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# BASIC AERODYNAMICS

## ROAD MAP FOR THIS CHAPTER

Airfoil

Fluid Elements

Fluid element
Infinitesimal volume that move with the fluid such that the
volume always contains the same matter.
e.g. A, B, C and D are fluid elements.

Flow in which there is no change in properties
over time at any point.
(x1, y1, z1) = Constant
P (x1, y1, z1) = Constant
V (x1, y1, z1) = Constant
Flow in which states of the flow change with
time at some or all points.
e.g. is expressed as (x, y, z, t)

## Pathlines and Streamlines

Pathlines

Pathlines
The line along which a fluid element travels.
Pathlines cannot intersect the same location at the
same instant in time.

## Pathlines and Streamlines

Streamli
nes

Streamlines
The line which is
everywhere tangent to the
velocity field at same time.
If the velocity field is time
dependent (i.e. flow is
streamlines will be a

Streamlines

## Fig shows the Pathlines for two fluid elements

Xa(t) & Xb(t)
While Pathlines appear to cross each other, in fact
Pathlines cannot intersect the same location at
the same instant in time.
Note : the Pathlines are tangent to the streamlines

## Compressible and Incompressible Flow

Compressible Flow
Flow in which density of the fluid element change
from point to point.
(x1, y1, z1) (x2, y2, z2)
All real life flows, strictly speaking are
compressible.
Incompressible Flow
Flow in which density of the fluid element is
always constant.
(x, y, z, t) = constant
Incompressible flow is a myth & can never actually
occur in nature.
Assumptions
Low speed flow of air ( V < 100 m/s or V < 225

## Viscous & Inviscid Flow

Viscous Flow
Flow with friction. e.g. Flow close to the solid
surface
The region of flow immediately adjacent to a solid
surface where friction is particularly dominant is
called a Boundary Layer.

Boundary Layer
Outer Edge: Point where velocity is equal to
stream velocity.
i.e. point b.
Inner Edge: Solid surface itself where velocity is

## Viscous & Inviscid Flow

Inviscid Flow
Flow without any friction.
Practically flow with negligible fluid friction can
be analyzed as inviscid flow.
Flow is effectively inviscid away from the solid
surface.

## Types of Viscous Flow

Laminar Flow
Streamlines are smooth and
regular.
Fluid elements moves smoothly
along a streamline.
Effect of forces due to viscosity
is significant when compared to
effect of inertia of the fluid
motion.
Reynolds number is not very
large.

Turbulent Flow
Streamlines break up and fluid
elements move in a random,
irregular, and chaotic fashion.
Flow velocity, direction & all

## Three Fundamental Principles

1. Mass can neither be created nor destroyed (mass is
conserved)
Law of Conservation of Mass
Often also called: Continuity

## 2. Sum of Forces = Time Rate Change of Momentum (Newton

2nd Law)
Often reduces to: Sum of Forces = Mass x Acceleration (F = m
Momentum Equation
Bernoullis Equation, Euler Equation, Navier-Stokes Equation
3. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed (energy is
conserved)
Can only change physical form
Energy Equation (1st Law of Thermodynamics)

CONTINUITY EQUATION

## Physical Principle being used : Law of Conservation of mass

Stream tube
A set of
streamlines that
intersect a closed
loop in space.
Streamlines
Characteristic

Pt 1

Pt 2

Cross-section
Area

A1

A2

Flow Velocity

V1

V2

Density

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Characteristic

Pt 1

Pt 2

Cross-section Area

A1

A2

Flow Velocity

V1

V2

Density

A1V1.dt

A2V2.dt

(dm)

1.A1V1.dt

2.A2V2.dt

## Mass Flow Rate. m =

1.A1V1
2.A2V2
dm/dt
mass can neither be created nor destroyed. Thus,

m1 = m2

1A1V1 = 2A2V2

Continuity Equation

For incompressible flow, 1 = 1. Thus,

A1V1 = A2V2

Problem- 1

Approach
Velocity < 100 m/s
Flow is
compressible/incompressible ?
Apply appropriate formulae.
1.67 m2

0.381 m/sec

SAME EXAMPLE

Given air flow through converging nozzle, what is exit area, A 2& pressure p2?

p1=1.2x105 N/m2
T1=330 K
V1=10 m/s
A1= 5m2

p2=?
T2=?
V2=30 m/s
A2=?

## IF flow speed < 100 m/s assume flow is incompressible (1=2)

m 1 m 2 1 A1V1 2 A2V2
A1V1 A2V2
V1
10 5
2
A2 A1 5
1.67 m
V2
30 3
Conservation of mass could also give velocity, V2, if A2 was known
18
Conservation of mass tells us nothing about p2, T2, etc.

Momentum Equation

Free Body
Diagram

in a streamline

## Fluid element moving in

X-direction at point P

Momentum Equation

## Forces acting on the Fluid Element

Pressure acting normal to all 6 surfaces.
Frictional shear acting tangentially on all 6
faces.
Gravity acting on the element.
Assumptions
Frictional forces ignored i.e. flow is ?
Element being very small the gravity is very
small compared to other forces & hence

Momentum Equation

## Consider forces along X axis.

Let pressure on left face =
. Thus Force on left
face =
Rate of change of p along X direction =
Hence pressure on right face =
Thus Force on right face =
Hence Net force along X- axis =
or

(1)

Momentum Equation
(1)

## Mass of the Fluid element,

(2)
Acceleration of the element along X- axis is given
by,
(3)

## As per Newtons 2nd law F = m a

Thus applying eq 1, 2 & 3 we get,

Momentum Equation

## This is Eulers Equation. Since it relates rate of

change of momentum to force it is also called
momentum equation.
This equation is valid for,
Inviscid Flow (frictionless).
Valid for both compressible & incompressible
flow.

Bernoullis Equation

## Consider a incompressible flow ( is constant). Let

points 1 and 2 be located along a given streamline
as shown above.
From Eulers Equation

or

## Integrating between point 1 and 2 we get,

or
or

or

Bernoullis Equation

## This is called Bernoullis Equation. This is most

fundamental equation in fluid mechanics.
Important points,
Valid for Inviscid Flow (frictionless).
Valid for only incompressible flow.
It relates properties between different points
along a streamline.
nd

## WHEN AND WHEN NOT TO APPLY

BERNOULLI
YES

NO

26

Problem- 2 & 3

1088.16 N/m2

Approach
Find p1 and from table of Standard
Atmosphere.
6.95 X 104 N/m2

Problem- 4

Approach

Known/Unknown
V1 & p2 given and we require p1 and to arrive
V2.p1 and from table of Standard
Find
at
p1 = 8.4312x104 N/m2,
Atmosphere.
kg/m3

= 1.0556

COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

## ROAD MAP FOR THIS CHAPTER

Elementary Thermodynamics

## Work on the system

Elementary Thermodynamics
Incremental surface area
of the boundary

## dA pushed in by a small distance s

Force on incremental area = p x dA
Hence, Work done on the system,
If the entire surface consisting of all elemental surfaces is
displaced by small distance s simultaneously then, then
total work done is given by,

Elementary Thermodynamics

(1)

## ng p to be constant throughout the surface we get,

represents change in volume of unit mass of gas.

## quation (1) can be expressed as,

(2)

can be give

Elementary Thermodynamics

(2)

## Applying eq (2) in above equation we get,

(3)

Elementary Thermodynamics
(3)

Enthalpy
Enthalpyis a measure of the totalenergyof
athermodynamic system. It is given by,
What is

## Differentiating this equation,

Using this in equation (3) we get,

(4)

## This equation is an alternate form of 1st law of

thermodynamics.

Elementary Thermodynamics
Specific Heat
Specific Heat is the heat added per unit change in
temperature of the
System.
Processes

Elementary Thermodynamics

Specific
Heat at

Elementary Thermodynamics
Isentropic Flow

Isentropic Process
remains constant
know

: Entropy

Elementary Thermodynamics
Isentropic Flow

## Integrating between point 1

&2

Elementary Thermodynamics
Isentropic
Flow

## Relates p, T & between two points on a streamline in

an isentropic flow.
Relevant to compressible flow only.

Problem- 5

Problems - 6

155 K, 2.26 kg/m3

ENERGY EQUATION
Physical Principle being used : Law of conservation of Energy

## From First law of thermodynamics

Alternate form of
First law of thermodynamics
From Eulers Equation
eq (2) become
Applying eq (3) we get

Integrating between
point 1 & 2
on a streamline

(1)
(2)
(3)

ENERGY EQUATION

we get,

## - Relates the T & V at two different points along a streamline.

- For analysis of compressible flow.

SUMMARY OF EQUATIONS

Problems - 7

T1= 255.69 K

## Cp= 1005 joule/kg.K

Put T1= 255.69 K, V1= 270 m/s,
V2= 330 m/s & Cp= 1005 j/kg.K in eq.
Put T1= 255.69 K, T2= 237.78 K,
P1= 5.4048 x 104 N/m2 &
= 1.4 in eq.

T2= 237.78 K

Problems - 8

## V1= 2414 kmph = 670.56 m/s ,

Cp= 1005 j/kg.K & find V2
For altitude of 15240 m find T1

T1= 216.66 K

Speed of Sound

Speed of Sound

## ce there are no geometrical shapes introduced, the area of stream tube

ain constant. i.e.

neglected

Speed of Sound

## Applying this in equation for a we have,

Speed of Sound

Hence,

Thus,

Speed of Sound

uation of states,

## eed of sound in a perfect gas depends only upon the Temperature, T of

Mach Number
Mach number is a dimensionless
measure of relative speed.
It is defined as the speed of an object
relative to a fluid medium, divided by the
speed of sound in that medium.

## where M is the Mach number,

is the
speed of the object relative to the
medium and
is the speed of sound in
the medium.

Mach Number

## Mach number is named after Austrian physicist and

philosopher Ernst Mach.

## It can be shown that the Mach number is also the

ratio of inertial forces (also referred to aerodynamic
forces).

number.
M2 = Ca

## The Cauchy Numberis a dimensionless value

useful for analysing fluid flow dynamics problems

Mach Number
High speed flights can be classified in
five categories

Subsonic : M < 1

Sonic

Transonic

Supersonic

## : 1.2 < M < 5

Hypersonic : M > 5

: M=1

Mach Number
Critical Mach number
A critical Mach number is the speed of an aircraft
(below Mach 1) when the air flowing over some area
of the airfoil has reached the speed of sound.
For instance, if the air flowing over a wing reaches
Mach 1 when the wing is only moving at Mach 0.8,
then the wings critical Mach number is 0.8.
Mach meter
A Mach meter is an aircraft instrument that shows
the ratio of the speed of sound to the true airspeed,
that is, it is an aircraft instrument that indicates
speed in Mach numbers.

Problems - 9

T= 216.66 K

M = 0.847

a = 295
m/s

Problems - 10

V = 1020.90
m/s
V = 3675.24
km/hr

Problems - 11

a = 294.05
m/s

M = 2.28

## Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Objective
Accurately simulate the fluid flow about atmospheric
vehicles.
Measure - Forces, moments, pressure, shear stress,
heat transfer, flow field (velocity, pressure, vorticity,

## Open vs. Closed Circuit Wind Tunnels

Open-Circuit Tunnel

Closed-Circuit Tunnel

and
Also

## Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Dependence of Test section velocity

## But from continuity equation

place of V1 ,

. Applying this in

## Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

The

most

method

of

convenient
measuring

( P1 P2 ) and hence
measuring V2 .

Manomete
r

## Low Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnel

Manomet
er

Let
A Cross-sectional area of the tube.
l - Density of the fluid.

## - specific weight of the fluid (weight per

unit volume) = l g
Hence, total weight of fluid above BB =

Manomet
er

## Since the fluid is stationary in the tube Forces on

both side of the tube must balance each other i.e.

Thus, measurement of
of the U tube would
directly measure the velocity of the airflow in the
test section.

Pressure
Transducers

Pressure Transducers

Problems - 12

## = 1.33 X 105 N/m3 , =

1.173 kg/m3

= 2.8

cm

Measurement of Airspeed
Pitot-Static tube

## Stagnation pressure = static pressure +

dynamic pressure

Measurement of Airspeed
Pitot-Static tube

Measurement of Airspeed
Pitot-Static tube

Measurement of Airspeed
Pitot-Static tube

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Incompressible Flow ( M < 0.3 )

Applying Bernoullis
equation,

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Incompressible Flow ( M < 0.3 )

## For low speed aero planes, airspeed indicators are

calibrated by using the standard sea-level value of
s. This gives the value of velocity called equivalent
velocity.

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Subsonic Compressible Flow
From definition of enthalpy and basic
thermodynamics,

Dividing by Cp
we get,

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Subsonic Compressible Flow

Let
T1 & V1 Free stream
Temp & Velocity (C).
P0 & T0 - Total Pressure
& Temp value after
Stagnation (B).
From Energy equation

get,

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Subsonic Compressible Flow
C

temp T1 we get
Thus,

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Subsonic Compressible Flow
C

we get,

Wher
e,

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Subsonic Compressible Flow
C

Puttin
g

## Use of this equation require a1 by measuring T1

which is difficult to measure . Hence at subsonic high
speed flow the airspeed indicator is calibrated by
assuming a1 = as = 340.3 m/s.

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Subsonic Compressible Flow
C

## Where, as & ps are the standard sea-level values of

the speed of sound and static pressure.
This equation is used for high speed subsonic
airspeed where M1 > 0.3

Problems - 13

p1
C

Bp

M = V/a = (250/329) =
0.76

p0 = 1.48 x 105
N/m2

Problems - 14

p1
C

Bp

1.328
N/m2

p1 = 8.54 x 104

Altitude = 1394 m

Problems - 15

p1
C

p0

T0 = 341.27 K

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

## When an airplane travels less than thespeed of

sound, the air ahead of it actually begins to flow out of
the waybefore the plane reaches it.

## The pressure waves created by the airplane

passing through the air end up being smooth and

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

## As an airplane reaches the speed of sound and

catches up to its own pressure waves, the air ahead of
it receives no warning of the planes approach.

ashock wave.

## Asair flowsthrough the shock wave, its pressure,

density, and temperature all increasesharply and
abruptly.

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave

## The leadingshock wave, or bow shock, created by a

sphere or another blunt shape remains detached from
the object.

## A second shock wave forms farther back, attached

to the sphere itself, where the airflow separates from

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave
Shock Waves are very thin regions of the flow (for
example, 10-4 cm) across which some very severe
changes in the flow properties take place.

## Measurement of Airspeed by Pitot-Static tube

Supersonic Flow : Shock Wave
Within the thin structure of a shock wave very large
friction and thermal conduction effects take place.

## Hence, the flow is neither is neither adiabatic nor

frictionless. i.e. the flow is non isentropic.

## Thus total pressure measured at the nose of the

Pitot probe will not be same as that associated with the
free stream.

## As per shock wave theory Rayleigh Pitot tube

formula is given by,

Problems - 16

Is the flow
supersonic ?
a = 297.3
m/s

get p1?

M = 2.0

p1 = 2.65 X 104
N/m2

## p02 = 1.49 X 105

N/m2

Problem - 17

7.824

p0 = 7.926 x 105
N/m2
(a)
5.639
p02 = 5.712 X 105
N/m2

Problem - 17

p0 = 7.926 x 105
N/m2
(a)

N/m2

(b)

p0 = 3.85 x 105
N/m2

## When an object moves faster than the speed of

sound, and there is an abrupt decrease in the flow
area, the flow process isirreversibleand the entropy
increases.Shock wavesare generated. Shock waves
are very small regions in the gas where thegas
properties change by a large amount.

Across
a
shock
wave,
staticpressure,temperature,
gasdensityincreases almost instantaneously.

the
and

## Because a shock wave does no work, and there is

no heat addition, the totalenthalpyand the total
temperature are constant.

## Because the flow is non-isentropic, the total

pressure downstream of the shock is always less
than the total pressure upstream of the shock. There
is a loss of total pressure associated with a shock

## Supersonic Wind Tunnels

Area Velocity Relation

Stream tube
A set of
streamlines that
intersect a closed
loop in space.
Streamlines

From continuity
equation,

Differentiating we
have,

## Supersonic Wind Tunnels

Area Velocity Relation

## Applying this in above differential equation we

get,
(1)
Since the flow is isentropic,

## Supersonic Wind Tunnels

Area Velocity Relation

## Using above equation we have,

Rearranging we get,

## This equation is called the area-velocity

relation. relation.

## Supersonic Wind Tunnels

Area Velocity Relation
Case 1 : M < 1
For Velocity to increase ( dV +ve)
decrease ( dA ve )

Case 2 : M > 1
For velocity to increase ( dV +ve )
increase ( dA -ve )

Area should

Area should

## Supersonic Wind Tunnels

Area Velocity Relation
Case 3 :

M=1

## According to differential calculus for dV to be finite

(dV/V) should be in (0/0) form otherwise it will be
infinite (which is never true).

## Thus dA/A is equal to zero which means that the

stream tube will have minimum area at M = 1. This
minimum area is called throat.

## In supersonic wind tunnel, smooth, uniform flow at

nozzle exit is usually desired. Hence long gradually
converging and diverging nozzle is employed.

## In rocket engine the flow quality at the exit is not quite

as important but the weight of the nozzle is a major
concern. Hence to minimize the weight, engine length is
minimized by rapid diverging in supersonic region.
1. All isentropic relations holds
good.
2. The variation of Mach
Number through the nozzle is
a function of ratio of crosssectional area to throat area
(A/At).

## Rocket Engine Nozzles

Problem - 18

pe = 1.37 x 104
N/m2

Te = 178.6 K

e = 0.267
kg/m3

Problem - 19

Ae/At = 1.35

Discussion on Compressibility
From isentropic relationship
we have,

## The theory of aerodynamic

was unable to explain the
drag on the sphere.

## The drag on the sphere can

only be explained by flow
separation.

Viscous Flow
Flow in Real Life

## The Shear Stress at the wall

is given by,

Where,
viscosity of the gas.
at wall

Inertia Force

Viscous Force

Viscous Flow
Velocity Profile for Laminar & Turbulent
Boundary layer

Viscous Flow
Reynolds Number
Rex

## The Reynolds number is an important non-dimensional

parameter determining the behavior of the flow. The
Reynolds number Rex is defined as,

Where,
- Free stream density
V - Free stream velocity
- Free stream dynamic viscosity
The kinematic viscosity which is defined as = / .
Thus, the Reynolds number can also be written as

Viscous Flow
Reynolds Number
Re
The Reynolds number
isxan indication of the

## Since the Reynolds number is inversely

proportional to the viscosity, a larger value of the
Reynolds number indicates that viscous effects will play
a smaller role in determining the behavior of the flow.

is as follows.
Re = Inertial
x

Force
Viscous
Force

Viscous Flow
Reynolds Number
Rex

## Outside B.L. flow

Inviscid (high Re)

## Within B.L. flow

highly viscous
(low Re)

The Practical
Significance of the
Reynolds Number

## The resistance experienced by a wing in flight is a

function of the Reynolds Number. Normally, the Reynolds
Number is the decisive factor in the air-flow in
determining whether the inertial effect or the viscous
effect wins.
If the Reynolds Number is large, the viscosity effect is
small. That is the inertia or density forces dominate, and
the parasite drag increases with the square of the
velocity. However, although the viscosity is unimportant,
it may still affect the very thin boundary layer, leading to
the creation of turbulent flow.

## A low Reynolds Number gives laminar flow while a

high Reynolds Number gives turbulent flow. For both a
laminar and a turbulent boundary layer increasing

The Practical
Significance of the
Reynolds Number

## turbulent-flow conditions at the critical

Reynolds Number is not definite.

## which laminar- or turbulent-flow conditions

exist depends much on the shape and (mostly)
on the surface finish. It also depends on such
factors as the initial steadiness of flow,
absence of vibration, etc.
On the average on wing surface usually it

Reynolds Number
Qualitative

behaviors

of

## fluid flow over a cylinder

depends to a large extent
on Reynolds number; similar
flow patterns often appear
when

the

Reynolds
matched,
parameters

shape

and

number

is

although
like

other
surface

## roughness have a big effect

Viscous Flow
Reynolds Number & Skin Friction

Reynolds Number
As an object moves through the atmosphere, the gas
molecules of the atmosphere near the object are
disturbed and move around the object.Aerodynamic
forcesare generated between the gas and the object.
The magnitude of these forces depend on the shape of
the object, thespeedof the object, themassof the gas
going by the object and on two other important
properties of the gas; theviscosity, or stickiness, of the
gas and thecompressibility, or springiness, of the gas.
To properly model these effects, aerodynamicists
usesimilarity
parameterswhich
areratiosof
these
effects to other forces present in the problem. If two
experiments have the same values for the similarity
parameters, then the relative importance of the forces
are being correctly modeled. Representative values for
the properties ofairdepends on thestate of the gasand
on thealtitude.
Aerodynamic forces depend in a complex way on

Reynolds Number

## To make things more confusing, the boundary

layer mayseparatefrom the body and create an
effective shape much different from the physical
shape. And to make it even more confusing, the flow
conditions in and near the boundary layer are
oftenunsteady(changing in time). The boundary layer
is very important in determining thedragof an object.
To
determine
and
predict
these
conditions,
aerodynamicists rely onwind tunneltesting and very
sophisticated computer analysis.

## The important similarity parameter for viscosity is

theReynolds number. The Reynolds number expresses
the ratio
of inertial(resistant to change or motion)
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/kforces toviscous(heavy
and gluey) forces.
12/airplane/

## Laminar Boundary Layer

(Incompressible Flow)

## Laminar Boundary Layer

(Incompressible Flow)

## From Laminar Boundary layer theory,

Combining above two equations we get,
Inference
Both Cfx and w for laminar
boundary layer vary as x-1/2 .

## Laminar Boundary Layer

(Incompressible Flow)

## Where S is total are

, total skin friction drag is defined as,

## Turbulent Flow Boundary Layer

(Incompressible Flow)
Experimental Finding

## Turbulent Flow Boundary Layer

(Incompressible Flow)
Experimental Finding

Turbulent

## All Boundary Layers transit from laminar

to turbulent
Xcr - The value of x at transition point
Then the Reynold number corresponding to X cr is
called Critical Reynolds Number Rexcr .

Flow Separation

Flow Separation

## A major increase in Drag, caused by

pressure drag due to separation.

Summary

Problems - 20

## At 7620 m altitude, = 0.5495

kg/m3
At sea level, = 1.2250 kg/m3

Ve = 163.29
m/s

## Boeing 797 : BLENDED WING DESIGN

1000 passengers
Wing span of 265 feet (B747 of 211
feet)
8800 nautical mile range
Cruises at M = .88
Will fit into terminals designed for
the Airbus 380
L/D will increase 50%
Weight is reduced by 25%
Its 33% more efficient than the
airbus