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CHAPTER 2.

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CELL STRUCTURE AND
CELL ORGANISATION

2.1 Cell structure and function
- Living organisms are made of basic units
called cells.
- The living component of a cell is called the
protoplasm. It consists of the cytoplasm
and the nucleus.
- Protoplasm is surrounded by plasma
membrane.
- Cytoplasm contains structures called
organelles.

Smooth
F

Lysosome
I

C

G

Rough
Endoplasmic
E
Reticulum

Centriole
H
Ribosome
J

B
Chromosomes

D
A

Chromosomes C Ribosome G F B A H I E D J .

Cell structure and function Name of structures / organelles Cell wall Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes Vacoules Endoplasmic Rec. Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Chloroplast Lysosomes Centrioles Characteristics / structures Functions .

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COMPARISON BETWEEN THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL Plasma membrane .

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL Without centrioles Centrioles With centrioles .

THE DENSITY OF ORGANELLES IN SPECIFIC CELLS The density or abundance of certain organelles is related to the functions of specific cells.3. Do the Activity 2. 21 (Textbook). pg. .

2.How does a unicellular organism perform these living process? . .Unicellular organisms – small and simple organisms.2 CELL ORGANISATION Living processes in unicellular organisms . .They can carry out vital functions within a single cell.

Amoeba sp. .

.Amoeba sp.

The waste substances are excreted from amoeba by diffusion. This process is called osmoregulation. water diffuses into cell by osmosis and fills the contractile vacoule. . it contracts to expel its contents.As amoeba lives in freshwater.When the vacoule is filled to a maximum size.The exchange of gases occur through the plasma membrane by diffusion. .Breathing . . Excretion .

CELL SPECIALISATION IN MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS Refer your textbook. Pg 24. Photograph 2.14 .

2. 29.8 . Fig.CELL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS Major systems in human – Refer textbook Pg.

27.16) -Contract & relax to produce movement 3 types: a. Muscle tissue (Pg. 2.The function depends on its location in an organ -on the skin. Epithelial tissue (Pg. . 2. 26.6) -Forms thin sheets that line & cover body structure. Cardiac muscle -Found in the walls of heart.ANIMAL TISSUES Tissue Function Example 1. Skeletal muscle -Found in our arms/legs c. Photo. Fig.form a protective barrier -in the lining of human intestine –form mucus secreting goblet cells 2. . Smooth muscle -Found in intestine b.

17) Function Example -conduct nerve Densely packed impulses nerve cells (neurones) -control & coordinate activities of the body . Nerve tissue (Pg. 2. 27. Photo.Tissue 3.

Tissue 4. Connective tissue Function Example Holds the 6 types: body a. 2. Loose connective tissue together (Pg. Photo. 27. 27. 27.18) -contains a large no. ears & covers the end of bone at joints . Photo.19) -support nose.18) -binds epithelia to underlying tissue -holds organ in place b. Cartilage (Pg. Dense fibrous connective tissue (Pg. 2. 2. of collagenous fibres -can be found in tendons (connect muscle to bone) & ligament (join bones together at joints) c. Photo.

Bone (Pg. transporting & protective function f.21) -has regulating. Blood cells (Pg. 28. Photo 2. Photo. 2. an energy reserve & provides insulation & protection -found in the dermis of the skin & around major organs . Photo. 28. 28.22) -stores fat.Tissue Function Example d. Adipose tissues (Pg. 2.20) -provides protection to organs and support the body e.

CELL ORGANISATION IN MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS .

25) -covers & protects underlying tissue from drying out & from mechanical abrasions -epidermis of leaves. . cork layers of stems & roots.24 & 2.PLANT TISSUES Plant tissues – 2 main types a. 30. Photo 2. Epidermal tissue (Pg. Meristematic tissues b. Permanent tissues Permanent Tissue Function Example 1.

Sclerenchyma tissues -have cell walls which thickened by lignin & may be dead -give support & mechanical strength to mature plant . Collenchyma tissues -supports herbaceous plants young stems and petioles c. Photo 2. Parenchyma tissue -have thin primary walls & large vacoules -store starch and sugar -give support & shape to herbaceous plants b. 30.Permanent Tissue 2. Ground tissue (Pg.26) Function Example -chief functions are to store food & to provide support 3 types: a.

27b) -consist mainly sieve tubes which are arranged end to end to form long continuous tube-like structure . Photo 2. 31. Photo 2.27a) -consist mainly of xylem vessel joined together end to end -the cell walls are thickened with lignin -provide support b.Permanent Tissue Function 3. Phloem (Pg. Xylem (Pg. Vascular -Distributes tissue water. mineral salts & photosynthetic products throughout the plant Example 2 types: a. 31.

interstitial fluid + ii.REGULATING THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT The internal environment of multicellular organism Internal environment – consist of i. blood plasma Interstitial fluid – fills the place between the cells and constantly bathes the cells. cells A D Interstitial fluid Blood B capillary C Blood plasma .

blood pressure and osmotic pressure Chemical factors – salt & sugar content and pH value . Homeostasis – is the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment for the cells to function optimally.THE NECESSITY FOR MAINTAINING AN OPTIMAL INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT The physical factors & chemical factors of the internal environment must be maintained regardless of the conditions outside the cells in order for the cells to function optimally. The factors which should be maintained in internal environment: Physical factors – temperature.

The mechanism that governs homeostasis is called the negative feedback mechanism. 2. Fig. THE INVOLVEMENT OF VARIOUS SYSTEMS IN MAINTAINING AN OPTIMAL INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT (Refer textbook – Pg 34.Any increase or decrease in the value of a physical / chemical factor will trigger the homeostatic mechanism to bring it back to normal.11) .

TEMPERATURE REGULATION .

3 APPRECIATING THE UNIQUINESS OF THE CELL Read by yourself .2.