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ENERGY

CONVERSION

Energy Conversion the transformation of


energy from one form to another.
Basically, energy in the forms provided by
nature is converted to forms that can be
used by humans, such as ELECTRICITY
Two
General
Conversion:
DIRECT
OR
CONVERSION

Methods
STATIC

of

Energy
ENERGY

DYNAMIC ENERGY CONVERSION

DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION


ENERGY SOURCES
PRESSURE
HEAT
CHEMICAL REACTION
LIGHT or SOLAR

ELECTRICAL OUTPUT : DC

DYNAMIC ENERGY
CONVERSION
ENERGY SOURCES
WIND
HYDROPOWER
GEOTHERMAL
NUCLEAR
FOSSIL FUELS
TIDAL WAVE
ELECTRICAL OUTPUT : AC or DC

PRESSURE
Sources:
Piezoelectric Material

Piezoelectricity
is the charge which accumulates in certain solid materials
in response to applied mechanical strain
The first demonstration of the direct piezoelectric effect
was in 1880 by the brothers Pierre Curie and Jacques
Curie.

HEAT
Sources
Thermocouple

Seebeck effect
production of an electromotive force (emf) and
consequently an electric current in a loop of material
consisting of at least two dissimilar conductors when
two
junctions
are
maintained
at
different
temperatures.

LIGHT or SOLAR
Sources:
Photocell, Photovoltaic, Photoelectric, &
Solar Cells
Photoelectric effect
electrons are emitted from matter (metals and nonmetallic solids, liquids or gases) as a consequence of their
absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation of
very short wavelength, such as visible or ultraviolet light.

CHEMICAL REACTION
Sources
Cell, Battery, & Fuel Cells
Electrochemistry
a branch of chemistry that studies chemical
reactions which take place in a solution at the
interface of an electron conductor (a metal or
a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the
electrolyte), and which involve electron
transfer between the electrode and the
electrolyte or species in solution.

CELLS and BATTERIES


TERMINOLOGIES
Ampere-Hour product of the current
strength (measured in amperes) and the
duration (in hours) of the current. The
quantity of electricity of a battery or cell.
Cell the smallest unit of a battery, consisting
of a positive and a negative electrode, a
separator and the electrolyte. It stores
electrical energy and forms the fundamental
cornerstone of a battery if it is placed into a
case and equipped with electrical connectors.

CELLS and BATTERIES


TERMINOLOGIES
Electrolyte is the solution that acts upon the
electrodes. The electrolyte, which provides a
path for electron flow, may be a salt, an acid,
or an alkaline solution
Open circuit voltage the terminal voltage of
the battery when no load connected
Operating Voltage the terminal voltage of the
battery with the load connected
Shelf Life the period the cell may be stored
and still be usable.

SIZE
D
C
AA
AAA

HEIGHT
(inch)
2.25
1.75
1.875
1.75

DIAMETER (inch)

1.25
1
9/16
3/8

GENERAL TYPES OF CELLS


Primary Cells cells that cannot be returned
to good condition, or recharged after their
voltage output has dropped to a value that is
not usable.
(non-rechargeable)
Secondary Cells cells that can be recharged
to nearly their original condition after being
used up
(rechargeable)

SAMPLE PROBLEM
A 12-V auto battery is rated 36 Ah. If a 100W,
12VDC bulb is connected across the battery,
about how long will the bulb stay lit, if the battery
has been fully charged?

Answer: 4.32 hours

DYNAMIC ENERGY CONVERSION


DEVICES
ELECTRICAL MACHINES refers to the rotating
machines that convert energy from one form
to another.
GENERATORS converts mechanical to
electrical energy
MOTORS converts electrical energy to
mechanical energy
For generators, the machine that drives it
during operation is called the prime mover. It
may be a steam turbine, a gasoline engine, an
electric motor, or even a hand operated crank

TYPES OF ELECTRICITY
GENERATING PLANTS
DIESEL FUEL/GASOLINE prime mover is run by
combustion engines using either diesel of petroleum
GAS TURBINE the prime mover in a turbine system
is driven by highly pressurized steam
HYDROELECTRIC prime mover is run by the force
of a water flow. The water flow is controlled and
regulated in a site called a dam.
GEOTHERMAL prime mover uses the natural heat
that comes from beneath the earth s surface
NUCLEAR REACTOR prime mover utilizes heat
derived from nuclear rection
WIND GENERATOR wind is used to drive a huge
fan which is then coupled to the generator.

SAMPLE PROBLEM 1
Which country ranks 1st in geothermal electricity
production?

Answer: USA

ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION
Is the production of electromotive force across a
conductor exposed to time varying magnetic
fields. First discovered by Michael Faraday.
FARADAYS FIRST LAW EMF is induced
whenever a conductor
cuts magnetic flux
FARADAYS SECOND LAW the magnitude of the
induced EMF in a coil is directly proportional to the
rate of change of flux. If there are N turns of a coil,
then each flux line will link these circuit N times.

GENERATED VOLTAGE IN A
CONDUCTOR

E = generated voltage (volts)


B = Magnetic Flux Density or Magnetic Field
(Tesla or in Gauss)
L = length of the conductor
= angle the conductor makes with respect to
the flux direction

AVERAGE VOLTAGE GENERATED

Where,
EAV = average voltage generated,
(volt)
= total flux cut, (weber)
t = time needed to cut , (sec)

Sample Problem 2
A wire moving at a speed of 18.6 meters
per second passes through a magnetic
field whose magnetic flux density is 2T.
Find the length of the wire if it cuts an
average of 2.8Wb of flux in 0.5 sec.

Answer: 15cm

Voltage induced in a conductor can be


increased by
Increasing the number of turns of the
wire in the coil
Increasing the speed of the relative
motion between the coil and the magnet
Increasing the strength of the magnetic
field

GENERATORS
works on the production of dynamically (or
motionally) induced EMF.
Has two important parts: FIELD POLES, which
is an even set of electromagnets of permanent
magnets, which provides excitation or flux to
the armature; and the ARMATURE WINDING,
which is a laminated core with current carrying
copper wires. Responsible for the cutting of the
flux supplied by the field poles

Therefore, the essential components


of a generator are:
(a) a magnetic field
(b) conductor or a group of
conductors
(c) motion of conductor with respect
to the magnetic field.

AC GENERATORS

26

27

DC GENERATORS

A commutator is a mechanical rectifier which


converts the alternating voltage generated in the
armature winding into direct voltage across the
brushes.

More coils

29

ARMATURE CORES and


WINDINGS

GRAMME RING TYPE ARMATURE The windings of a


Gramme-ring armature are placed on an iron ring. A
disadvantage of this arrangement is that the windings
located on the inner side of the iron ring cut few lines
of flux. Therefore, they have little, if any,
voltage induced in them. For this reason, the
Gramme-ring armature is not widely used.

ARMATURE CORES and


WINDINGS
DRUM TYPE ARMATURE the armature windings
are placed in slots cut in a drum shaped iron core

Lap winding: used in DC generators designed for HIGH


CURRENT APPLICATIONS. The windings are connected to
provide several parallel paths for current in the armature.
Wave winding: This type of winding is used in dc generators
employed in high-voltage applications. This configuration allows the
series addition of the voltages in all the windings between brushes.

GENERAL EQUATION FOR GENERATED


VOLTAGE (DC Generator)
Given,
Eg =
(volt)
=
(weber)
P =
N =
Z =

total generated voltage,


effective flux per pole,
no. of poles (an even no.)
speed of rotation, (rpm)
total number of conductors

where, a = No. of parallel paths, and

a P m (lap wound)

a 2 m (wave wound)

Sample Problem 3
What is the average voltage generated
in a single conductor of a four pole dc
generator if the effective flux per pole is
2.8mWb and the speed of the armature
is 1800 rpm?

Answer : 0.336V

Sample Problem 7
A six-pole, duplex wave wound
armature has 640 conductors. If the flux
per pole is 16mWb, at what speed must
the armature be driven in order to
generate 256 volts?

Answer : 1000 rpm

GENERATED AC VOLTAGE (per


phase)

Where,
kp = Pitch factor
kd = Distribution factor
f = Frequency (Hz)
= Flux per pole (Weber)
Z = Total no. of conductors in series per
phase

FREQUENCY OF THE GENERATED


VOLTAGE

f = frequency (Hertz)
P = no. of poles (even no.)
N = prime mover speed (rpm)

TYPES OF ALTERNATORS
Single Phase Alternator used for low power
applications

TYPES OF ALTERNATORS
Three Phase Alternator
used for high power applications
Has two types : WYE or STARCONNECTED (which is used for highvoltage, low current applications) ; DELTA
or MESH-CONNECTED (which is used
for low voltage, high current applications)

WYE or STAR CONNECTED


equations

In a three-phase, Y-connected alternator, the


total voltage, or line voltage, across any two of
the three line leads is the vector sum of the
individual phase voltages. Each line voltage is
1.73 times one of the phase voltages. Because
the windings form only one path for current flow
between phases, the line and phase currents are

DELTA or MESH CONNECTED


equations

In the delta connection, line voltages are


equal to phase voltages, but each line current
is equal to 1.73 times the phase current.

Sample Problem 4
The following are the particulars of a given alternator:
Speed = 750 rpm
Poles = 8
No. of Slots = 56
No. of conductors per slot = 12
Flux per pole = 18mWb
Winding = Three phase, Star
Pitch factor = 97%
Distribution Factor = 95%
Calculate the voltage between the generator
terminals

ANSWER: 714.33 Vac

Sample Problem 5
A three phase, delta connected alternator
supplies 3000W of power to a three-phase
load at a line voltage of 250V with 88% load
power factor. If the alternator coil has a
resistance of 0.25 per phase, determine the
power wasted in the windings.

Answer: 15.5 W

ARMATURE REACTION
All current-carrying conductors produce
magnetic fields. The magnetic field produced
by current in the armature of a DC generator
affects flux pattern and distorts the main field.
EFFECTS :
It demagnetizes or weakens the main flux
which leads to the reduction of the
generated voltage
It distorts the main flux causing sparking at
the brushes

EFFECTS :
It demagnetizes or weakens the main flux
which leads to the reduction of the
generated voltage
It distorts the main flux causing sparking at

WAYS OF REDUCING EFFECTS


OF ARMATURE REACTION

COMPENSATING WINDINGS consists of series of


coils embedded in slots in the pole faces. These
windings produce a magnetic field, which
opposes the magnetic field of the armature
and tends to cancel out the effects of armature
magnetic field.
INTERPOLES are small auxillary poles placed
between the main field poles. The field generated
produces the same effect as the compensating
winding.

ARMATURE POWER LOSSES


In dc generators, as in most electrical devices,
certain forces act to decrease the efficiency. These
forces, as they affect the armature, are considered
as losses.

COPPER LOSS - The power lost in the form of


heat in the armature winding of a generator is
known as COPPER LOSS. Heat is generated
any time current flows in a conductor. Copper
loss is an I2R loss, which increases as current
increases.

ARMATURE POWER LOSSES


EDDY CURRENT LOSS- Any conductor will
have currents induced in it when it is rotated
in a magnetic field. These currents that are
induced in the generator armature core are
called
EDDY
CURRENTS.
The
power
dissipated in the form of heat, as a result
of the eddy currents, is considered a
Note: can be reduced by laminating
loss.
the core. The currents in each piece
of
the
laminated
core
are
considerably less than in the solid
core because the resistance of the
pieces is much higher

ARMATURE POWER LOSSES


HYSTERESIS LOSS - Hysteresis loss is a

heat loss caused by the magnetic


properties of the armature. The continuous
movement of the magnetic particles, as
they try to align themselves with the
magnetic field, produces molecular friction.
This, in turn, produces heat. This heat is
transmitted to the armature windings. The
heat causes armature resistances to
increase.

Sample Problem 6
A 5-hp electric generator is driven by a
prime mover. At rated load, friction
losses were found to be 250 watts and
iron losses amount to 195 watts. If the
brake horsepower of the driving engine
is 6-hp, how much power is wasted in
the copper wires?

Note: Brake horsepower is the actual


horsepower of an engine. It is the measure of
an engines horsepower BEFORE THE LOSS in
power caused by the gearbox, alternator, and
other auxillary components.
It is the amount of work generated by a motor
under IDEAL CONDITIONS. This work is
calculated without the effects of any auxillary
component that may slow down the actual
speed of te motor

Sample Problem
A 5-hp electric generator is driven by a
prime mover. At rated load, friction
losses were found to be 250 watts and
iron losses amount to 195 watts. If the
brake horsepower of the driving engine
is 6-hp, how much power is wasted in
the copper wires?
Answer : 301 W

FIELD EXCITATION
When a dc voltage is applied to the field
windings of a dc generator, current flows
through the windings and sets up a steady
magnetic field. This is called FIELD
EXCITATION.
HAS TWO METHODS
SEPARATELY EXCITED GENERATORS
SELF-EXCITED GENERATORS

SEPARATELY EXCITED
GENERATORS
These are generators whose field
magnets are energized (or excited) from
an external source such as a battery or
a small generator called exciter

Sample Problem 8
A separately excited generator develops
a no-load EMF of 180V at an armature
speed of 15 rev/sec and a flux per pole
of 0.20Wb. Calculate the generated EMF
when the speed increases to 25 rev/sec
and the pole flux is decreased to
0.18Wb
Answer : 270 V

SELF EXCITED GENERATORS


These are generators whose field
magnets are energized (or excited) by
the current produced by the generators
themselves.
Types of Self-Excited Generators
SERIES WOUND GENERATOR
SHUNT WOUND GENERATOR
COMPOUND WOUND (short shunt and long
shunt)

SERIES WOUND GENERATORS


The armature and the field
windings are connected in
series

SHUNT WOUND GENERATORS


The armature and the field
windings are connected in
parallel

Sample Problem 9
A shunt generator is connected to a 50
load which draws a line current of 5A. If
the armature resistance and shunt field
resistance of this generator are 0.5
and 84 respectively, determine the
generated EMF of this generator.

Answer : 254 V

COMPOUND WOUND
GENERATORS
A combination of the series and
shunt generators as it utilizes
both the series field and the
shunt field
Can either be short shunt or long
shunt

Sample Problem
A 4-pole long shunt lap wound
generator supplies 25kW at a terminal
voltage of 500V. The armature
resistance is 0.03, series field
resistance is 0.04 and shunt field
resistance is 200. Brush drop is 1 volt.
Determine the EMF generated.
Answer : 504.675 V

ELECTRIC MOTOR
A machine that converts electrical energy to
mechanical energy. It is the opposite of a
generator.

Note: An electric motor in operation acts simultaneously


as a generator. The voltage generated in the armature of
a motor is called counter emf (or back emf).

COMPARISON BETWEEN A
GENERATOR and a MOTOR

Note: An electric motor in operation acts simultaneously


as a generator. The voltage generated in the armature of
a motor is called counter emf (or back emf).

COUNTER EMF or BACK EMF


It is the voltage induced into the armature
conductors of a DC motor when the armature
rotates

SPEED CHARACTERISTICS OF
MOTOR
- The speed of a dc motor is
directly proportional to the
back emf (counter emf)
and inversely proportional
to the flux.

EC
N = ks

TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF
MOTOR
- The torque of a DC motor
is directly proportional to
both the armature current
(IA) and the flux per pole.

T = k t IA

Sample Problem 11
An electric motor running at a speed of
1200 rpm develops a counter EMF of
80V when driving its mechanical load.
When the load was removed the air gap
flux was observed to rise by 16% as the
speed increased to 1290 rpm.
Determine the counter EMF developed
by the unloaded motor
Answer : 99.76 V

TYPES OF DC MOTORS
1. Series motor this motor is used where the
load suddenly comes and goes after some time
and speed is not essential. (eg. Overhead
cranes, elevators, power hammers)

2. Shunt motor is used where almost


a constant speed is required as in lathe
machines and other working tools

3. Compound motor a combination


of the series and shunt DC motors

Sample Problem
A series motor at rated load draws a line
current of 12 amperes from the supply
mains. How much current will it draw if
the load torque is doubled?

Answer : 16.97 A

Sample Problem
A shunt motor runs at 1200 rpm on a
420 volt circuit and the current taken by
the armature is 30 A. What resistance
must be placed in series with the
armature in order that the speed may
be reduced to 600rpm with the current
through the armature remaining the
same? Armature resistance is 3.
Answer : 5.5

MOTOR EFFICIENCY
The efficiency of an electric motor is
expressed as the ratio of its power
output to the power it draws from the
mains.

Sample Problem
A 2-horsepower DC motor draws 21
amperes from a 100-volt DC supply at
rated load. How efficient is this motor?

Answer : 71%

GOOD
NIGHT