A. If

the armature resistance and shunt field

resistance of this generator are 0.5

and 84 respectively, determine the

generated EMF of this generator.

Answer : 254 V

COMPOUND WOUND

GENERATORS

A combination of the series and

shunt generators as it utilizes

both the series field and the

shunt field

Can either be short shunt or long

shunt

Sample Problem

A 4-pole long shunt lap wound

generator supplies 25kW at a terminal

voltage of 500V. The armature

resistance is 0.03, series field

resistance is 0.04 and shunt field

resistance is 200. Brush drop is 1 volt.

Determine the EMF generated.

Answer : 504.675 V

ELECTRIC MOTOR

A machine that converts electrical energy to

mechanical energy. It is the opposite of a

generator.

as a generator. The voltage generated in the armature of

a motor is called counter emf (or back emf).

COMPARISON BETWEEN A

GENERATOR and a MOTOR

as a generator. The voltage generated in the armature of

a motor is called counter emf (or back emf).

It is the voltage induced into the armature

conductors of a DC motor when the armature

rotates

SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF

MOTOR

- The speed of a dc motor is

directly proportional to the

back emf (counter emf)

and inversely proportional

to the flux.

EC

N = ks

TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF

MOTOR

- The torque of a DC motor

is directly proportional to

both the armature current

(IA) and the flux per pole.

T = k t IA

Sample Problem 11

An electric motor running at a speed of

1200 rpm develops a counter EMF of

80V when driving its mechanical load.

When the load was removed the air gap

flux was observed to rise by 16% as the

speed increased to 1290 rpm.

Determine the counter EMF developed

by the unloaded motor

Answer : 99.76 V

TYPES OF DC MOTORS

1. Series motor this motor is used where the

load suddenly comes and goes after some time

and speed is not essential. (eg. Overhead

cranes, elevators, power hammers)

a constant speed is required as in lathe

machines and other working tools

of the series and shunt DC motors

Sample Problem

A series motor at rated load draws a line

current of 12 amperes from the supply

mains. How much current will it draw if

the load torque is doubled?

Answer : 16.97 A

Sample Problem

A shunt motor runs at 1200 rpm on a

420 volt circuit and the current taken by

the armature is 30 A. What resistance

must be placed in series with the

armature in order that the speed may

be reduced to 600rpm with the current

through the armature remaining the

same? Armature resistance is 3.

Answer : 5.5

MOTOR EFFICIENCY

The efficiency of an electric motor is

expressed as the ratio of its power

output to the power it draws from the

mains.

Sample Problem

A 2-horsepower DC motor draws 21

amperes from a 100-volt DC supply at

rated load. How efficient is this motor?

Answer : 71%

GOOD

NIGHT

- Charging and Ignition Systems Nbr 18Uploaded byMashood Nasir
- Circuits 2Uploaded bylesterPECE
- ACUploaded byHein Htike
- Catalog Number 40 PDFUploaded byfuellesspower
- dioUploaded bysebestyenl5685
- Electrical Drives & Control _ S5 ECUploaded byAsifZharaf
- generator protectionUploaded byarvind_rathi065769
- Mcq of Dc Machines Madhuri NewUploaded byAnkit Kumar
- Power GenerationUploaded byolyax
- The Physcis Teacher (1)Uploaded byAlex Salazar
- ANSI C50-13(89)Uploaded byZibeon Huamani Sapana
- Electrical Machines I.pdfUploaded bySANOJ
- AC250 Data SheetUploaded byAshutosh Singh
- Electricity – Innovative Technologies towards Sustainable Development.pdfUploaded byktsnl
- ac-dc-labUploaded byArchie Pualengco
- Vibration Analysis Gt6 Generator LibyaUploaded byRohit Gunerkar
- Data Sheet-DG Set_Rev 0Uploaded byjhakg_169712275
- gm_elec_sysUploaded byVangara Harshu
- Swinburne TheoryUploaded byDilip TheLip
- Exercise Problems on DC GeneratorsUploaded bySyed Arif Ahmed
- 193105060 Eee Interview Questions AnswersUploaded bysenthil_suruli
- DIY Hydroelectric Generator _ Five Gallon IdeasUploaded byAngel Lisette Lao
- final controlUploaded byraju
- Lap Winding Simplex and Duplex Lap Winding _ Electrical4u.htmlUploaded byAnoop Repaka
- EPF50 Week -12.xlsxUploaded byKarim Hadi
- CycloneUploaded byRafita Ramland
- D.C.pdfUploaded byArun Kumar
- GeneratorsUploaded bysalmasoma
- Use of Class 4 AntennasUploaded byRaja Bilal Latif
- AC&DC Direct Current Electrical Machinery Generalization, December 13, 2016,2nd Semester SY2016to2017TIPUploaded byKatrina Nieto Calanglang

- Theory and problems of Boolean algebra and switching circuitsUploaded bymichal.walicki
- 4th_wkUploaded byJonathan Tungal
- Ethics in Project ManagementUploaded byJoanna Luz Bagnol
- Area FormulasUploaded byJoanna Luz Bagnol
- Basic Math FormulasUploaded byJoanna Luz Bagnol
- Electromagnetic VUploaded byJoanna Luz Bagnol
- Trig IdentitiesUploaded bysofttamil
- NOTES 5Uploaded byJoanna Luz Bagnol
- COMMUNICATIONS Formulas and ConceptsUploaded byAllan Paul Lorenzo Abando
- Non Concurrent AUploaded byZakrya Zaki
- Cash Flow Diagram.pdfUploaded bynoy
- Electronics ReviewUploaded byJoanna Luz Bagnol

- 10 Helpful Hints for ADS_11_08Uploaded byyazorcan
- Equipo.quasar.nv.FrontoneroUploaded byRemHenry
- Ernst and Young Entrepreneur BarometerUploaded byIntegr8 Group
- Chapter 3 (Latest)1 (Revised)Uploaded bymuma_msi
- Shahina PiUploaded bysauravv7
- DTCP-A4 High-speed roll copy paper cutting machine Instruction Manual.pdfUploaded byA.Magied Mahmoud
- SIUploaded byMike
- AU-R2009Uploaded byAryan Kumar
- Online payment gateway in VietnamUploaded byvivaldi912
- data_movement_modeling.pdfUploaded byjacobineiro
- As 60372-2010 Locking Devices for Ball and Socket Couplings of String Insulator Units - Dimensions and TestsUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- Omnii XT15 GuideUploaded byPaul Leicht
- Sampling & QuantizationUploaded byapi-3819017
- fUploaded bysi_d10
- Strengths Outcome Learning NarrativeUploaded byJeffrey T Eng
- 269 sex gamesUploaded byMonique Bedford
- Presentation on PRINCE 2 Project Management Methodology.docxUploaded byEmmanuel Mends Fynn
- Termpaper Service ManagementUploaded byDaniel Ranzi Werle
- Mb0050 Slm Unit03Uploaded byJignesh Patel
- cpvcUploaded bygrasimlook
- Epicor Product CatalogUploaded byJohn D.
- Gunak CVUploaded byKarthik Kothandaraman
- Current Accounts (1)Uploaded byVijay Anu
- RE - Superelevation, CrossingsUploaded bySalman Shahid
- 74ls378 Logic FLIP-FLOPS WITH ENABLEUploaded byWonz
- Legionella GuidelinesUploaded byRamy Eid
- California Creek University BrochureUploaded byCalCreekUniversity
- my fileUploaded byJanuary Caspian
- 3DCreative Magazine Issue 033 May 2008Uploaded byacatrineis1532
- Hr AssignmentUploaded byOmer Irfan