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Engine block of a 500 cc motorcycle

Process type
Direct Shell Production Casting
Material used
A356 T6 aluminum
Product and material requirements and specialties
Typical requirements involved in high performance engine
manufacture like high strength, strict tolerance etc...

Cellular phone keypad and


display enclosures

Cellular phone keypad and display enclosures

Process type Thixotropic molding


Material used AZ-91D magnesium alloy
Product and material requirements and specialties
The components walls are between 0.8 and 1.0 mm thick, with a total casting weight of 105 grams.
Process requirements and specialties and specialties
Capability of accurately casting the small details involved and economical large scale production
Process Details
This component was cast by injecting semi-solid state magnesium into a closed die in a similar manner
to plastic injection molding.
Problems Encountered. NA
Process advantages
1. Improved rigidity and impact resistance and impact resistance over previous plastic injection molding
manufacture
2. Capability of providing electro-magnetic interference shielding without external coatings or plating.

Component: 1.5 meter valve for a municipal water works


Material:No lead brass
Process: Green sand

Cast Component: Steering column upper bearing assembly for Mitsubishi.


Material:Aluminum.
Process: Diecasting.

Air intake
manifold for
4 cylinder
engine

Ice cutter used in an industrial ice machine.


Process type Investment casting.
Material used 316 stainless steel.
Product and material requirements and
specialties
High rigidity and hardness
Process requirements and specialties
No warping and stress concentrations to be
developed.
Process Details
1. An investment precoat was applied to increase
the surface smoothness of the pattern.
2. The expendable pattern was surrounded by a
refractory slurry
3. Machining to specifications
4. Solution annealing

1.

Infrared Microscope Frame

Process type Vacuum molding


Material used A356-T6 aluminum alloy
Product and material requirements and specialties
The weight of the product is to be minimum.
The product should be sufficiently rigid to avoid any errors.
Process requirements and specialties and specialties
Wall thickness should not be greater than 0.2 in anywhere in
the casting. So draft should be minimum.
Machining of the various small parts that are present should
be minimum to reduce cost.
Tolerance of the order of 0.015-0.020 in.
Process Details
A heater softens a thin plastic that drapes over a pattern on a
hollow carrier plate.
A vacuum then draws the film tightly around the pattern and a
flask is placed on the pattern to prepare it for the back fill of
sand.
The sand is compacted, the back of the mold is covered with a
plastic film and a vacuum is applied to the flask
Atmospheric pressure hardens the mold, preparing it for the
pouring of metal.

Pistol frame for Smith & Wesson.

Process type Die-casting.


Material used A380 aluminum alloy.
Product and material requirements
and specialties
Process requirements and specialties
and specialties
First instance of manufacturing of
the gun frame by die casting.
Capability of economically
producing large quantities.

Rocker arm for BMW engines

Process type Counter gravity investment casting


Material used Carbon steel.
Product and material requirements and specialties
As the camshaft rpm increases, the rocker arms run faster and hotter. These
components must withstand the temperatures and pressure of engine operation.
Process requirements and specialties
Zero surface defects
Ability to handle extremely large production volume.
Process Details
Ceramic molds are manufactured from wax patterns
The molds are inverted and then filled with molten metal
(via pressure) from the bottom to the top.

V6 cylinder block for a 3.9 liter


automobile engine

Process type Cosworth precision sand casting.


Material used. 319 aluminum alloy.
Product and material requirements and specialties
Usual requirements of cylinder block like exact tolerance, rigidity etc.
Process Details
1. A cast-in cylinder liner process is used. Cores for the molding process are made of
zircon sand (which has superior thermal characteristics) to minimize machine stock
and required wall thickness.
2. Core oil galleries are as-cast, requiring no internal machining and minimal wall
thickness. The Cosworth casting process utilizes a rollover casting technique that
improves casting yield for the block to 72%, reducing component cost for the
customer.

Internal Interface Frame for LCD Digital Projector


Process type Plaster mold with rapid prototyping
Material used Magnesium
Product and material requirements and
specialties
1.Low weight ; High structural stiffness and low
thermal expansion to maintain component
alignment ; High thermal conductivity and high
heat tolerance (Local temperatures as high as
250C.)

Process requirements and specialties and specialties

1.

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Ability to achieve complex thin wall shape and precision features with typical post-machine tolerances of +/-0.1 mm. ; Near-net shape forming to minimize machining operations and cost. ; Capability of production rates up to 80,000 units per year
Process Details
An SLA resin model is made from the CAD file.
A silicon master mold is made from this resin model.
A reusable urethane model is made from the above mold.
Individual cope and drag molds are made.
Metal is poured into the mold and allowed to solidify
Sprue and riser is cut off(Due to near net casting no major machining operation is necessary)
Inspection and shipping
Process Advantages
Improved rigidity
Reduced component cost

Bull gear for rotating large


platforms in the oil industry

Process type
Material used
Product
and
material
requirements and specialties
A high-strength alloy steel per
ASTM-A-148, Grade 115/95 with
minimum 115,000-psi ultimate
tensile strength
95,000-psi yield strength
4% elongation
30% reduction of area
diameter of 62 ft.
558 teeth, 0.75 DP stub teeth.

GOLF CLUBS

Process type
Solid imaging
Material used. NA
Product and material
requirements and specialties
Radical design over
conventional golf clubs
Process requirements and
specialties
Manufacture of two sets of irons
from design in 1 week

Continued..

GOLF CLUBS- Process Details


Actua 2100 from 3D Systems was chosen as the solid imaging device.
The printer transforms CAD ideaslike the golf clubsinto physical reality
using solid imaging technology. . It uses an approach similar to ink jet
printing, but the jets dispense a plastic-like material to create the solid model.
It uses this plastic-like material to create wax patterns with very thin walls
and intricate undercut geometry. In addition, the speed of the printer makes it
possible to produce designs in one day, allowing timely product
development, testing and creation. The printer also can generate wax
prototypes that help to match the prototyping system to the production
process.
50 wax patterns were created on the printer and sent them to the investment
foundry for casting and finishing. In investment casting, a ceramic shell is
built around a wax pattern, which is burned out of the mold before molten
metal is poured in.
Problems Encountered
Extremely small time frame gave no scope for process iterations and
refinements.
Process advantages
The player who used the golf clubs produced won the tournament!!

ATM
Counter

Process type Gravity permanent mold casting


Material used A360 aluminum

1.

Product and material requirements and specialties


Tamper proof assembly; Good aesthetic appearance
Process requirements and specialties
Production figures of up to 100 components/week,
The parting plane on the casting had to be horizontal
The metal feeding system into the mold could not use side feeders
Process Details
Redesign of the product from earlier manufacturing process (plastic injection) ;
Modeling of the casting using a software named magma soft ; Pouring of the
molten metal into the permanent mold ; The casting needed to be filled in less
than 10 sec (to eliminate the possibility of pouring defects) with the aid of gravity
only ; Solidification of the casting within 12-15 s.
Problems Encountered
Mold filling and solidification has to be quick to avoid the porosity.; In a flat area
of the casting, porosity could be only minimized and not completely avoided.
Process advantages
Reduced cost over previous manufacturing method (plastic molding); Improved
surface appearance.
Improved functionality (tamper proof)

Heat exchanger used for a


steam-generation application.

Material:Class 35 gray iron.Process: Nobake


sand molding.Casting Supplier: Wellsville
Foundry, Inc., Wellsville, Ohio.

The 115-lb, 23-in.-long casting contains seven


rings of 31 fins each. The component
originally consisted of seven fabrications
welded together to form a continuous ring
tube welded to an end cap and flange.
The new one-piece casting design (with 217
0.25-in.-wide fins) features uniform wall
thickness and is non-leaking because it has
no weld joints.
The casting offers a significant lead time
reduction compared to the previous
fabrication/assembly, lasts longer and
improves the efficiency of the final product
while providing a significant cost savings to
the customer.

Axle housing for Goodman


Equipment Corp
.Material:Steel.Process:

Chemically bonded
sand.Casting Supplier:
Columbiana Foundry Co.,
Columbiana, Ohio.
This 36 x 11 x 24-in. casting
was originally designed as a
machined weldment.
By converting the
component to casting, a 33%
cost savings was realized by
the customer due to the
elimination of the assembly
time for the component.

Investment Casting Reduces SubAssembly Time by 87%, Cost by


51%

The tab ring liner,


originally designed as 16
separate machined tabs
that were welded together,
was converted to a single
investment casting,
reducing sub-assembly
cost by $44.00 and time by
26 min. Pictured counterclockwise from top are the
ring welded onto the sheet
metal tube, the cast double
ring, the single ring and
the completed assembly.

Manifold for fire-fighting


equipment
Material:65-45-12 ductile iron.
Process: Green sand casting.
Casting Supplier: Versa Iron and
Machine, St. Paul, Minnesota.
This 90-lb manifold was
converted from a stainless steel
weldment at a per piece cost
savings of $550.45 (annual
savings of $220,180 with 400 part
volume).
The tooling payback for the
pattern, coreboxes and machine
fixtures was realized within the
first 6 weeks of production

Chassis for joy stick tensioning in an


aircraft flight simulator for S.C.T., Inc
.Material:A356-T6 aluminum alloy.

Process: Nobake sand casting.


Casting Supplier: Danko Arlington,
Inc., Baltimore, Maryland.
This 14-lb component was
converted from an aluminum
weldment at a cost (due to reduced
welding and fabrication man-hours)
and weight savings.
Measuring 16 x 9 x 14 in., the
casting is a simpler design than the
weldment with improved rigidity.

Fabrication (Left) Casting (Right)


Cast Component: Annealing
furnace pedestal for a steel mill.
Material:ASTM A-297 grade HH
heat resistant stainless steel.
Process: Nobake sand casting.
Casting Supplier: Wellsville
Foundry, Wellsville, Ohio.
This one-piece, 25-lb casting
replaced a stainless steel
fabrication at a 67% cost savings.
The cost reduction is due to the
elimination of fabrication and
assembly man-hours.

Air-ride suspension arm for buses


that suspends the bus frame on
the front and rear axles

.Material:80-55-06 ductile iron.


Process: Green sand casting.
Casting Supplier: Donsco, Inc., Mt.
Joy, Pennsylvania.
Converted from a steel
stamping/fabrication, the 120-lb
casting provided the customer a
50% total cost savings (including
assembly time).
The foundry casts paints and
machines the component, and
assembles a sub-system for the
customer. The assemblies are
shipped directly to the customers
manufacturing line

Bracket for a piston cooling


system on a railroad locomotive
.Material:953 aluminum bronze.

Process: Permanent mold casting.


Casting Supplier: Aurora Metals, L.L.C. (Hiler
Industries), Montgomery, Illinois.
This 0.8-lb component was converted to
permanent mold casting to eliminate the leaks
inherent in the previous manufacturing method. In
addition, the conversion realized a cost savings by
reducing man-hours and eliminating heat treatment
as permanent mold casting achieves the required
mechanical properties.
Permanent mold casting allows a stainless steel
tube insert to be cast directly into the bracket.
The casting design and gating system were
engineered using solidification modeling, ensuring
a quality casting from the first shot.

Fuel rail housing


for four-cylinder,
2.0- and 2.2-L
passenger car
models

.Material:Aluminum

.Process: Semi-solid casting.


Casting Supplier: Madison-Kipp Corp., Madison, Wisconsin.
An engine configuration required a fuel rail housing capable of withstanding high levels of impact
without failure. The customer decided that traditional fabricated brazed steel tube and plastic
designs would not meet the stringent impact requirements and opted for a cast component.
The customer, first-tier supplier and casting and machining component supplier worked together
to develop a casting that met the 7000-lb crash test load while keeping costs to a minimum.
Increased dimensional accuracy of critical features produced close tolerance machining for
special features and resulted in leak-free performance without impregnation (this was aided by
semi-solids inherent low porosity characteristic).

Gearbox for Daytona Prototypes


Material:356 aluminum
Process: Nobake sandCasting Supplier:
Olson Aluminum Castings, Rockford,
Illinois.

The 44-lb gearbox requires extensive machining


after casting and therefore is produced void,
porosity, oxide and shrink free.
356 aluminum allowed the foundry to achieve the
high strength-to-weight ratio necessary of
components for competitive motor sports.

Sand casting and its low-cost tooling


requirement allowed for engineering
changes and quick tool modifications as
well as eleven different components in the
program to be produced in record time.

Tensioner pulley for tire manufacturing


Material:Gray iron
Process: No bake sandCasting
Supplier: Wellsville Foundry,
Wellsville, Ohio
This 175-lb component is used
as a brake that puts tension on a
4 ft. wide roll of rubber feeding
into a tire press.
Converted from a steel
fabrication (two ring burn-outs
with spokes), the foundry
provided the end-user with a
50% cost savings.

Oil pump cover


Material:Ductile iron
Process: Green sandCasting
Supplier: Cambridge Brass, Cambridge,
Ontario, Canada.
This 70-lb component, which holds oil
for a gear drive sump pump, was
converted from a six-piece weldment at
a 40% cost reduction.
The conversion to casting eliminated
seven manufacturing steps for the enduser, reducing material handling. In
addition, the elimination of weld joints
eliminated oil leakage problems the
fabrication was experiencing.

Prototyping for Direct Metal Casting: Data to Castings in 12 hours

Pictured is a prototype sand mold and the resultant aluminum pipe casting
produced from it.One of the hurdles facing todays foundries as they try to
grow market share is lead time. Customers want sample cast parts today to fit
into their product designs for form, fit and function. If the foundry cant deliver,
then the customer will turn to a fabricator for a quick solution.

A bearing bracket used in the drive system


on a self-propelled lawn mower
.Material:8620 steel alloy.Process: Investment
(lost wax) casting.Casting Supplier: Signicast
Corp., Hartford, Wisconsin.

Agricultural component

This 0.91-lb bearing bracket casting, which was


previously formed from the assembly of a laser-cut
plate that was welded to a hub machined from bar
stock, has the added ability to adjust the alignment
and tension of the belts within the drive system.
The casting design provided an 83% cost
reduction, which equals $12.65/component. Part of
this cost savings is due to the simplified endproduct assembly that results from the hex shapes
being cast for adjustment purposes.
The finished cast component is supplied by the
foundry after undergoing tapping, boring and
plating.

Knotter frame for a hay-baling


machine for New Holland
.Material:ASTM 842-85 grade 350

Agricultural component

compacted graphite iron (CGI).Process:


Green sand casting.Casting Supplier:
R.H. Sheppard Co., Inc., Hanover,
Pennsylvania.
In the previous design, the end-user was
experiencing failure (breakage) in the
components thin sections during use.
As a result, it was converted to a CGI
casting to improve strength to 50,000 psi
and durability of these sections.
The conversion to CGI and its improved
strength also provided the foundry with
an opportunity to reduce the weight of
the component to 8.75 lb.

Lawnmower gear and axle


.Material:ASTM 897 grade 200-15501 austempered ductile
iron.Process: Green sand
casting.Casting Supplier: Applied
Process, Inc., Livonia, Michigan.
Previously manufactured as a
three-piece carburized steel
assembly, the gear and axle casting
was converted to austempered
ductile iron at a cost savings.
After austempering at the heat treat
facility, the casting is machined
complete before shipment to the
customer.

Agricultural component

Mower bracket.

Agricultural component

Material:Ductile iron.Process: Green


sand casting.Casting Supplier:
Dotson Co., Inc., Mankato, Minnesota.
The customer experienced tolerance
inconsistencies between fabricated
parts on the original steel weldment,
prompting the switch to a single
component casting.
The original weldment cost the
customer $12/piece to manufacture.
By converting to ductile iron casting,
the customer saves $60,000 annually.
In addition to casting, the foundry is
machining the part, providing the
customer with a finished appearance.

Shifter fork assembly for a


combine transmission

Agricultural component

.Material:953 aluminum bronze.Process:

Permanent mold casting.Casting Supplier: Aurora


Metals, LLC, Montgomery, Illinois.
This component previously was manufactured as
a multi-part iron assembly. The pictured
assembly consists of two components riveted
together and pinned onto a finished shaft.
The stronger, redesigned cast component
pictured is created from a stainless steel shaft
that is pre-heated and locked in place in the
permanent mold casting die as liquid aluminum
bronze is poured around it.
The 1.5-lb finished cast component has a tensile
strength of 65,000-75,000 psi and a yield strength
of 25,000-27,000 psi. It also reduces necessary
secondary operations and handling.

CAD solid model (top), SLS polycarbonate pattern (left),


A356 aluminum casting (right).

Cam clamp used to secure


ambulance gurnees.
Material:
Stainless
steel.
Process:
Investment
casting.
Casting Supplier:
Independent Steel
Castings Co., Inc.,
New Buffalo,
Michigan.

Mounting bracket for


centrifuge.

medical

Material: CF3M stainless steel.


Process: Investment casting.
Casting Supplier: Vestshell,
Inc., Montreal, Quebec,
Canada.

Duck bill for White Cap, L.L.C. to seal


caps on food jars.
Material:316L
stainless steel.
Process: Investment
casting.
Casting Supplier:
Northern Precision
Casting Co., Lake
Geneva, Wisconsin.

Fan frame hub for General Electrics CF6-80C engine for Boeings aircraft.
Process type Investment casting.
Material used Titanium.
Product and material
requirements and specialties
Large dimensions(52-in.dia)
Process requirements and
specialties
Capability of handling the
problems encountered in large
castings

Racing car upright


Material: Titanium 6246.
Process: Investment
casting.
Casting Supplier:
Coastcast Corp., Rancho
Dominguez, California.

Housing actuator for an engine for


Hamilton Sundstrand.
Material:
A203
aluminum alloy.
Process: Investment
casting.
Casting Supplier:
Cabiran, Ltd., Kibbutz
Cabri, Israel.

AAW 5-M handheld missile-launching system


Process type
Investment casting
Material used A357-T6 aluminum
Product and material requirements
and specialties
Maximum weight reduction to reduce
operator fatigue
Process requirements and specialties
Reduction of wall thickness as much
as possible(less than 0.04 in with
the overall dimensions15 x 14 x 7.5
in)

Cast Component: Vacuum Vessel for the


power generation industry
Material:Inconel 625
Process: Investment Casting

Supplier: Bescast, Inc., Willoughby,


Ohio

The 5-lb casting is one-tenth scale of the


vacuum vessel for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) being
developed by the Princeton Plasma Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National
Laboratory as the next generation of fusion experiment. The scale model was
investment cast to determine the feasibility of using a casting for a vacuum
vessel with complex geometry.
To meet the rush timeline (with the help of buycastings.com), SLS rapid prototyping
techniques were employed to make the complicated wax patterns from a CAD/STL file in 2

SEMI-PERMANENT MOLD CASTING


Semi-permanent mold is a casting process producing Aluminum alloy castings - using reusable metal molds and sand cores to form internal
passages within the casting. Molds are typically
arranged in two halves - the sand cores being put
into place before the two halves are placed
together. The molten metal flows into the mold
cavity and surrounds the sand core while filling the
mold cavity. When the casting is removed from the
mold the sand core is removed from the casting
leaving an internal passage in the casting.

The re-usable metal molds are used time and


again, but the sand cores have to be replaced
each time the product is cast, hence the term
semi-permanent molding.
Semi-permanent molding affords a very high
precision quality to the casting at a reduced
price compared to the sand casting processes.

Aluminum composite alloy


Material: 359/SiC/20p
aluminum composite alloy.
Process:Semipermanentmold casting.
Casting Supplier: Eck
Industries,Inc., Manitowoc,
Wisconsin.

The brake rotor was converted to an aluminum metal


matrix composite (MMC) alloy casting at a 50% weight
reduction, with the same casting yield and without a
loss in performance.
In terms of mechanical properties, the aluminum MMC
brake rotors modulus and its wear rate in application
are the same as cast iron.

Bucket chain link for a conveyor


system
Material:C95410
nickel
aluminum
bronze.
Process:Permanent
mold casting.
Casting Supplier:
Piad Precision
Casting Corp.,
Greensburg,
Pennsylvania.

Previously made from two steel stampings welded


together with two tube sections and subsequently
tin-plated for corrosion resistance (r), this bronze
cast component (l) now is a one-piece permanent
mold casting.
The cast component (l) exhibits good corrosion
resistance (without plating or

Manual Trip
Material:Copper
aluminum
bronze
alloy.
Process: Permanent
mold casting.
CastingSupplier:
Piad
Precision
Casting
Corp.,
Greensburg,
Pennsylvannia.

Brake drum for commercial


highway Class 8 trucks and
trailers.
Material:Gray iron.
Process: Centrifugal
casting.

Felsted Division/Furons foot pedal


control lever.
Material: Zamak 3.
Process: Diecasting.
Casting Supplier:
CrecoCast, Seville,
Ohio.

Cast Component: Monocoque Scooter Chassis for Hondas Super Sport Scooter.
Material:JIS ADC12 (a 383 aluminum alloy equivalent).
Process: Diecasting.

Instrument panel frame for the


Cadillac DeVille.
Material:
AZ91
magnesium alloy.
Process: Diecasting.
Casting Supplier:
Intermet Corps
Hannibal Plant,
Hannibal, Missouri.

Cast Component: Valve spacers for Warren Rupps Sandpiper II


air-actuated pumps.
Material:ZA-8 zinc alloy
Process: Die casting.

Valve spacers for Warren Rupps Sandpiper


II air-actuated pumps.
Material: ZA-8 zinc
alloy.
Process: Diecasting.
Casting Supplier:
CrecoCast, Seville,
Ohio.

Allen-Bradley housing

Process type
Die casting
Material used
A380 aluminum alloy
Product
and
material
requirements and specialties
1. The component needed to be sturdy
enough to withstand the outside
elements and provide easy access
to the inner drive it encased.
2. Portions of the part are visible after
assembly, making cosmetics a
consideration.

NO BAKE CASTING

Filling a wood mold with sand

The No-Bake Sand


Casting process
consists of sand molds
created using a wood,
metal or plastic pattern.
Sand is mixed with a
urethane binder and
deposited into a box
containing the pattern
(and all necessary
formers and inserts) for
pouring.

PRODUCTS- TENSIONER PULLEY

Material: Gray iron Process: Nobake sand


Casting Supplier: Wellsville Foundry, Wellsville, Ohio

PERMANENT MOLD CASTING


PRODUCTS

BUCKET CHAIN

Material:C95410
nickel aluminum
bronze.
Process: Permanent
mold casting.
Casting Supplier:
Piad Precision
Casting Corp.,
Greensburg,
Pennsylvania.

Suspension crossmember
Material:B356
aluminum alloy.
Process:
Permanent
mold casting.
Casting Supplier:
CMI-Precision Mold,
Inc., Bristol, Indiana.

This 26-lb safety-critical component was redesigned


to an aluminum casting from a steel weldment,
resulting in a 14-lb weight reduction.
The castings dimensional tolerances are held to 0.5
mm across the length of the part, a threefold
reduction over the previous design.
The castings mechanical properties include 44 ksi
ultimate strength, 32 ksi yield strength and 10.4 x
106 psi Youngs modulus.

Bracket for a piston cooling system


Material:953
aluminum bronze.
Process:Permanentmol
d casting.
Casting Supplier:
Aurora Metals, L.L.C.
(Hiler Industries),
Montgomery, Illinois.

Manual trip used in the electrical


industry
Material:Copper
aluminum
bronze
alloy.
Process:
Permanent
mold casting.
Casting Supplier: Piad
Precision Casting
Corp., Greensburg,
Pennsylvannia.

Three-bladed adapter for a


cleaning brush on industrial
floor cleaning equipment
.Material:65-45-12 ductile iron.

Process: Green sand casting.


Casting Supplier: Smith Foundry Co.,
Minneapolis.
Previously manufactured as a four-piece
weldment, this component was redesigned
as a single casting at a $3/casting,
$72,000/year savings to the customer.
The weldment experienced failure and
breakage under heavy shock loading. The
conversion to cast ductile iron eliminated
the field failure and also incorporated the
three holes in each blade as-cast to
eliminate post-process drilling.

Cast Component: Carrier component


Material:Steel
Process: Green sand Casting

Powerhead for a pallet truck.


Material:
A356-T6
aluminum.
Process:Green
sand
molding.
Casting Supplier:
Wisconsin Aluminum
Foundry Co., Inc.,
Manitowoc, Wis.

Middle support for a bike rack on


public trains.

Material:535 aluminum.

Process: Sand casting

Torque arm bracket for the aftermarket automotive industry.

Material:80-55-06 ductile
iron.
Process: Sand casting.

Center ring for a fall protection


system
Material: Manganese
bronze.
Process: Lost foam
casting.
Casting Supplier:
Irish Foundry and
Manufacturing, Inc.,
Seattle, Washington.

Lifeline horizontal slide for safety


equipment.
Material: Manganese
bronze.
Process: Lost foam
casting.
Casting Supplier:
Irish Foundry &
Manufacturing, Inc.,
Seattle.