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Why Testing Digital Relays Are Becoming So Difficult!

Part 2 Differential Relays

Benton Vandiver III
OMICRON electronics Corp USA
68th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers
Tx A&M


AGENDA(without Time Information)


Early Differential Test Methods
Modern Diff Characteristics
Adaptive Diff Characteristics
Summary / Conclusions

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> Testing of todays digital differential protection relays requires an
understanding of their characteristics, algorithms, and embedded logic in
order to be successful.
> Using simplified methods for differential testing that ignore proper fault
simulations may or may not result in a satisfactory operation of the
differential elements.
> operating principles and algorithms implemented in the modern differential
relay now consider the protected object, CTs, and operational power
system conditions
> differential relays have evolved for more diverse applications and greater
operational security
> There have been two goals for our tests, one to verify the differential
characteristic limits/shape, and second to verify the in/out zone security.

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Early Differential Test Methods

Basic Differential Relay
and Diff Principle

Early Differential Test Methods

E/M Differential
Relay Characteristic

Early Differential Test Methods

Test points on PRD characteristic

Tapped Restraint Coils

Modern Differential Characteristics

Dual Slope Characteristic

Adaptive Diff Characteristics

System Variables and Adaptive Slope 2

Testing Adaptive Characteristics

Testing with Prefault is almost mandatory

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Testing Adaptive Characteristics

Testing with CT Saturation demonstrates security

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Accurate Waveforms Test Performance

A-N Diff shot with CT saturation, primary winding CT

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This only touched on testing the differential operating
characteristic, harmonic restraint characteristics can be just as
challenging. Anyone testing these protection relays should be well
versed in transformer designs, operations, and winding
configurations. Understanding proper CT sizing for differential
applications and the impact of CT saturation is key for successfully
applying these relays.
5 min

2 min
As digital relays continue to evolve and become more complex,
10 min
our methods for testing them must also evolve. Legacy test
methods cannot properly address these complex relays nor4 min
simulate the power system adequately in order to prove their
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operational performance and compliance. Advanced training,
1 min
testing tools, and apparatus data are required in order to verify
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these adaptive characteristics.

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5 min
2 min
10 min
4 min
5 min
1 min
0.5 h

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