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- 3. Production Process Characterization
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Factorial Experiment

Completely Randomized Design

Source

SS

df

MS

SSA

a-1

MSA

MSA/MSError

SSB

b-1

MSB

MSB/MSError

SSC

c-1

MSC

MSC/MSError

AB

SSAB

(a - 1)(b - 1)

MSAB

MSAB/MSError

AC

SSAC

(a - 1)(c - 1)

MSAC

MSAC/MSError

BC

SSBC

(b - 1)(c - 1)

MSBC

MSBC/MSError

ABC

SSABC

(a - 1)(b - 1)(c - 1)

MSABC

MSABC/MSError

p -value

a

SS A nbc nbc yi y

i 1

2

i

i 1

SS AB nc nc yij yi y j y

a

i 1

2

ij

i 1 j 1

a

SS ABC n ikj2

i 1

a

b

c

y j y k y i

i 1 j 1 k 1

Finally

SS Error yijkl yijk

a

i 1 j 1 k 1 l 1

yijk/

mean effect

i j k

main effects

ij ik jk

ijk

2 factor interactions

3 factor interaction

ijk/

random error

Source

SS

df

MS

SSA

a-1

MSA

MSA/MSError

SSB

b-1

MSB

MSB/MSError

SSC

c-1

MSC

MSC/MSError

AB

SSAB

(a - 1)(b - 1)

MSAB

MSAB/MSError

AC

SSAC

(a - 1)(c - 1)

MSAC

MSAC/MSError

BC

SSBC

(b - 1)(c - 1)

MSBC

MSBC/MSError

ABC

SSABC

(a - 1)(b - 1)(c - 1)

MSABC

MSABC/MSError

p -value

1. Test first the higher order interactions.

2. If an interaction is present there is no need

to test lower order interactions or main

effects involving those factors. All factors

in the interaction affect the response and

they interact

3. The testing continues with lower order

interactions and main effects for factors

which have not yet been determined to

affect the response.

Examples

Using SPSS

Example

In this example we are examining the effect of

thelevelofproteinA(HighorLow)and

thesourceofproteinB(Beef,Cereal,or

Pork) on weight gains(grams)inrats.

assigned to k = 6 diets

Thek=6dietsarethe6=32LevelSource

combinations

1. HighBeef

2. HighCereal

3. HighPork

4. LowBeef

5. LowCereal

6. LowPork

Table

Gainsinweight(grams)forratsundersixdiets

differinginlevelofprotein(HighorLow)ands

ourceofprotein(Beef,Cereal,orPork)

Level

ofProtein HighProtein

Lowprotein

Source

ofProtein Beef Cereal Pork Beef Cereal Pork

Diet

1

2

3

4

5

6

73

98

94

90 107

49

102

74

79

76

95

82

118

56

96

90

97

73

104 111

98

64

80

86

81

95 102

86

98

81

107

88 102

51

74

97

100

82 108

72

74 106

87

77

91

90

67

70

117

86 120

95

89

61

111

92 105

78

58

82

Mean

100.0 85.9 99.5 79.2 83.9 78.7

Std.Dev. 15.14 15.02 10.92 13.89 15.71 16.55

Model-> Univariate

The Output

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: WTGN

Type III

Sum of

Source

Squares

Corrected Model

4612.933 a

Intercept

463233.1

SOURCE

266.533

LEVEL

3168.267

SOURCE * LEVEL 1178.133

Error

11586.000

Total

479432.0

Corrected Total

16198.933

df

5

1

2

1

2

54

60

59

Mean

Square

922.587

463233.1

133.267

3168.267

589.067

214.556

F

4.300

2159.036

.621

14.767

2.746

Sig.

.002

.000

.541

.000

.073

FourfactorsarestudiedfortheireffectonY(lusterofpaintfilm).The

fourfactorsare:

1) FilmThickness(1or2mils)

2) Dryingconditions(RegularorSpecial)

3) Lengthofwash(10,30,40or60Minutes),and

4) Temperatureofwash(92Cor100C)

Twoobservationsoffilmluster(Y)aretaken

foreachtreatmentcombination

Thedataistabulatedbelow:

Regular

Dry

Minutes 92C

1milThickness

20

3.4 3.4

30

4.1 4.1

40

4.9 4.2

60

5.0 4.9

2milThickness

20

5.5 3.7

30

5.7 6.1

40

5.5 5.6

60

7.2 6.0

100C

92C

SpecialDry

100C

19.6

17.5

17.6

20.9

14.5

17.0

15.2

17.1

2.1

4.0

5.1

8.3

3.8

4.6

3.3

4.3

17.2

13.5

16.0

17.5

13.4

14.3

17.8

13.9

26.6

31.6

30.5

31.4

29.5

30.2

30.2

29.6

4.5

5.9

5.5

8.0

4.5

5.9

5.8

9.9

25.6

29.2

32.6

33.5

22.5

29.8

27.4

29.5

The output

Type III

Sum of

Source

Squares

Corrected Model

6548.020 a

Intercept

12586.035

TEMP

5039.225

COND

5.700

LENGTH

70.285

THICK

844.629

TEMP * COND

15.504

TEMP * LENGTH

3.155

COND * LENGTH

9.890

TEMP * COND * LENGTH

6.422

TEMP * THICK

511.325

COND * THICK

1.410

TEMP * COND * THICK

.150

LENGTH * THICK

15.642

TEMP * LENGTH * THICK

11.520

COND * LENGTH *

7.320

THICK

TEMP * COND * LENGTH

5.840

* THICK

Error

87.995

Total

19222.050

Corrected Total

6636.015

31

1

1

1

3

1

1

3

3

3

1

1

1

3

3

Mean

Square

211.226

12586.035

5039.225

5.700

23.428

844.629

15.504

1.052

3.297

2.141

511.325

1.410

.150

5.214

3.840

F

76.814

4577.000

1832.550

2.073

8.520

307.155

5.638

.383

1.199

.778

185.947

.513

.055

1.896

1.396

Sig.

.000

.000

.000

.160

.000

.000

.024

.766

.326

.515

.000

.479

.817

.150

.262

2.440

.887

.458

1.947

.708

.554

32

64

63

2.750

df

Effects Factors

fixed effects factors

This is the case if the levels of the factor are a

fixed set of levels and the conclusions of any

analysis is in relationship to these levels.

If the levels have been selected at random

from a population of levels the factor is called

a random effects factor

The conclusions of the analysis will be

directed at the population of levels and not

only the levels selected for the experiment

Source of Protein, Level of Protein, Weight Gain

Dependent

Weight Gain

Independent

Source of Protein,

Beef

Cereal

Pork

Level of Protein,

High

Low

In this Example a Taxi company is interested in

comparing the effects of three brands of tires (A, B and

C) on mileage (mpg). Mileage will also be effected by

driver. The company selects b = 4 drivers at random

from its collection of drivers. Each driver has n = 3

opportunities to use each brand of tire in which mileage

is measured.

Dependent

Mileage

Independent

Tire brand (A, B, C),

Fixed Effect Factor

Random Effects factor

yijk i j ij ijk

where , 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, ()11 , ()21 , ()31 ,

()12 , ()22 , ()32 , are fixed unknown constants

And ijk is random, normally distributed with mean 0

and variance 2.

Note:

a

i 1

j 1

i 1

ij

ij 0

j 1

effects factor

yijk i j ij ijk

And ijk is random, normally distributed with mean 0 and variance

2.

j is normal with mean 0 and variance B2

and

2

()ij is normal with mean 0 and variance AB

a

Note:

i 1

yijk i j ij ijk

Source

A

SS

SSA

df

a -1

MS

SSA/(a 1)

SSA

b-1

SSB/(a 1)

AB

SSAB

(a -1)(b -1)

SSAB/(a 1) (a 1)

Error

SSError

ab(n 1)

SSError/ab(n 1)

The Anova table for the two factor model (A, B fixed)

yijk i j ij ijk

Source

SS

df

MS

EMS

SSA

a -1

MSA

nb a 2

i

a 1

i 1

MSA/MSError

SSA

b-1

MSB

AB

SSAB

(a -1)(b -1)

MSAB

Error

SSError

ab(n 1)

MSError

na b 2

j

b 1

j 1

a

b

n

ij2

a 1 b 1 i 1 j 1

2

MSB/MSError

MSAB/MSError

(A fixed, B - random)

yijk i j ij ijk

Source

SS

df

MS

SSA

a -1

MSA

SSA

b-1

MSB

AB

SSAB

(a -1)(b -1)

MSAB

Error

SSError

ab(n 1)

MSError

EMS

n

2

2

AB

nb a 2

i

a 1

i 1

2 na B2

2

2 n AB

of A is no longer MSError but MSAB.

F

MSA/MSAB

MSB/MSError

MSAB/MSError

Mean Squares (EMS) in an Anova

Table

Both fixed and random effects

Formulated by Schultz[1]

1.

Expectations of Mean Squares in Analysis of

Variance,Biometrics, Vol 11, 1955, 123-48.

2. The EMS for each ANOVA term contains

two or more terms the first of which is 2.

3. All other terms in each EMS contain both

coefficients and subscripts (the total number

of letters being one more than the number of

factors) (if number of factors is k = 3, then

the number of letters is 4)

4. The subscript of 2 in the last term of each

EMS is the same as the treatment

designation.

the treatment designation. These are written with

the combination involving the most letters written

first and ending with the treatment designation.

6. When a capital letter is omitted from a subscript ,

the corresponding small letter appears in the

coefficient.

7. For each EMS in the table ignore the letter or letters

that designate the effect. If any of the remaining

letters designate a fixed effect, delete that term from

the EMS.

of fixed effects by the appropriate sum.

a

2

A

by

i 1

a 1

a

2

AB

by

2

i

i 1

2

ij

a 1 b 1

Source

A

B

C

AB

AC

BC

ABC

Error

EMS

2

2

2

2 n ABC

nc AB

nb AC

nbc A2

2

2

2

2 n ABC

nc AB

na BC

nac B2

2

2

2

2 n ABC

na BC

nb AC

nab C2

2

2

2 n ABC

nc AB

MS AB MS ABC

2

2

2 n ABC

nb AC

MS AC MS ABC

2

2

2 n ABC

na BC

MS BC MS ABC

2

2 n ABC

MS ABC MS Error

Source

A

B

C

AB

AC

BC

ABC

Error

EMS

n

2

2

ABC

nc

2

AB

nb

na

2

2

BC

2

AC

F

a

nbc i2

i 1

nac B2

a 1

MS B MS BC

2

2 na BC

nab C2

MSC MS BC

2

2

2 n ABC

nc AB

MS AB MS ABC

2

2

2 n ABC

nb AC

MS AC MS ABC

2

2 na BC

MS BC MS Error

2

2 n ABC

MS ABC MS Error

Source

A

B

C

AB

AC

BC

ABC

Error

EMS

nb

2

AC

nbc i2

a 1

MS A MS AC

na

2

BC

nac j2

b 1

MS B MS BC

i 1

a

i 1

2 nab C2

n

2

2

ABC

nc ij

2

i 1 j 1

MSC MS Error

a 1 b 1

MS AB MS ABC

2

2 nb AC

MS AC MS Error

2

2 na BC

MS BC MS Error

2

2 n ABC

MS ABC MS Error

Source

A

B

C

AB

AC

BC

ABC

Error

EMS

a

nbc i2

a 1

MS A MS Error

nac j2

b 1

MS B MS Error

2 nbc k2

c 1

MSC MS Error

i 1

a

i 1

c

k 1

nc ij

2

a 1 b 1

i 1 j 1

a

c

2 nb ij

a 1 c 1

i 1 k 1

b

c

2 na ij

a

j 1 k 1

c

2 n ijk

i 1 j 1 k 1

MS AB MS Error

MS AC MS Error

b 1 c 1

MS BC MS Error

a 1 b 1 c 1

MS ABC MS Error

In this Example a Taxi company is interested in

comparing the effects of three brands of tires (A, B and

C) on mileage (mpg). Mileage will also be effected by

driver. The company selects at random b = 4 drivers at

random from its collection of drivers. Each driver has n

= 3 opportunities to use each brand of tire in which

mileage is measured.

Dependent

Mileage

Independent

Tire brand (A, B, C),

Fixed Effect Factor

Random Effects factor

The Data

Driver

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Tire

A

A

A

B

B

B

C

C

C

A

A

A

B

B

B

C

C

C

Mileage

39.6

38.6

41.9

18.1

20.4

19

31.1

29.8

26.6

38.1

35.4

38.8

18.2

14

15.6

30.2

27.9

27.2

Driver

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

Tire

A

A

A

B

B

B

C

C

C

A

A

A

B

B

B

C

C

C

Mileage

33.9

43.2

41.3

17.8

21.3

22.3

31.3

28.7

29.7

36.9

30.3

35

17.8

21.2

24.3

27.4

26.6

21

The Output

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: MILEAGE

Source

Intercept

TIRE

DRIVER

TIRE * DRIVER

Hypothesis

Error

Hypothesis

Error

Hypothesis

Error

Hypothesis

Error

Type III

Sum of

Squares

28928.340

68.290

2072.931

87.129

68.290

87.129

87.129

170.940

df

1

3

2

6

3

6

6

24

Mean

Square

28928.340

22.763a

1036.465

14.522b

22.763

14.522b

14.522

7.123c

F

1270.836

Sig.

.000

71.374

.000

1.568

.292

2.039

.099

a. MS(DRIVER)

b. MS(TIRE * DRIVER)

c. MS(Error)

The divisor for both the fixed and the random main effect is MSAB

This is contrary to the advice of some texts

(A fixed, B - random)

yijk i j ij ijk

Source

SS

df

MS

EMS

SSA

a -1

MSA

SSA

b-1

MSB

2 na B2

MSB/MSError

AB

SSAB

(a -1)(b -1)

MSAB

2

2 n AB

MSAB/MSError

Error

SSError

ab(n 1)

MSError

2

2 n AB

nb a 2

i

a 1

i 1

F

MSA/MSAB

MSError but MSAB.

References Guenther, W. C. Analysis of Variance Prentice Hall, 1964

(A fixed, B - random)

yijk i j ij ijk

Source

SS

df

MS

EMS

SSA

a -1

MSA

SSA

b-1

MSB

2

2 n AB

na B2

MSB/MSAB

AB

SSAB

(a -1)(b -1)

MSAB

2

2 n AB

MSAB/MSError

Error

SSError

ab(n 1)

MSError

2

2 n AB

nb a 2

i

a 1

i 1

F

MSA/MSAB

Note: In this case the divisor for testing the main effects of A is

MSAB . This is the approach used by SPSS.

References Searle Linear Models John Wiley, 1964

of A appears with every level of B in the

treatment combinations.

Levels of B

Levels

of A

the levels of B differ for each level of A.

Levels of A

Levels of B

producing paper. Each plant has 6 machines for

producing the paper. The company is interested

in how paper strength (Y) differs from plant to

plant and from machine to machine within plant

Plants

Machines

The model for a two factor experiment with B

nested within A.

yijk

overall mean

effect of factor A

j i

effect of B within A

ijk

random error

Source

SS

df

MS

SSA

a-1

MSA

MSA/MSError

B(A)

SSB(A)

a(b 1)

MSB(A)

MSB(A) /MSError

Error

SSError

ab(n 1)

MSError

p - value

producing paper. Each plant has 6 machines for

producing the paper. The company is interested

in how paper strength (Y) differs from plant to

plant and from machine to machine within plant.

Also we have n = 5 measurements of paper

strength for each of the 24 machines

The Data

Plant

machine

Plant

machine

1

1

2

3

4

5

98.7 59.2 84.1 72.3 83.5

93.1 87.8 86.3 110.3 89.3

100.0 84.1 83.4 81.6 86.1

3

13

14

15

16

17

83.6 76.1 64.2 69.2 77.4

84.6 55.4 58.4 86.7 63.3

90.6 92.3 75.4 60.8 76.6

2

6

7

60.6 33.6

84.8 48.2

83.6 68.9

8

44.8

57.3

66.5

9

58.9

51.6

45.2

10

63.9

62.3

61.1

11

63.7

54.6

55.3

12

48.1

50.6

39.9

22

37.0

47.8

41.0

23

43.8

62.4

60.8

24

30.0

43.0

56.9

4

18

19

61.0 64.2

81.3 50.3

73.8 32.1

20

35.5

30.8

36.3

21

46.9

43.1

40.8

crossed

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: STRENGTH

Type III

Sum of

Source

Squares

Corrected Model

21031.065 a

Intercept

298531.4

PLANT

18174.761

MACHINE

1238.379

PLANT * MACHINE 1617.925

Error

5505.469

Total

325067.9

Corrected Total

26536.534

df

23

1

3

5

15

48

72

71

Mean

Square

914.394

298531.4

6058.254

247.676

107.862

114.697

F

7.972

2602.776

52.820

2.159

.940

Sig.

.000

.000

.000

.074

.528

nested in A (plant)

Source

Plant

Machine(Plant)

Error

Sum of Squares

18174.76119

2856.303672

5505.469467

df

Mean Square

F

3

6058.253731 52.819506

20

142.8151836 1.2451488

48

114.6972806

p - value

0.00000

0.26171

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