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Chapter 15

Civil Society
and
Non Government Organizations

Presented by Group 2

Content
Part I
Civil Society and Governance
Types of Civil Society Organizations
Part II
The Nature, Evolution and Role of NGOs
Relationship Between Governments and
Donor Agencies and the NGOs


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Civil Society Organization


TRUST ( )

Common
Interest

Civil
Society
Organizati
on

Reciprocity

Civil Society Organizations

Fills the space bet. Individual & Gov.


Comprises voluntary
groups(organized/unorganized)interacting
socially, politically, economically for the common
interest of people
Historically grown around traditional/religious
Includes organizations : trade unions, community
organizations, citizenswatchdog communities,
co-op, professional groups, tribal and other
groups of indegenous populations, associations
based on region, gender, race, culture and
language,etc.

Civil Society Organizations

Intermidiary or citizen-organized
A strong and active CS is the foundation of
Governance: Transparency, Accountability,
Participation and the Rule of Law
Idea of CS as a corrective force to both
arbitrary gov & imperfect markets in 19th
century

Political system
institutionalized
(Check and Balance)

Courts

Government

Legislators

Media
Elections

Political
groups
Parties
Opposition
s

The things the society


needs
(Goods, Services, Values,
Interests)

Business
Business
groups
groups

Market

TU, EI,
Judi,
Grassroot
s org:

Co-op,
NGOs

Contributions to society
All Citizens (Public)

Interes
t
groups

Civil Society

Producer or Product

Compliment or Against State

Positive or Negative

Profit or Non Profit

Political or Social

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NGOs and its Nature

Broad and ambiguous


Vary in mandate, size, staff, resources, type of activities
Part of Civil Society
A major speaker & partner for Govt & Intl agencies.
4 Characteristics :

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Voluntary,
Independent
Non-Profit
Intended to help needy people or address broad public problems
(e.g: environmental protection)

Evolution of NGOs

Over the Past 50 years, NGOs have emerged as a


major supporting point and lobby for development
and for social concerns at domestic and global level

In the last decade, NGOs have expanded


substantially, mainly because of widespread
concerns about big government, the search for
alternative methods of service delivery, the shift to
poverty reduction as the key goal of international aid,
and the need to address the exclusion of minorities
and weaker groups.

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Role of NGOs

NGOs work extended for human needs such as health,


education, rural & urban development, environment,
population, social welfare, employment creation,
training, gender, the informal sector, indigenous people
rights, peace and human rights.

Activities range from care and welfare provision to


service delivery, resource mobilization, research &
innovation, public information & advocacy.

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main differences

Advocacy NGOs and Service NGOs


International NGOs and National or local NGOs

Can be project base, National , umbrella or


network NGOs and International NGOs.

Can help Govt services more effective; mobilize


local resources; provide checks & balances on
the use of Government power

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Relationship between Governments and


Donor agencies and the NGOs
Govt-NGO relationships involving contracted service
delivery and resource mobilization need 5 types of
partnership;
Mobilization

& supporting the community


Facilitation of large Govt programs (research, training &
evaluation)
Alternative delivery system
Partnership for Policy & Program formulation
Dialogues on policy or program issues
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Need for Caution in Supporting NGOs


Donor-NGOs relationship:
External funding agencies have supported many NGO
initiatives and partnerships partly because of a justified
belief that NGOs can be more efficient than Govt
agencies for service delivery to the poor
Sometimes also led to distortion and to determining
the activities of NGOs by donor preferences rather than
by community needs.
Govt & Donor agencies needs:
Distinguishing genuine and dedicated NGOs from fake
organization formed exclusively to attract a share of the
money.
Govt should do survey of existing NGOs
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Collaboration between Govt & NGOs

Govt can built mutual trust and closer links with


NGOs
NGO collaboration with Govt and donors can be
helpful to both sides, but requires attention to several
issue.
Govt side:
To many actors involved
Weak Coordination (Central & Local)
NGO side:
Limited management capacity
Dispersal of attention
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Conclusion
by
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Directions of Improvements

Active CSO strengthen the interface between the citizens


and their Govt and are thus important both for quality if
governance and for improvements in public services.

General directions reform especially relevant for PA


include:
Strengthening the roles of formal CSO
Supporting grass-roots organizations
Encouraging the growth and efforts of informal voluntary
groups
Recognizing the roles of traditional customary institutions
Facilitating the emergence of public interest citizens group

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Govt should improve their relations with NGOs


(not only voluntary and independent but also
nonprofit and public interest oriented)

Generic requirements for improved relations :


With advocacy NGOs

Open channels of communications


the willingness to listen to diverse point of view

With service NGOs

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Can help considerably in the design of govt program


Delivery of public services

NGOs should be:

Accountable for the use of funds and the


effectiveness of their operations
More flexible and cost-conscious in their
procedures
More willing to recognize a wider range of
viewpoints
More participatory and bottom-up in their
management style; and
More willing to network with other NGOs.
Excellent partners for Govt
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Financial support

From
government
and
equally
significant,
assistance in building up the NGOs management
and operational capacity are important, but the
organization must be careful not to allow such
support to weaken its independence, critical
attitude, or capacity to exert pressure on the
government.

Similarly, donor support should not distort the


mission and mandate of the NGO, and partnership
with a large INGO should always leave the LNGO
stronger rather than more dependent.
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On the other hand, government and donors, should


be careful in their dealings with NGOs and not
inadvertently support NGOs created solely to benefit
from public funds or to provide cover for vested
interest.
Finally, it is advisable to conduct and keep up to date
a survey of NGOs, to identify those with:
Transparent governance
Prudent financial management
Audited and published accounts and
Established reputation among grassroots organizations
and peer agencies
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Thank you !
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