You are on page 1of 35

Chapter 12:

Leadership
12-1
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

LO 1
Contrast
Leadership
and Management

Leadership is the ability to influence a


group toward the achievement of a vision
or set of goals.
Not all leaders are managers, nor are
all managers leaders.
Nonsanctioned leadership is often as
important or more important than formal
influence.
12-2
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

LO 1
Contrast
Leadership
and Management
Strong leadership and strong management are
needed for optimal effectiveness.
Leaders:
Challenge the status quo.
Create visions of the future.
Inspire organizational members to want to
achieve the visions.
Managers:
Formulate detailed plans.
Create efficient organizational structures.
Oversee day-to-day operations.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-3

Summarize
the
Conclusions
LO 2
of Trait Theories of
Leadership
Trait theories of leadership focus on
personal qualities and characteristics.
The search for personality, social,
physical, or intellectual attributes that
differentiate leaders from non-leaders
goes back to the earliest stages of
leadership research.
12-4
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Identify the Central Tenets


LO 3
and
Main Limitations of Behavioral
Theories
Behavioral theories of leadership imply we can
train people to be leaders.
Ohio State Studies found two behaviors that
accounted for most leadership behavior:
Initiating structure the extent to which a
leader is likely to define and structure his role
and those of employees in the search for goal
attainment.
Consideration the extent to which a persons
job relationships are characterized by mutual
trust, respect for employees ideas, and regard
for their feelings.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-5

Identify the Central Tenets


LO 3
and
Main Limitations of Behavioral
Theories
University of Michigans objectives also
identified two behavioral types:
The employee-oriented leader
emphasized interpersonal relationships by
taking a personal interest in the needs of
employees and accepting individual
differences among them.
The production-oriented leader
emphasized the technical or task aspects
of the job, focusing on accomplishing the
groups tasks.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-6

Identify the Central Tenets


LO 3
and
Main Limitations of Behavioral
Theories
Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral
Theories
Leaders who have certain traits and who
display consideration and structuring
behaviors do appear to be more
effective.
Traits and behaviors do not guarantee
success.
Context matters, too.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-7

Assess Contingency Theories of


LO 4

Leadership By Their Level of


Support
The Fiedler contingency model
A key factor in leadership success is the
individuals leadership style.
Least preferred co-worker (LPC)
questionnaire.
Task or relationship oriented.
Assumes leadership style is fixed.
12-8
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Assess Contingency Theories of


LO 4

Leadership By Their Level of


Support
Defining the Situation
Contingency dimensions:
1. Leader-member relations
2. Task structure
3. Position power

12-9
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Assess Contingency Theories of


LO 4

Leadership By Their Level of


Support

12-10
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Assess Contingency Theories of


LO 4

Leadership By Their Level of


Support
Other Contingency Theories
Situational leadership theory (SLT)
is a contingency theory that focuses on
the followers.
Successful leadership is achieved by
selecting the right leadership style,
which is contingent on the level of the
followers readiness.
12-11
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Assess Contingency Theories of


LO 4

Leadership By Their Level of


Support
Path-goal theory, developed by Robert
House:
One of the most respected approaches
to leadership.
Contingency model of leadership that
extracts key elements from the Ohio
State leadership research on initiating
structure and consideration and the
expectancy theory of motivation.
Derived from belief that effective
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.
leaders clarify
the path to help followers

12-12

Assess Contingency Theories of


LO 4

Leadership By Their Level of


Support
Vroom & Yettons leader-participation
model relates leadership behavior and
participation in decision making.
Leader behavior must adjust to reflect
the task structure.
Model is normative it provides a
decision tree of seven contingencies and
five leadership styles for determining the
form and amount of participation in
decision making.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-13

Assess Contingency Theories of


LO 4

Leadership By Their Level of


Support

12-14
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

12-15
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

Are Charismatic Leaders Born or Made?


Some individuals are born with
charismatic traits, others are trained to
exhibit charismatic behaviors.
Develop the aura of charisma by
maintaining an optimistic view, using
passion as a catalyst for generating
enthusiasm, and communicating with
the whole body, not just with words.
Create a bond that inspires others to
follow.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-16

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

How Charismatic Leaders Influence


Followers
Articulating an appealing vision.
Developing a vision statement.
Establishing a new set of values.
Conveying courage and conviction about
the vision.
12-17
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

Does Effective Charismatic Leadership


Depend on the Situation?
People are especially receptive when
they sense a crisis, when they are
under stress, or when they fear for their
lives.

12-18
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

The Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership


Many leaders have allowed their personal
goals to override the goals of the
organization.
Individuals who are narcissistic are also
higher in some behaviors associated
with charismatic leadership.
Some charismatic leaders are too
successful at convincing followers to
pursue a vision that can be disastrous.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-19

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

12-20
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

12-21
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

How Transformational Leadership Works


Creativity theirs and others.
Decentralization of responsibility.
Propensity to take risks.
Compensation is geared toward longterm results.
Greater agreement among top managers
about the organizations goals.
Increase follower self-efficacy, giving the
group a can do spirit.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-22

Contrast Charismatic and


Transformational Leadership

LO 5

Evaluation of Transformational
Leadership
Transformational leadership has been
supported at diverse job levels and
occupations, but isnt equally effective
in all situations.
It has a greater impact on the bottom
line in smaller, privately held firms
than in more complex organizations.
12-23
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

LO 6

Define Authentic Leadership

What is Authentic Leadership?


Authentic leaders:
Know who they are.
Know what they believe in and value.
Act on those values and beliefs openly
and candidly.
The result: people come to have faith in
them.
12-24
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

LO 6

Define Authentic Leadership

Ethical Leadership
Ethics touches on leadership at a number
of junctures.
Efforts have been made to combine
ethical and charismatic leadership into
an idea of socialized charismatic
leadership leadership that conveys
other-centered values by leaders who
model ethical conduct.
12-25
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

LO 6

Define Authentic Leadership

Servant Leadership
Servant leaders go beyond their selfinterest and instead focus on
opportunities to help followers grow and
develop.
Emphasize persuasion.
Characteristic behaviors include
listening, empathizing, persuading,
accepting stewardship, and actively
developing followers potential.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-26

LO 6

Define Authentic Leadership

Trust and Leadership


Trust a psychological state that exists
when you agree to make yourself
vulnerable to another because you have
positive expectations about how things are
going to turn out.
A primary attribute associated with
leadership.
When trust is broken, it can have serious
adverse effects on a groups performance.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-27

Demonstrate
LO
7

the Role Mentoring


Plays in our Understanding of
Leadership

12-28
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Address Challenges to the


Effectiveness of Leadership

LO 8

Much of an organizations success or


failure is due to factors outside the
influence of leadership.
In many cases, success or failure is just
a matter of being in the right or wrong
place at a given time.
The attribution theory of leadership
says leadership is merely an attribution
people make about other individuals.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-29

Address Challenges to the


Effectiveness of Leadership

LO 8

12-30
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Address Challenges to the


Effectiveness of Leadership

LO 8

Online Leadership
Needs more research.
Todays managers and employees are increasingly
linked by networks rather than geographic
proximity.
Online leaders have to think carefully about what
actions they want their digital messages to
initiate.
Identification-based trust is difficult to achieve
without face-to-face interaction.
Writing skills are likely to become an extension of
12-31
interpersonal skills.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

Address Challenges to the


Effectiveness of Leadership

LO 8

Selecting Leaders
Identifying effective leaders:
Review specific requirements for the
position.
Consider personality tests to identify
leadership traits.
Situation-specific experience is
relevant.
Plan for a change in leadership.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-32

Address Challenges to the


Effectiveness of Leadership

LO 8

Training Leaders
Leadership training is likely to be more successful
with high self-monitors.
Teach implementation skills.
Teach trust building, mentoring, and situationalanalysis.
Behavioral training through modeling exercises
can increase an individuals charismatic
leadership qualities.
Review leadership after key organizational events.
Train in transformational leadership skills.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-33

Implications for Managers


For management positions, hire candidates
who exhibit transformational leadership
qualities and who have demonstrated vision
and charisma.
Tests and interviews can help you identify
people with leadership qualities.
Hire candidates whom you believe are
ethical and trustworthy for management
roles and train current managers in your
organizations ethical standards in order to
increase leadership effectiveness.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-34

Implications for Managers


Seek to develop trusting relationships
with followers because, as organizations
have become less stable and predictable,
strong bonds of trust are replacing
bureaucratic rules in defining
expectations and relationships.
Consider investing in leadership training
such as formal courses, workshops,
rotating job responsibilities, coaching,
and mentoring.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

12-35