You are on page 1of 132

BASIC AERODYNAMICS

ROAD MAP FOR THIS CHAPTER

Airfoil

Fluid Elements

Fluid element
Infinitesimal volume that move with the fluid such that the
volume always contains the same matter.
e.g. A, B, C and D are fluid elements.

Steady and Unsteady Flow


Steady Flow
Flow in which there is no change in properties
over time at any point.
(x1, y1, z1) = Constant
P (x1, y1, z1) = Constant
V (x1, y1, z1) = Constant
Unsteady Flow
Flow in which states of the flow change with
time at some or all points.
e.g. is expressed as (x, y, z, t)

Pathlines and Streamlines

Pathlines

Pathlines
The line along which a fluid element travels.
Pathlines cannot intersect the same location at the
same instant in time.

Pathlines and Streamlines

Streamli
nes

Streamlines
The line which is
everywhere tangent to the
velocity field at same time.
If the velocity field is time
dependent (i.e. flow is
unsteady) then the
streamlines will be a

Streamlines

Pathlines & streamlines in an unsteady flow

Fig shows the Pathlines for two fluid elements


Xa(t) & Xb(t)
While Pathlines appear to cross each other, in fact
Pathlines cannot intersect the same location at
the same instant in time.
Note : the Pathlines are tangent to the streamlines

Compressible and Incompressible Flow


Compressible Flow
Flow in which density of the fluid element change
from point to point.
(x1, y1, z1) (x2, y2, z2)
All real life flows, strictly speaking are
compressible.
Incompressible Flow
Flow in which density of the fluid element is
always constant.
(x, y, z, t) = constant
Incompressible flow is a myth & can never actually
occur in nature.
Assumptions
Low speed flow of air ( V < 100 m/s or V < 225

Viscous & Inviscid Flow


Viscous Flow
Flow with friction. e.g. Flow close to the solid
surface
The region of flow immediately adjacent to a solid
surface where friction is particularly dominant is
called a Boundary Layer.

Boundary Layer
Outer Edge: Point where velocity is equal to
stream velocity.
i.e. point b.
Inner Edge: Solid surface itself where velocity is

Viscous & Inviscid Flow

Inviscid Flow
Flow without any friction.
Practically flow with negligible fluid friction can
be analyzed as inviscid flow.
Flow is effectively inviscid away from the solid
surface.

Types of Viscous Flow

Laminar Flow
Streamlines are smooth and
regular.
Fluid elements moves smoothly
along a streamline.
Effect of forces due to viscosity
is significant when compared to
effect of inertia of the fluid
motion.
Reynolds number is not very
large.

Turbulent Flow
Streamlines break up and fluid
elements move in a random,
irregular, and chaotic fashion.
Flow velocity, direction & all

Three Fundamental Principles


1. Mass can neither be created nor destroyed (mass is
conserved)
Law of Conservation of Mass
Often also called: Continuity

2. Sum of Forces = Time Rate Change of Momentum (Newton


2nd Law)
Often reduces to: Sum of Forces = Mass x Acceleration (F = m
Momentum Equation
Bernoullis Equation, Euler Equation, Navier-Stokes Equation
3. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed (energy is
conserved)
Can only change physical form
Energy Equation (1st Law of Thermodynamics)

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Physical Principle being used : Law of Conservation of mass

Stream tube
A set of
streamlines that
intersect a closed
loop in space.
Streamlines
Characteristic

Pt 1

Pt 2

Cross-section
Area

A1

A2

Flow Velocity

V1

V2

Density

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Characteristic

Pt 1

Pt 2

Cross-section Area

A1

A2

Flow Velocity

V1

V2

Density

Swept volume in time dt

A1V1.dt

A2V2.dt

Mass Flow in time dt,


(dm)

1.A1V1.dt

2.A2V2.dt

Mass Flow Rate. m =


1.A1V1
2.A2V2
dm/dt
mass can neither be created nor destroyed. Thus,

m1 = m2

1A1V1 = 2A2V2

Continuity Equation

for Steady flow


For incompressible flow, 1 = 1. Thus,

A1V1 = A2V2

Problem- 1

Approach
Velocity < 100 m/s
Flow is
compressible/incompressible ?
Apply appropriate formulae.
Answer
1.67 m2

Answer
0.381 m/sec

SAME EXAMPLE

Given air flow through converging nozzle, what is exit area, A 2& pressure p2?

p1=1.2x105 N/m2
T1=330 K
V1=10 m/s
A1= 5m2

p2=?
T2=?
V2=30 m/s
A2=?

IF flow speed < 100 m/s assume flow is incompressible (1=2)

m 1 m 2 1 A1V1 2 A2V2
A1V1 A2V2
V1
10 5
2
A2 A1 5
1.67 m
V2
30 3
Conservation of mass could also give velocity, V2, if A2 was known
18
Conservation of mass tells us nothing about p2, T2, etc.

Momentum Equation

Physical Principle being used : Newtons 2nd Law of motion

Free Body
Diagram

Fluid element moving


in a streamline

Fluid element moving in


X-direction at point P

Momentum Equation

Forces acting on the Fluid Element


Pressure acting normal to all 6 surfaces.
Frictional shear acting tangentially on all 6
faces.
Gravity acting on the element.
Assumptions
Frictional forces ignored i.e. flow is ?
Element being very small the gravity is very
small compared to other forces & hence

Momentum Equation

Consider forces along X axis.


Let pressure on left face =
. Thus Force on left
face =
Rate of change of p along X direction =
Hence pressure on right face =
Thus Force on right face =
Hence Net force along X- axis =
or

(1)

Momentum Equation
(1)

Mass of the Fluid element,


(2)
Acceleration of the element along X- axis is given
by,
(3)

As per Newtons 2nd law F = m a


Thus applying eq 1, 2 & 3 we get,

Momentum Equation

This is Eulers Equation. Since it relates rate of


change of momentum to force it is also called
momentum equation.
This equation is valid for,
Inviscid Flow (frictionless).
Steady flow.
Valid for both compressible & incompressible
flow.

Bernoullis Equation

Consider a incompressible flow ( is constant). Let


points 1 and 2 be located along a given streamline
as shown above.
From Eulers Equation

or

Integrating between point 1 and 2 we get,


or
or

or

Bernoullis Equation

This is called Bernoullis Equation. This is most


fundamental equation in fluid mechanics.
Important points,
Valid for Inviscid Flow (frictionless).
Valid for only incompressible flow.
It relates properties between different points
along a streamline.
nd

WHEN AND WHEN NOT TO APPLY


BERNOULLI
YES

NO

26

Problem- 2 & 3

Answer
1088.16 N/m2

Approach
Find p1 and from table of Standard
Atmosphere.
Answer
6.95 X 104 N/m2

Problem- 4

Approach

Known/Unknown
V1 & p2 given and we require p1 and to arrive
V2.p1 and from table of Standard
Find
at
p1 = 8.4312x104 N/m2,
Atmosphere.
Answer
kg/m3

= 1.0556

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

What if flow is high speed ?

What if there are temperature effects ?

How does the density change ?

ROAD MAP FOR THIS CHAPTER

Elementary Thermodynamics

Total internal energy of the system

Heat added per unit mass

Work on the system

Elementary Thermodynamics
Incremental surface area
of the boundary

dA pushed in by a small distance s


Force on incremental area = p x dA
Hence, Work done on the system,
If the entire surface consisting of all elemental surfaces is
displaced by small distance s simultaneously then, then
total work done is given by,

Elementary Thermodynamics

(1)

ng p to be constant throughout the surface we get,


represents change in volume of unit mass of gas.

olume in this case is decreasing, the change in volume

quation (1) can be expressed as,

(2)

can be give

Elementary Thermodynamics

(2)

From First law of thermodynamics

Applying eq (2) in above equation we get,


(3)

Elementary Thermodynamics
(3)

Enthalpy
Enthalpyis a measure of the totalenergyof
athermodynamic system. It is given by,
What is

Differentiating this equation,


Using this in equation (3) we get,

(4)

This equation is an alternate form of 1st law of


thermodynamics.

Elementary Thermodynamics
Specific Heat
Specific Heat is the heat added per unit change in
temperature of the
System.
Processes

Elementary Thermodynamics

Specific
Heat at

Elementary Thermodynamics
Isentropic Flow

Isentropic Process
remains constant
We already
know

: Entropy

Elementary Thermodynamics
Isentropic Flow

Integrating between point 1


&2

Elementary Thermodynamics
Isentropic
Flow

Relates p, T & between two points on a streamline in


an isentropic flow.
Relevant to compressible flow only.

Problem- 5

Problems - 6

Answer
155 K, 2.26 kg/m3

ENERGY EQUATION
Physical Principle being used : Law of conservation of Energy

From First law of thermodynamics


Alternate form of
First law of thermodynamics
From Eulers Equation
For an adiabatic flow where
eq (2) become
Applying eq (3) we get

Integrating between
point 1 & 2
on a streamline

(1)
(2)
(3)

ENERGY EQUATION

Energy equation for frictionless,


Adiabatic flow.

In terms of T using equation

we get,

- Relates the T & V at two different points along a streamline.


- For analysis of compressible flow.

SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS

Problems - 7

For altitude of 5 km find p1 & T1

p1= 5.4048 x 104 N/m2


T1= 255.69 K

Cp= 1005 joule/kg.K


Put T1= 255.69 K, V1= 270 m/s,
V2= 330 m/s & Cp= 1005 j/kg.K in eq.
Put T1= 255.69 K, T2= 237.78 K,
P1= 5.4048 x 104 N/m2 &
= 1.4 in eq.

T2= 237.78 K

p2= 4.1917 x 104 N/m2

Problems - 8

V1= 2414 kmph = 670.56 m/s ,


Cp= 1005 j/kg.K & find V2
For altitude of 15240 m find T1

T1= 216.66 K

V2= 27.15 m/s

Speed of Sound

Speed of Sound

ce there are no geometrical shapes introduced, the area of stream tube


ain constant. i.e.

s applying the same we have,

Too small & can be


neglected

Speed of Sound

From momentum equation in form of Eulers equation we have

Applying this in equation for a we have,

Speed of Sound

Hence,

Thus,

Speed of Sound

uation of states,

eed of sound in a perfect gas depends only upon the Temperature, T of

Mach Number
Mach number is a dimensionless
measure of relative speed.
It is defined as the speed of an object
relative to a fluid medium, divided by the
speed of sound in that medium.

where M is the Mach number,


is the
speed of the object relative to the
medium and
is the speed of sound in
the medium.

Mach Number

Mach number is named after Austrian physicist and


philosopher Ernst Mach.

It can be shown that the Mach number is also the


ratio of inertial forces (also referred to aerodynamic
forces).

The square of the Mach number is Cauchy


number.
M2 = Ca

The Cauchy Numberis a dimensionless value


useful for analysing fluid flow dynamics problems

Mach Number
High speed flights can be classified in
five categories

Subsonic : M < 1

Sonic

Transonic

: 0.8 < M < 1.2

Supersonic

: 1.2 < M < 5

Hypersonic : M > 5

: M=1

Mach Number
Critical Mach number
A critical Mach number is the speed of an aircraft
(below Mach 1) when the air flowing over some area
of the airfoil has reached the speed of sound.
For instance, if the air flowing over a wing reaches
Mach 1 when the wing is only moving at Mach 0.8,
then the wings critical Mach number is 0.8.
Mach meter
A Mach meter is an aircraft instrument that shows
the ratio of the speed of sound to the true airspeed,
that is, it is an aircraft instrument that indicates
speed in Mach numbers.

Problems - 9

For altitude of 13000 m find T

T= 216.66 K

Put T = 216.66 K, R = 287 joule/kg.K & = 1.4 in eq.

M = 0.847

a = 295
m/s

Problems - 10

Find a for sea level

V = 1020.90
m/s
V = 3675.24
km/hr

Problems - 11

Find a at altitude of 15240 m.

a = 294.05
m/s

M = 2.28

Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Objective
Accurately simulate the fluid flow about atmospheric
vehicles.
Measure - Forces, moments, pressure, shear stress,
heat transfer, flow field (velocity, pressure, vorticity,

Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Open vs. Closed Circuit Wind Tunnels

Open-Circuit Tunnel

Closed-Circuit Tunnel

Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

and
Also

Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel


Dependence of Test section velocity

Pressure difference, (p1 p2)

Area ratio of nozzle i.e.

But from continuity equation


place of V1 ,

. Applying this in

Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

The

most

method

of

convenient
measuring

( P1 P2 ) and hence
measuring V2 .

Manomete
r

Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel


Manomet
er

Let
A Cross-sectional area of the tube.
l - Density of the fluid.

- specific weight of the fluid (weight per


unit volume) = l g
Hence, total weight of fluid above BB =

Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel


Manomet
er

Since the fluid is stationary in the tube Forces on


both side of the tube must balance each other i.e.

Thus, measurement of
of the U tube would
directly measure the velocity of the airflow in the
test section.

Pressure
Transducers

Pressure Transducers

Problems - 12

l = Density of mercury = 13.6 X 103 kg/m3

= 1.33 X 105 N/m3 , =


1.173 kg/m3

= 2.8

cm

Measurement of Airspeed
Pitot-Static tube

Stagnation pressure = static pressure +


dynamic pressure

Measurement of Airspeed
Pitot-Static tube

Measurement of Airspeed
Pitot-Static tube

Measurement of Airspeed
Pitot-Static tube

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Incompressible Flow ( M < 0.3 )

Applying Bernoullis
equation,

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Incompressible Flow ( M < 0.3 )

For low speed aero planes, airspeed indicators are


calibrated by using the standard sea-level value of
s. This gives the value of velocity called equivalent
velocity.

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Subsonic Compressible Flow
From definition of enthalpy and basic
thermodynamics,

Dividing by Cp
we get,

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Subsonic Compressible Flow

Let
T1 & V1 Free stream
Temp & Velocity (C).
P0 & T0 - Total Pressure
& Temp value after
Stagnation (B).
From Energy equation

Applying energy equation between point B & C we


get,

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Subsonic Compressible Flow
C

From Speed of sound, a1 at


temp T1 we get
Thus,

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Subsonic Compressible Flow
C

Applying isentropic relationship


we get,

Wher
e,

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Subsonic Compressible Flow
C

Puttin
g

Use of this equation require a1 by measuring T1


which is difficult to measure . Hence at subsonic high
speed flow the airspeed indicator is calibrated by
assuming a1 = as = 340.3 m/s.

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Subsonic Compressible Flow
C

Calibrated airspeed is given by,

Where, as & ps are the standard sea-level values of


the speed of sound and static pressure.
This equation is used for high speed subsonic
airspeed where M1 > 0.3

Problems - 13

p1
C

Bp

M = V/a = (250/329) =
0.76

p0 = 1.48 x 105
N/m2

Problems - 14

p1
C

Bp

1.328
N/m2

p1 = 8.54 x 104

Altitude = 1394 m

Problems - 15

p1
C

p0

T0 = 341.27 K

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

When an airplane travels less than thespeed of


sound, the air ahead of it actually begins to flow out of
the waybefore the plane reaches it.

The pressure waves created by the airplane


passing through the air end up being smooth and
gradual.

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

As an airplane reaches the speed of sound and


catches up to its own pressure waves, the air ahead of
it receives no warning of the planes approach.

The airplane plows through the air, creating


ashock wave.

Asair flowsthrough the shock wave, its pressure,


density, and temperature all increasesharply and
abruptly.

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

Aspheremoving through the air atMach1.5.

The leadingshock wave, or bow shock, created by a


sphere or another blunt shape remains detached from
the object.

A second shock wave forms farther back, attached


to the sphere itself, where the airflow separates from

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave
Shock Waves are very thin regions of the flow (for
example, 10-4 cm) across which some very severe
changes in the flow properties take place.

Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube


Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave
Within the thin structure of a shock wave very large
friction and thermal conduction effects take place.

Hence, the flow is neither is neither adiabatic nor


frictionless. i.e. the flow is non isentropic.

As a result the total pressure p0 is smaller behind

the shock wave than in front of it.

Thus total pressure measured at the nose of the


Pitot probe will not be same as that associated with the
free stream.

As per shock wave theory Rayleigh Pitot tube


formula is given by,

Problems - 16

Is the flow
supersonic ?
a = 297.3
m/s

From where can you


get p1?

M = 2.0

p1 = 2.65 X 104
N/m2

p02 = 1.49 X 105


N/m2

Problem - 17

7.824

p0 = 7.926 x 105
N/m2
(a)
5.639
p02 = 5.712 X 105
N/m2

Problem - 17

p0 = 7.926 x 105
N/m2
(a)

p02 = 5.712 X 105


N/m2

(b)

p0 = 3.85 x 105
N/m2

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

When an object moves faster than the speed of


sound, and there is an abrupt decrease in the flow
area, the flow process isirreversibleand the entropy
increases.Shock wavesare generated. Shock waves
are very small regions in the gas where thegas
properties change by a large amount.

Across
a
shock
wave,
staticpressure,temperature,
gasdensityincreases almost instantaneously.

the
and

Because a shock wave does no work, and there is


no heat addition, the totalenthalpyand the total
temperature are constant.

Because the flow is non-isentropic, the total


pressure downstream of the shock is always less
than the total pressure upstream of the shock. There
is a loss of total pressure associated with a shock

Supersonic Wind Tunnels


Area Velocity Relation

Stream tube
A set of
streamlines that
intersect a closed
loop in space.
Streamlines

From continuity
equation,

Differentiating we
have,

Supersonic Wind Tunnels


Area Velocity Relation

From Eulers equation,

Applying this in above differential equation we


get,
(1)
Since the flow is isentropic,

Supersonic Wind Tunnels


Area Velocity Relation

Using above equation we have,

Rearranging we get,

This equation is called the area-velocity


relation. relation.

Supersonic Wind Tunnels


Area Velocity Relation
Case 1 : M < 1
For Velocity to increase ( dV +ve)
decrease ( dA ve )

Case 2 : M > 1
For velocity to increase ( dV +ve )
increase ( dA -ve )

Area should

Area should

Supersonic Wind Tunnels


Area Velocity Relation
Case 3 :

M=1

According to differential calculus for dV to be finite


(dV/V) should be in (0/0) form otherwise it will be
infinite (which is never true).

Thus dA/A is equal to zero which means that the


stream tube will have minimum area at M = 1. This
minimum area is called throat.

Supersonic Wind Tunnel Nozzles

In supersonic wind tunnel, smooth, uniform flow at


nozzle exit is usually desired. Hence long gradually
converging and diverging nozzle is employed.

Rocket Engine Nozzles

In rocket engine the flow quality at the exit is not quite


as important but the weight of the nozzle is a major
concern. Hence to minimize the weight, engine length is
minimized by rapid diverging in supersonic region.
1. All isentropic relations holds
good.
2. The variation of Mach
Number through the nozzle is
a function of ratio of crosssectional area to throat area
(A/At).

Rocket Engine Nozzles

Problem - 18

pe = 1.37 x 104
N/m2

Te = 178.6 K

e = 0.267
kg/m3

Problem - 19

Ae/At = 1.35

Discussion on Compressibility
From isentropic relationship
we have,

This validates the statement that

Intro to viscous Flow


dAlemberts paradox

The theory of aerodynamic


was unable to explain the
drag on the sphere.

The drag on the sphere can


only be explained by flow
separation.

Viscous Flow
Flow in Real Life

The Shear Stress at the wall


is given by,

Where,
viscosity of the gas.
(dV/dy)y=0 velocity gradient
at wall

Inertia Force

Viscous Force

Viscous Flow
Velocity Profile for Laminar & Turbulent
Boundary layer

Viscous Flow
Reynolds Number
Rex

The Reynolds number is an important non-dimensional


parameter determining the behavior of the flow. The
Reynolds number Rex is defined as,

Where,
x distance from leading edge
- Free stream density
V - Free stream velocity
- Free stream dynamic viscosity
The kinematic viscosity which is defined as = / .
Thus, the Reynolds number can also be written as

Viscous Flow
Reynolds Number
Re
The Reynolds number
isxan indication of the

importance of viscous effects.

Since the Reynolds number is inversely


proportional to the viscosity, a larger value of the
Reynolds number indicates that viscous effects will play
a smaller role in determining the behavior of the flow.

The physical significance of the Reynolds number


is as follows.
Re = Inertial
x

Force
Viscous
Force

Viscous Flow
Reynolds Number
Rex

Outside B.L. flow


Inviscid (high Re)

Within B.L. flow


highly viscous
(low Re)

The Practical
Significance of the
Reynolds Number

The resistance experienced by a wing in flight is a


function of the Reynolds Number. Normally, the Reynolds
Number is the decisive factor in the air-flow in
determining whether the inertial effect or the viscous
effect wins.
If the Reynolds Number is large, the viscosity effect is
small. That is the inertia or density forces dominate, and
the parasite drag increases with the square of the
velocity. However, although the viscosity is unimportant,
it may still affect the very thin boundary layer, leading to
the creation of turbulent flow.

A low Reynolds Number gives laminar flow while a


high Reynolds Number gives turbulent flow. For both a
laminar and a turbulent boundary layer increasing

The Practical
Significance of the
Reynolds Number

The change from laminar-flow conditions to

turbulent-flow conditions at the critical


Reynolds Number is not definite.

The ranges of the Reynolds Number under

which laminar- or turbulent-flow conditions


exist depends much on the shape and (mostly)
on the surface finish. It also depends on such
factors as the initial steadiness of flow,
absence of vibration, etc.
On the average on wing surface usually it

Reynolds Number
Qualitative

behaviors

of

fluid flow over a cylinder


depends to a large extent
on Reynolds number; similar
flow patterns often appear
when

the

Reynolds
matched,
parameters

shape

and

number

is

although
like

other
surface

roughness have a big effect

Viscous Flow
Reynolds Number & Skin Friction

Reynolds Number
As an object moves through the atmosphere, the gas
molecules of the atmosphere near the object are
disturbed and move around the object.Aerodynamic
forcesare generated between the gas and the object.
The magnitude of these forces depend on the shape of
the object, thespeedof the object, themassof the gas
going by the object and on two other important
properties of the gas; theviscosity, or stickiness, of the
gas and thecompressibility, or springiness, of the gas.
To properly model these effects, aerodynamicists
usesimilarity
parameterswhich
areratiosof
these
effects to other forces present in the problem. If two
experiments have the same values for the similarity
parameters, then the relative importance of the forces
are being correctly modeled. Representative values for
the properties ofairdepends on thestate of the gasand
on thealtitude.
Aerodynamic forces depend in a complex way on

Reynolds Number

To make things more confusing, the boundary


layer mayseparatefrom the body and create an
effective shape much different from the physical
shape. And to make it even more confusing, the flow
conditions in and near the boundary layer are
oftenunsteady(changing in time). The boundary layer
is very important in determining thedragof an object.
To
determine
and
predict
these
conditions,
aerodynamicists rely onwind tunneltesting and very
sophisticated computer analysis.

The important similarity parameter for viscosity is


theReynolds number. The Reynolds number expresses
the ratio
of inertial(resistant to change or motion)
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/kforces toviscous(heavy
and gluey) forces.
12/airplane/

Laminar Boundary Layer


(Incompressible Flow)

The Laminar Boundary Layer thickness is given by,

the local shear stress, then local skin friction coefficient at x is g

Laminar Boundary Layer


(Incompressible Flow)

From Laminar Boundary layer theory,


Combining above two equations we get,
Inference
Both Cfx and w for laminar
boundary layer vary as x-1/2 .

Laminar Boundary Layer


(Incompressible Flow)

otal skin friction drag is given by,

Where S is total are


, total skin friction drag is defined as,

sing equation for Df we get,

Turbulent Flow Boundary Layer


(Incompressible Flow)
Experimental Finding

Turbulent Flow Boundary Layer


(Incompressible Flow)
Experimental Finding

Transition from Laminar to


Turbulent

All Boundary Layers transit from laminar


to turbulent
Xcr - The value of x at transition point
Then the Reynold number corresponding to X cr is
called Critical Reynolds Number Rexcr .

Flow Separation

Flow Separation

Flow Separation : Consequences

Drastic Loss of Lift (Stall)

A major increase in Drag, caused by


pressure drag due to separation.

Viscous Effects on Drag:


Summary

Problems - 20

At 7620 m altitude, = 0.5495


kg/m3
At sea level, = 1.2250 kg/m3

Ve = 163.29
m/s

Boeing 797 : BLENDED WING DESIGN


1000 passengers
Wing span of 265 feet (B747 of 211
feet)
8800 nautical mile range
Cruises at M = .88
Will fit into terminals designed for
the Airbus 380
L/D will increase 50%
Weight is reduced by 25%
Its 33% more efficient than the
airbus

Have a Nice Weekend