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Geology of

Petroleum Systems

Petroleum Geology
Objectives are to be able to:
Discuss basic elements of Petroleum Systems
Describe plate tectonics and sedimentary basins
Recognize names of major sedimentary rock types
Describe importance of sedimentary environments
to petroleum industry
Describe the origin of petroleum
Identify hydrocarbon trap types
Define and describe the important geologic
controls on reservoir properties, porosity and
permeability

Outline

Petroleum Systems approach


Geologic Principles and geologic time
Rock and minerals, rock cycle, reservoir
properties
Hydrocarbon origin, migration and
accumulation
Sedimentary environments and facies;
stratigraphic traps
Plate tectonics, basin development, structural
geology
Structural traps

Petroleum System - A Definition


A Petroleum System is a dynamic hydrocarbon
system that functions in a restricted geologic
space and time scale.
A Petroleum System requires timely
convergence of geologic events essential to
the formation of petroleum deposits.
These Include:
Mature source rock
Hydrocarbon expulsion
Hydrocarbon migration
Hydrocarbon accumulation
Hydrocarbon retention
(modified from Demaison and Huizinga, 1994)

Cross Section Of A Petroleum System


(Foreland Basin Example)
Geographic Extent of Petroleum System
Extent of Play
Extent of Prospect/Field
O
Stratigraphic
Extent of
Petroleum
System

Pod of Active
Source Rock
Petroleum Reservoir (O)
Fold-and-Thrust Belt
(arrows indicate relative fault motion)
(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)

Essential
Elements
of
Petroleum
System

Overburden Rock
Seal Rock
Reservoir Rock
Source Rock
Underburden Rock
Basement Rock
Top Oil Window
Top Gas Window

Sedimentary
Basin Fill

Basic Geologic Principles

Uniformitarianism
Original Horizontality
Superposition
Cross-Cutting Relationships

Cross-Cutting Relationships
K
J
I
H
G
Angular Unconformity

E
D

Ig

Sil
s
ou
e
n

Igneous
Dike

F
B
A

Types of Unconformities

Disconformity
An unconformity in which the beds above and below
are parallel

Angular Unconformity
An unconformity in which the older bed intersect the
younger beds at an angle

Nonconformity
An unconformity in which younger sedimentary
rocks overlie older metamorphic or intrusive
igneous rocks

Correlation

Establishes the age equivalence of rock


layers in different areas
Methods:
Similar lithology
Similar stratigraphic section
Index fossils
Fossil assemblages
Radioactive age dating

4.6

150

Mesozoic

100

Cretaceous

Jurassic

200

Triassic

250

Permian

300

Pennsylvanian
Mississippian

350
400
450

Devonian
Silurian

Ordovician

500
550
600

Cambrian

Recent

0 Pleistocene
10
20

Pliocene
Miocene

30 Oligocene
40

Eocene

50
60 Paleocene

Cenozoic Era

Tertiary

50

Paleozoic

Millions of years ago

Phanerozoic

Quaternary

Cryptozoic
(Precambrian)

Billions of years ago

Epoch

Tertiary
period

Era Period

Millions of years ago

Eon

Quaternary
period

Geologic Time Chart

Rocks

Classification of Rocks

Rock-forming Source of
process
material

IGNEOU
S

SEDIMENTARY

METAMORPHIC

Molten materials in
deep crust and
upper mantle

Weathering and
erosion of rocks
exposed at surface

Rocks under high


temperatures
and pressures in
deep crust

Crystallization
(Solidification of melt)

Sedimentation, burial
and lithification

Recrystallization due to
heat, pressure, or
chemically active fluids

The Rock Cycle


Magma

nd

M
el
t

g
in

Co
So oling
(Cr lidi
ys fic a
tal at
iza

n
i o n)
ti o

Sedimentary
Rock

Heat and Pressure


We
ath
eri
an ng, T
d D ran
ep
osi sport
tion atio
n,

Weathering,
Transportation
and Deposition
Cem
entation and
Compaction

(Lithification)

Igneous
Rock
Weat her
Transportaitng,
ion
And De
p
o
s
ition

And
Heat
ure
Press
rphism)
tamo
e
(M

Metamorphic
Rock

Sediment

Sedimentary Rock Types


Relative abundance

Sandstone
and conglomerate
~11%
Limestone and
dolomite
~13%

Siltstone, mud
and shale
~75%

Minerals - Definition
Naturally Occurring
Solid
Generally Formed by
Inorganic Processes
Ordered Internal
Arrangement of Atoms
(Crystal Structure)

Quartz Crystals

Chemical Composition
and Physical Properties
Fixed or Vary Within
A Definite Range

Average Detrital Mineral


Composition of Shale and Sandstone
Mineral Composition Shale (%)

Sandstone (%)

Clay Minerals

60

Quartz

30

65

10-15

<5

15

<1

<3

<1

Feldspar
Rock Fragments
Carbonate
Organic Matter,
Hematite, and
Other Minerals

(modified from Blatt, 1982)

The Physical and Chemical Characteristics


of Minerals Strongly Influence the
Composition of Sedimentary Rocks
Quartz

Mechanically and Chemically Stable


Can Survive Transport and Burial

Feldspar

Nearly as Hard as Quartz, but


Cleavage Lessens Mechanical Stability
May be Chemically Unstable in Some
Climates and During Burial

Calcite

Mechanically Unstable During Transport


Chemically Unstable in Humid Climates
Because of Low Hardness, Cleavage, and
Reactivity With Weak Acid

Some Common Minerals


Oxides

Sulfides

Hematite
Magnetite

Pyrite
Galena
Sphalerite

Carbonates
Aragonite
Calcite
Dolomite
Fe-Dolomite
Ankerite

Sulfates

Halides

Anhydrite
Gypsum

Halite
Sylvite

Silicates
Non-Ferromagnesian

Ferromagnesian
(not common in sedimentary rocks)

(Common in Sedimentary Rocks)


Quartz
Muscovite (mica)
Feldspars
Potassium feldspar (K-spar)
Orthoclase
Microcline, etc .
Plagioclase
Albite (Na-rich - common) through
Anorthite (Ca-rich - not common)

Olivine
Pyroxene
Augite
Amphibole
Hornblende
Biotite (mica)
Red = Sedimentary RockForming Minerals

The Four Major Components

Framework
Sand (and Silt) Size Detrital Grains

Matrix
Clay Size Detrital Material

Cement
Material precipitated post-depositionally,
during burial. Cements fill pores and replace
framework grains

Pores
Voids between above components

Sandstone Composition
Framework Grains
KF = Potassium
Feldspar

PRF

PRF = Plutonic Rock


Fragment

KF
CEMENT

P
Norphlet Sandstone, Offshore Alabama, USA
Grains are About =< 0.25 mm in Diameter/Length

P = Pore
Potassium Feldspar is
Stained Yellow With a
Chemical Dye
Pores are Impregnated
With Blue-Dyed Epoxy

Porosity in Sandstone
Pore
Throat

Pores Provide the


Volume to Contain
Hydrocarbon Fluids
Pore Throats Restrict
Fluid Flow

Scanning Electron Micrograph


Norphlet Formation, Offshore Alabama, USA

Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs


Fibrous Authigenic Illite
Secondary Electron Micrograph
Significant
Permeability
Reduction

Illite

Negligible
Porosity
Reduction
High Irreducible
Water Saturation
Migration of
Fines Problem

Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone


Hatters Pond Field, Alabama, USA

(Photograph by R.L. Kugler)

Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs


Authigenic Chlorite
Secondary Electron Micrograph
Iron-Rich
Varieties React
With Acid
Occurs in Several
Deeply Buried
Sandstones With
High Reservoir
Quality
Occurs as Thin
Coats on Detrital
Grain Surfaces
Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone
Offshore Alabama, USA

~ 10 m

(Photograph by R.L. Kugler)

Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs


Authigenic Kaolinite
Secondary Electron Micrograph

Significant Permeability
Reduction
High Irreducible Water
Saturation

Migration of Fines
Problem

Carter Sandstone
North Blowhorn Creek Oil Unit
Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, USA

(Photograph by R.L. Kugler)

Effects of Clays on Reservoir Quality


Authigenic Chlorite

Authigenic Illite
Permeability (md)

100

1000
100

10

10
1
1
0.1

0.1
0.01

0.01
2

10

14

10

14

18

Porosity (%)
(modified from Kugler and McHugh, 1990)

Influence of Clay-Mineral
Distribution on Effective Porosity
e
Dispersed Clay

Clay
Minerals

Detrital Quartz
Grains

e
Clay Lamination

Structural Clay

(Rock Fragments,
Rip-Up Clasts,
Clay-Replaced Grains)

Diagenesis
Carbonate
Cemented

Diagenesis is the PostDepositional Chemical and


Mechanical Changes that
Occur in Sedimentary Rocks
Some Diagenetic Effects Include

Oil
Stained

Whole Core
Misoa Formation, Venezuela

Compaction
Precipitation of Cement
Dissolution of Framework
Grains and Cement

The Effects of Diagenesis May


Enhance or Degrade Reservoir
Quality

Fluids Affecting Diagenesis


heric Circ
ula
Atmosp
ti o n

Evaporation

Precipitation

Evapotranspiration

ann
h
C w
Flo

el

Water Table
Infiltration
Meteoric
Water

COMPACTIONAL
WATER
Petroleum
Fluids

Meteoric
Water
Zone of abnormal pressure
Isotherms

CH 4,CO 2,H2 S

Subsidence

(modified from from Galloway and Hobday, 1983)

Dissolution Porosity
Partially
Dissolved
Feldspar

Pore
Quartz Detrital
Grain

Dissolution of
Framework Grains
(Feldspar, for
Example) and
Cement may
Enhance the
Interconnected
Pore System
This is Called
Secondary Porosity

Thin Section Micrograph - Plane Polarized Light


Avile Sandstone, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

(Photomicrograph by R.L. Kugler)

Hydrocarbon Generation,
Migration, and Accumulation

Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks


Kerogen

Vitrinite

Disseminated Organic Matter in


Sedimentary Rocks That is Insoluble
in Oxidizing Acids, Bases, and
Organic Solvents.

Vitrinite
A nonfluorescent type of organic material
in petroleum source rocks derived
primarily from woody material.
The reflectivity of vitrinite is one of the
best indicators of coal rank and thermal
maturity of petroleum source rock.

Reflected-Light Micrograph
of Coal

Interpretation of Total Organic Carbon (TOC)


(based on early oil window maturity)
Hydrocarbon
Generation
Potential

TOC in Shale
(wt. %)

TOC in Carbonates
(wt. %)

Poor

0.0-0.5

0.0-0.2

Fair

0.5-1.0

0.2-0.5

Good

1.0-2.0

0.5-1.0

Very Good

2.0-5.0

1.0-2.0

>5.0

>2.0

Excellent

Progressive Burial and Heating

Schematic Representation of the Mechanism


of Petroleum Generation and Destruction
Organic Debris
Diagenesis
Oil Reservoir
Kerogen

Initial Bitumen

Catagenesis Thermal Degradation


Oil and Gas
Cracking
Metagenesis
Carbon

(modified from Tissot and Welte, 1984)

Methane

Migration

0.3

70

0.4
0.5

Incipient Oil Generation

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.0

80

2.0
3.0
4.0

Max. Oil Generated

OIL

1.2

1.3

75

Oil Floor

Wet
Gas

Wet Gas Floor


Dry Gas Floor

Dry
Gas Max.

Dry Gas
Generated

85
90

95

(modified from Foster and Beaumont, 1991, after Dow and OConner, 1982)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

430
450
465

Pyrolysis Tmax (C)

65

Spore Coloration Index (SCI)

0.2

Weight % Carbon in Kerogen

Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro) %

Comparison of Several Commonly Used


Maturity Techniques and Their Correlation
to Oil and Gas Generation Limits

Generation, Migration, and


Trapping of Hydrocarbons

Fault
(impermeable)

Oil/water
contact (OWC)
Migration route
Seal

Hydrocarbon
accumulation
in the
reservoir rock
Top of maturity
Source rock

Reservoir
rock

Cross Section Of A Petroleum System


(Foreland Basin Example)
Geographic Extent of Petroleum System
Extent of Play
Extent of Prospect/Field
O
Stratigraphic
Extent of
Petroleum
System

Pod of Active
Source Rock
Petroleum Reservoir (O)
Fold-and-Thrust Belt
(arrows indicate relative fault motion)
(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)

Essential
Elements
of
Petroleum
System

Overburden Rock
Seal Rock
Reservoir Rock
Source Rock
Underburden Rock
Basement Rock
Top Oil Window
Top Gas Window

Sedimentary
Basin Fill

Hydrocarbon Traps

Structural traps
Stratigraphic traps
Combination traps

Structural Hydrocarbon Traps


Shale

Oil

Trap

Sea
l

Oil/Gas
Contact

Gas

Closure

Oil/Water
Contact
Oil

Fracture Basement

Salt
Dome

Fold Trap

Salt
Diapir

Oil

(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)

Hydrocarbon Traps - Dome


Gas

W
ate

Oil

Sandstone

Shale

Fault Trap
Oil / Gas

Sand

Shale

Stratigraphic Hydrocarbon Traps


Unconformity

Pinch out

Oil/Gas

Uncomformity

Oil/Gas

Channel Pinch Out


Oil/Gas

(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)

Other Traps
Meteoric
Water

Asphalt Trap
Biodegraded
Oil/Asphalt
Partly
Biodegraded Oil

Water

Hydrodynamic Trap

Hydrostatic
Head

Shale
Water

Oil
(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)

Heterogeneity

Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone


Heterogeneity
Segments Reservoirs
Increases Tortuosity of
Fluid Flow

Heterogeneity May
Result From:
Depositional Features
Diagenetic Features
(Whole Core Photograph, Misoa
Sandstone, Venezuela)

Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone


Heterogeneity Also May
Result From:
Faults
Fractures
Faults and Fractures may
be Open (Conduits) or
Closed (Barriers) to Fluid
Flow
(Whole Core Photograph, Misoa
Sandstone, Venezuela)

Geologic Reservoir Heterogeneity


Bounding
Surface

Bounding
Surface

Eolian Sandstone, Entrada Formation, Utah, USA

Scales of Geological Reservoir Heterogeneity


Interwell
Area

Field Wide

Well

Well

Determined
From Well Logs,
Seismic Lines,
Statistical
Modeling,
etc.

100's
m

Interwell

1-10 km

Reservoir
Sandstone

10's
m

Well-Bore

100's m

10-100's
m

Petrographic or
Scanning Electron
Microscope

1-10's
m

10-100's
mm

Hand Lens or
Binocular Microscope

Unaided Eye

(modified from Weber, 1986)

Scales of Investigation Used in


Reservoir Characterization
Relative Volume

300 m

Gigascopic

50 m

300 m

Megascopic

5m

150 m
2m

Macroscopic

Microscopic
(modified from Hurst, 1993)

1m
cm
mm - m

Well Test

14

10

Reservoir Model
12
2 x 10
Grid Cell

Wireline Log
Interval
Core Plug
Geological
Thin Section

3 x 10
5 x 10
1

7
2

Stages In The Generation of


An Integrated Geological Reservoir Model
Geologic Activities
Regional Geologic
Framework
Depositional
Model

(As Needed)

Core Analysis

Diagenetic
Model

Structural
Model

Log Analysis
Well Test Analysis

Integrated
Geologic Model

Fluid
Model

Applications Studies
Reserves Estimation
Simulation

Model Testing
And Revision

(As Needed)