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INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW ,INVISCID FLOW, COMPRESSIBILITY,SHOCK WAVES ETC

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- Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences (Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences) Volume 16 Issue 3 1949 [Doi 10.2514%2F8.11758] Hewson, Peter W.; Jones, Garth; Vogt, Erich W. -- The Analytical Design of
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Airfoil

Fluid Elements

Fluid element

Infinitesimal volume that move with the fluid such that the

volume always contains the same matter.

e.g. A, B, C and D are fluid elements.

Steady Flow

Flow in which there is no change in properties

over time at any point.

(x1, y1, z1) = Constant

P (x1, y1, z1) = Constant

V (x1, y1, z1) = Constant

Unsteady Flow

Flow in which states of the flow change with

time at some or all points.

e.g. is expressed as (x, y, z, t)

Pathlines

Pathlines

The line along which a fluid element travels.

Pathlines cannot intersect the same location at the

same instant in time.

Streamli

nes

Streamlines

The line which is

everywhere tangent to the

velocity field at same time.

If the velocity field is time

dependent (i.e. flow is

unsteady) then the

streamlines will be a

Streamlines

Xa(t) & Xb(t)

While Pathlines appear to cross each other, in fact

Pathlines cannot intersect the same location at

the same instant in time.

Note : the Pathlines are tangent to the streamlines

Compressible Flow

Flow in which density of the fluid element change

from point to point.

(x1, y1, z1) (x2, y2, z2)

All real life flows, strictly speaking are

compressible.

Incompressible Flow

Flow in which density of the fluid element is

always constant.

(x, y, z, t) = constant

Incompressible flow is a myth & can never actually

occur in nature.

Assumptions

Low speed flow of air ( V < 100 m/s or V < 225

Viscous Flow

Flow with friction. e.g. Flow close to the solid

surface

The region of flow immediately adjacent to a solid

surface where friction is particularly dominant is

called a Boundary Layer.

Boundary Layer

Outer Edge: Point where velocity is equal to

stream velocity.

i.e. point b.

Inner Edge: Solid surface itself where velocity is

Inviscid Flow

Flow without any friction.

Practically flow with negligible fluid friction can

be analyzed as inviscid flow.

Flow is effectively inviscid away from the solid

surface.

Laminar Flow

Streamlines are smooth and

regular.

Fluid elements moves smoothly

along a streamline.

Effect of forces due to viscosity

is significant when compared to

effect of inertia of the fluid

motion.

Reynolds number is not very

large.

Turbulent Flow

Streamlines break up and fluid

elements move in a random,

irregular, and chaotic fashion.

Flow velocity, direction & all

1. Mass can neither be created nor destroyed (mass is

conserved)

Law of Conservation of Mass

Often also called: Continuity

2nd Law)

Often reduces to: Sum of Forces = Mass x Acceleration (F = m

Momentum Equation

Bernoullis Equation, Euler Equation, Navier-Stokes Equation

3. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed (energy is

conserved)

Can only change physical form

Energy Equation (1st Law of Thermodynamics)

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Stream tube

A set of

streamlines that

intersect a closed

loop in space.

Streamlines

Characteristic

Pt 1

Pt 2

Cross-section

Area

A1

A2

Flow Velocity

V1

V2

Density

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Characteristic

Pt 1

Pt 2

Cross-section Area

A1

A2

Flow Velocity

V1

V2

Density

A1V1.dt

A2V2.dt

(dm)

1.A1V1.dt

2.A2V2.dt

1.A1V1

2.A2V2

dm/dt

mass can neither be created nor destroyed. Thus,

m1 = m2

1A1V1 = 2A2V2

Continuity Equation

For incompressible flow, 1 = 1. Thus,

A1V1 = A2V2

Problem- 1

Approach

Velocity < 100 m/s

Flow is

compressible/incompressible ?

Apply appropriate formulae.

Answer

1.67 m2

Answer

0.381 m/sec

SAME EXAMPLE

Given air flow through converging nozzle, what is exit area, A 2& pressure p2?

p1=1.2x105 N/m2

T1=330 K

V1=10 m/s

A1= 5m2

p2=?

T2=?

V2=30 m/s

A2=?

m 1 m 2 1 A1V1 2 A2V2

A1V1 A2V2

V1

10 5

2

A2 A1 5

1.67 m

V2

30 3

Conservation of mass could also give velocity, V2, if A2 was known

18

Conservation of mass tells us nothing about p2, T2, etc.

Momentum Equation

Free Body

Diagram

in a streamline

X-direction at point P

Momentum Equation

Pressure acting normal to all 6 surfaces.

Frictional shear acting tangentially on all 6

faces.

Gravity acting on the element.

Assumptions

Frictional forces ignored i.e. flow is ?

Element being very small the gravity is very

small compared to other forces & hence

Momentum Equation

Let pressure on left face =

. Thus Force on left

face =

Rate of change of p along X direction =

Hence pressure on right face =

Thus Force on right face =

Hence Net force along X- axis =

or

(1)

Momentum Equation

(1)

(2)

Acceleration of the element along X- axis is given

by,

(3)

Thus applying eq 1, 2 & 3 we get,

Momentum Equation

change of momentum to force it is also called

momentum equation.

This equation is valid for,

Inviscid Flow (frictionless).

Steady flow.

Valid for both compressible & incompressible

flow.

Bernoullis Equation

points 1 and 2 be located along a given streamline

as shown above.

From Eulers Equation

or

or

or

or

Bernoullis Equation

fundamental equation in fluid mechanics.

Important points,

Valid for Inviscid Flow (frictionless).

Valid for only incompressible flow.

It relates properties between different points

along a streamline.

nd

BERNOULLI

YES

NO

26

Problem- 2 & 3

Answer

1088.16 N/m2

Approach

Find p1 and from table of Standard

Atmosphere.

Answer

6.95 X 104 N/m2

Problem- 4

Approach

Known/Unknown

V1 & p2 given and we require p1 and to arrive

V2.p1 and from table of Standard

Find

at

p1 = 8.4312x104 N/m2,

Atmosphere.

Answer

kg/m3

= 1.0556

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Elementary Thermodynamics

Elementary Thermodynamics

Incremental surface area

of the boundary

Force on incremental area = p x dA

Hence, Work done on the system,

If the entire surface consisting of all elemental surfaces is

displaced by small distance s simultaneously then, then

total work done is given by,

Elementary Thermodynamics

(1)

represents change in volume of unit mass of gas.

(2)

can be give

Elementary Thermodynamics

(2)

(3)

Elementary Thermodynamics

(3)

Enthalpy

Enthalpyis a measure of the totalenergyof

athermodynamic system. It is given by,

What is

Using this in equation (3) we get,

(4)

thermodynamics.

Elementary Thermodynamics

Specific Heat

Specific Heat is the heat added per unit change in

temperature of the

System.

Processes

Elementary Thermodynamics

Specific

Heat at

Elementary Thermodynamics

Isentropic Flow

Isentropic Process

remains constant

We already

know

: Entropy

Elementary Thermodynamics

Isentropic Flow

&2

Elementary Thermodynamics

Isentropic

Flow

an isentropic flow.

Relevant to compressible flow only.

Problem- 5

Problems - 6

Answer

155 K, 2.26 kg/m3

ENERGY EQUATION

Physical Principle being used : Law of conservation of Energy

Alternate form of

First law of thermodynamics

From Eulers Equation

For an adiabatic flow where

eq (2) become

Applying eq (3) we get

Integrating between

point 1 & 2

on a streamline

(1)

(2)

(3)

ENERGY EQUATION

Adiabatic flow.

we get,

- For analysis of compressible flow.

SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS

Problems - 7

T1= 255.69 K

Put T1= 255.69 K, V1= 270 m/s,

V2= 330 m/s & Cp= 1005 j/kg.K in eq.

Put T1= 255.69 K, T2= 237.78 K,

P1= 5.4048 x 104 N/m2 &

= 1.4 in eq.

T2= 237.78 K

Problems - 8

Cp= 1005 j/kg.K & find V2

For altitude of 15240 m find T1

T1= 216.66 K

Speed of Sound

Speed of Sound

ain constant. i.e.

neglected

Speed of Sound

Speed of Sound

Hence,

Thus,

Speed of Sound

uation of states,

Mach Number

Mach number is a dimensionless

measure of relative speed.

It is defined as the speed of an object

relative to a fluid medium, divided by the

speed of sound in that medium.

is the

speed of the object relative to the

medium and

is the speed of sound in

the medium.

Mach Number

philosopher Ernst Mach.

ratio of inertial forces (also referred to aerodynamic

forces).

number.

M2 = Ca

useful for analysing fluid flow dynamics problems

Mach Number

High speed flights can be classified in

five categories

Subsonic : M < 1

Sonic

Transonic

Supersonic

Hypersonic : M > 5

: M=1

Mach Number

Critical Mach number

A critical Mach number is the speed of an aircraft

(below Mach 1) when the air flowing over some area

of the airfoil has reached the speed of sound.

For instance, if the air flowing over a wing reaches

Mach 1 when the wing is only moving at Mach 0.8,

then the wings critical Mach number is 0.8.

Mach meter

A Mach meter is an aircraft instrument that shows

the ratio of the speed of sound to the true airspeed,

that is, it is an aircraft instrument that indicates

speed in Mach numbers.

Problems - 9

T= 216.66 K

M = 0.847

a = 295

m/s

Problems - 10

V = 1020.90

m/s

V = 3675.24

km/hr

Problems - 11

a = 294.05

m/s

M = 2.28

Objective

Accurately simulate the fluid flow about atmospheric

vehicles.

Measure - Forces, moments, pressure, shear stress,

heat transfer, flow field (velocity, pressure, vorticity,

Open-Circuit Tunnel

Closed-Circuit Tunnel

and

Also

Dependence of Test section velocity

place of V1 ,

. Applying this in

The

most

method

of

convenient

measuring

( P1 P2 ) and hence

measuring V2 .

Manomete

r

Manomet

er

Let

A Cross-sectional area of the tube.

l - Density of the fluid.

unit volume) = l g

Hence, total weight of fluid above BB =

Manomet

er

both side of the tube must balance each other i.e.

Thus, measurement of

of the U tube would

directly measure the velocity of the airflow in the

test section.

Pressure

Transducers

Pressure Transducers

Problems - 12

1.173 kg/m3

= 2.8

cm

Measurement of Airspeed

Pitot-Static tube

dynamic pressure

Measurement of Airspeed

Pitot-Static tube

Measurement of Airspeed

Pitot-Static tube

Measurement of Airspeed

Pitot-Static tube

Incompressible Flow ( M < 0.3 )

Applying Bernoullis

equation,

Incompressible Flow ( M < 0.3 )

calibrated by using the standard sea-level value of

s. This gives the value of velocity called equivalent

velocity.

Subsonic Compressible Flow

From definition of enthalpy and basic

thermodynamics,

Dividing by Cp

we get,

Subsonic Compressible Flow

Let

T1 & V1 Free stream

Temp & Velocity (C).

P0 & T0 - Total Pressure

& Temp value after

Stagnation (B).

From Energy equation

get,

Subsonic Compressible Flow

C

temp T1 we get

Thus,

Subsonic Compressible Flow

C

we get,

Wher

e,

Subsonic Compressible Flow

C

Puttin

g

which is difficult to measure . Hence at subsonic high

speed flow the airspeed indicator is calibrated by

assuming a1 = as = 340.3 m/s.

Subsonic Compressible Flow

C

the speed of sound and static pressure.

This equation is used for high speed subsonic

airspeed where M1 > 0.3

Problems - 13

p1

C

Bp

M = V/a = (250/329) =

0.76

p0 = 1.48 x 105

N/m2

Problems - 14

p1

C

Bp

1.328

N/m2

p1 = 8.54 x 104

Altitude = 1394 m

Problems - 15

p1

C

p0

T0 = 341.27 K

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

sound, the air ahead of it actually begins to flow out of

the waybefore the plane reaches it.

passing through the air end up being smooth and

gradual.

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

catches up to its own pressure waves, the air ahead of

it receives no warning of the planes approach.

ashock wave.

density, and temperature all increasesharply and

abruptly.

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

sphere or another blunt shape remains detached from

the object.

to the sphere itself, where the airflow separates from

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

Shock Waves are very thin regions of the flow (for

example, 10-4 cm) across which some very severe

changes in the flow properties take place.

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

Within the thin structure of a shock wave very large

friction and thermal conduction effects take place.

frictionless. i.e. the flow is non isentropic.

Pitot probe will not be same as that associated with the

free stream.

formula is given by,

Problems - 16

Is the flow

supersonic ?

a = 297.3

m/s

get p1?

M = 2.0

p1 = 2.65 X 104

N/m2

N/m2

Problem - 17

7.824

p0 = 7.926 x 105

N/m2

(a)

5.639

p02 = 5.712 X 105

N/m2

Problem - 17

p0 = 7.926 x 105

N/m2

(a)

N/m2

(b)

p0 = 3.85 x 105

N/m2

sound, and there is an abrupt decrease in the flow

area, the flow process isirreversibleand the entropy

increases.Shock wavesare generated. Shock waves

are very small regions in the gas where thegas

properties change by a large amount.

Across

a

shock

wave,

staticpressure,temperature,

gasdensityincreases almost instantaneously.

the

and

no heat addition, the totalenthalpyand the total

temperature are constant.

pressure downstream of the shock is always less

than the total pressure upstream of the shock. There

is a loss of total pressure associated with a shock

Area Velocity Relation

Stream tube

A set of

streamlines that

intersect a closed

loop in space.

Streamlines

From continuity

equation,

Differentiating we

have,

Area Velocity Relation

get,

(1)

Since the flow is isentropic,

Area Velocity Relation

Rearranging we get,

relation. relation.

Area Velocity Relation

Case 1 : M < 1

For Velocity to increase ( dV +ve)

decrease ( dA ve )

Case 2 : M > 1

For velocity to increase ( dV +ve )

increase ( dA -ve )

Area should

Area should

Area Velocity Relation

Case 3 :

M=1

(dV/V) should be in (0/0) form otherwise it will be

infinite (which is never true).

stream tube will have minimum area at M = 1. This

minimum area is called throat.

nozzle exit is usually desired. Hence long gradually

converging and diverging nozzle is employed.

as important but the weight of the nozzle is a major

concern. Hence to minimize the weight, engine length is

minimized by rapid diverging in supersonic region.

1. All isentropic relations holds

good.

2. The variation of Mach

Number through the nozzle is

a function of ratio of crosssectional area to throat area

(A/At).

Problem - 18

pe = 1.37 x 104

N/m2

Te = 178.6 K

e = 0.267

kg/m3

Problem - 19

Ae/At = 1.35

Discussion on Compressibility

From isentropic relationship

we have,

dAlemberts paradox

was unable to explain the

drag on the sphere.

only be explained by flow

separation.

Viscous Flow

Flow in Real Life

is given by,

Where,

viscosity of the gas.

(dV/dy)y=0 velocity gradient

at wall

Inertia Force

Viscous Force

Viscous Flow

Velocity Profile for Laminar & Turbulent

Boundary layer

Viscous Flow

Reynolds Number

Rex

parameter determining the behavior of the flow. The

Reynolds number Rex is defined as,

Where,

x distance from leading edge

- Free stream density

V - Free stream velocity

- Free stream dynamic viscosity

The kinematic viscosity which is defined as = / .

Thus, the Reynolds number can also be written as

Viscous Flow

Reynolds Number

Re

The Reynolds number

isxan indication of the

proportional to the viscosity, a larger value of the

Reynolds number indicates that viscous effects will play

a smaller role in determining the behavior of the flow.

is as follows.

Re = Inertial

x

Force

Viscous

Force

Viscous Flow

Reynolds Number

Rex

Inviscid (high Re)

highly viscous

(low Re)

The Practical

Significance of the

Reynolds Number

function of the Reynolds Number. Normally, the Reynolds

Number is the decisive factor in the air-flow in

determining whether the inertial effect or the viscous

effect wins.

If the Reynolds Number is large, the viscosity effect is

small. That is the inertia or density forces dominate, and

the parasite drag increases with the square of the

velocity. However, although the viscosity is unimportant,

it may still affect the very thin boundary layer, leading to

the creation of turbulent flow.

high Reynolds Number gives turbulent flow. For both a

laminar and a turbulent boundary layer increasing

The Practical

Significance of the

Reynolds Number

Reynolds Number is not definite.

exist depends much on the shape and (mostly)

on the surface finish. It also depends on such

factors as the initial steadiness of flow,

absence of vibration, etc.

On the average on wing surface usually it

Reynolds Number

Qualitative

behaviors

of

depends to a large extent

on Reynolds number; similar

flow patterns often appear

when

the

Reynolds

matched,

parameters

shape

and

number

is

although

like

other

surface

Viscous Flow

Reynolds Number & Skin Friction

Reynolds Number

As an object moves through the atmosphere, the gas

molecules of the atmosphere near the object are

disturbed and move around the object.Aerodynamic

forcesare generated between the gas and the object.

The magnitude of these forces depend on the shape of

the object, thespeedof the object, themassof the gas

going by the object and on two other important

properties of the gas; theviscosity, or stickiness, of the

gas and thecompressibility, or springiness, of the gas.

To properly model these effects, aerodynamicists

usesimilarity

parameterswhich

areratiosof

these

effects to other forces present in the problem. If two

experiments have the same values for the similarity

parameters, then the relative importance of the forces

are being correctly modeled. Representative values for

the properties ofairdepends on thestate of the gasand

on thealtitude.

Aerodynamic forces depend in a complex way on

Reynolds Number

layer mayseparatefrom the body and create an

effective shape much different from the physical

shape. And to make it even more confusing, the flow

conditions in and near the boundary layer are

oftenunsteady(changing in time). The boundary layer

is very important in determining thedragof an object.

To

determine

and

predict

these

conditions,

aerodynamicists rely onwind tunneltesting and very

sophisticated computer analysis.

theReynolds number. The Reynolds number expresses

the ratio

of inertial(resistant to change or motion)

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/kforces toviscous(heavy

and gluey) forces.

12/airplane/

(Incompressible Flow)

(Incompressible Flow)

Combining above two equations we get,

Inference

Both Cfx and w for laminar

boundary layer vary as x-1/2 .

(Incompressible Flow)

, total skin friction drag is defined as,

(Incompressible Flow)

Experimental Finding

(Incompressible Flow)

Experimental Finding

Turbulent

to turbulent

Xcr - The value of x at transition point

Then the Reynold number corresponding to X cr is

called Critical Reynolds Number Rexcr .

Flow Separation

Flow Separation

pressure drag due to separation.

Summary

Problems - 20

kg/m3

At sea level, = 1.2250 kg/m3

Ve = 163.29

m/s

1000 passengers

Wing span of 265 feet (B747 of 211

feet)

8800 nautical mile range

Cruises at M = .88

Will fit into terminals designed for

the Airbus 380

L/D will increase 50%

Weight is reduced by 25%

Its 33% more efficient than the

airbus

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