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Chapters 8 & 9

Chemical
Bonding

Sections we are skipping &


why

8.4 covered in Ch. 7 (good to rvw)


8.8 covered in Ch. 6 (good to rvw)
Formal charges (pp. 386-389)
dont need to know anymore!
9.2, 9.3, 9.4 beyond the scope of
this course
9.6 covered in Ch. 7 (good to rvw)

Dogs teaching Chemistry

Ionic bonding

Electrostatic attraction
b/w oppositely charged
ions
Ions form crystal lattice

orderly pattern
Maximizes attraction b/w
oppositely charged ions
Minimizes repulsions
among like-charged ions.

Whats an ionic bond?

So

Technically, there are NO true ionic


bonds wait, WHAT?!?!

See graph

However chemists avoid this


problem by using an operational
definition: any compound that
conducts an electric current
when melted is ionic.

Coulombs law

Coulombs Law:
used to calc nrg of
interaction b/w a pair
of ions
Q1 and Q2 = charges
on ions
R = distance b/w ion
centers (in nm)
k = 2.31 x 10-19 Jnm

If E < 0, what does


that imply?

Lattice energy

Modified form of
Coulombs law

Only difference is k
(value depends on
ions in crystal lattice)

Measures stability of
crystal lattice
Lattice nrg as
charge of ions and
radius
.

Practice Problem #1

Arrange the following ionic


compounds in order of increasing
lattice energy (least exothermic to
most exothermic): NaF, CsI, and
CaO

Practice Problem #2

Which substance would you expect


to have the greatest (most
exothermic) lattice energy: AgCl,
CuO, or CrN? Why?

Covalent bonding

Es shared between nuclei

Shared equally:
Shared unequally:

Formed b/w....

Bonding of H2

Network vs. Molecular


Solids

Network are VERY strong bonds high melting


points, solids at room temp

Molecules weaker than ionic bonds low melting


points, mostly liquids and gases at room temp

Some common network solids:

Some common molecular solids:

Properties are a reflection of their structure

Examples: Graphite vs. Diamond

Graphite vs. Diamond

Silicon a semiconductor

Structure like diamond why?


Low conductivity so called a
semi-conductor
Conductivity
as temp
increases why?
Can change conductivity by doping
with other elements

Doped silicon

How doping works

Lets watch a video!

Bonding models

Chemical bonds result from a tendency


of a system to seek its lowest possible
energy.
Therefore, bonding is a model
proposed to explain molecular stability
an attempt to explain how atoms
(something microscopic) operate based
on experience in the macroscopic
world.

Fundamental properties of
models

Human inventions based on


incomplete understanding of how
nature works.
Often wrong always speculations &
oversimplifications
Difficult to make predictions from
many exceptions (ex: Aufbau principle)
Still very useful

Sooo... What does this


mean?

Models are still important and useful


just realize there are limitations.

Bonding model assumes electrons are shared


and located between two nuclei
Makes sense atoms share electrons to
achieve stability
But electrons move freely and are
delocalized.

This does NOT mean we throw out the


model!!!!

Localized Electron (LE)


Model

Used to describe covalent bonds in


molecules
Assumes:
Has three parts: (1) Drawing Lewis
Structures, (2) VSEPR, (3)
Description of orbitals used
(Hybridization)

Lewis Structures

Review notes from your previous


Chemistry class if you dont
remember how to do these!
Do not worry about keeping track
of which electrons come from
which atoms. Its the total
number of electrons thats
important!!!!

A few reminders

Make your octets around each atom and


THEN count. Adjust as necessary

For Lewis structures of anions and cations:

Determining central atom:

Octet rules & exceptions:

Practice Problem #3
Draw the Lewis structures for

C2H2

ICl4-

NO2

Review: Resonance

Sometimes, more than one valid


Lewis structure can be drawn.
When this happens, we say that
there is resonance.

Resonant structures for


NO3

Which is the correct description of the


bonding in NO3-? Why?

Practice Problem #4

How many resonance structures


are possible for NO2-?

Practice Problem #5

a)

b)

c)

d)

Regarding the structure of NO2- drawn in PP #4,


which of the following statement(s) is/are true?
There is one single bond and one double bond
in NO2There are two equivalent N-O bonds, each one
intermediate b/w a single and double bond
NO2- flips from one resonance structure to the
other.
The actual structure is an average of the two
resonance structures.

Practice Problem #6

Which is predicted to have shorter


sulfur-oxygen bonds, SO3 or SO32-?

VSEPR

Used to predict geometry

Molecular geometry (shape/structure)


Electron-pair geometry

Based on the premise that lone e- pairs


require
room than bonding e- pairs
and tend to
bond angles.
Explain how to use handout
Need to know bond angles!

Molecular geometry vs.


Electron pair geometry

Molecular geometry a.k.a.


molecular structure a.k.a. shape
= shape formed by

Electron-pair geometry (aka


electron-domain geometry) =
shape formed by

See example

E- pair geometry vs.


Molecular geometry:
Octahedral

Practice Problem #7

Determine (a) electron-pair geometry and (b)


molecular geometry (VSEPR) for each of the
following:

1) SnCl3-

2) O3

Practice Problem #7 (cont)


Determine (a) electron-pair geometry and (b)
molecular geometry (VSEPR) for each of the
following:

3) SF4

4) IF5

What about CH3OH?

How do you describe the shape when


there is more than one central atom?

What CH3OH looks like


Tetrahedral around C

Bent around O

Hybridization

Hybridization = mixing of native


atomic orbitals (s and p, for example) to
form special orbitals (sp2, for example)
Hybrid orbitals are
Hybrid orbitals arrange themselves in
space such that we can determine
hybridization from electron pair geometry
easiest way!
5 main types of hybridization: sp, sp2,
sp3, sp3d, sp3d2

Degenerate orbitals

sp hybridization

sp2 hybridization

sp3 hybridization

sp3d and sp3d2 hybrids

Practice Problem #8
Give the expected hybridization of the
central atom in the following molecules:
a)

SF4

b)

XeF2

c)

PF6-

d)

CO

Sigma () bonding

Centered on line
running b/w 2 atoms
sharing a pair of es
Shared e pr occupies
space b/w the two
atoms
bond =
bond
Can form from
overlap of.

Pi () bonding

Represents shared e- pr
above and below the
bond.
Formed using the p
orbitals perpendicular to
bond axis
Parallel p orbitals share
an e- pr, forming a bond
Forms from sideways
overlap of
orbitals.
Can also form from
overlap of d orbitals, but
we wont consider these.

Sigma & pi bonds in C2H4

What about triple bonds?

Determining sigma and pi


bonds

Easy as 1-2-3!
Single bonds =
Double bonds =
Triple bonds =

bond
bonds
bonds

Practice problem #9
Determine # of sigma & pi bonds in the
following molecules:
1.

C2H2

2.

C3H4

3.

CH3COCOCH3

Practice Problem #10

Consider the acetonitrile molecule:


H3C-CN:

a)

Predict the bond angles around each carbon

b)

Give the hybridizations on each carbon

c)

Determine the total number of sigma and pi


bonds in the molecule.

Predicting molecular
polarity

What shapes will ALWAYS be polar?


Why?

What shape is an exception to this


rule? Why?

Review: Dipole moments

Caused by difference in
electronegativity of the bonded
atoms

Note: covalent bond a.k.a.


nonpolar covalent bond

More on dipole moments

Ways to show polarity

Practice problem #11


Classify following as polar or nonpolar:
a) BF3:

c) O2:

b) CS2:

d) IF3