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straight line graphs

substitution

Solving simultaneous equations by

elimination

Knowing two points which lie on a

line find the equation of the line

Using simultaneous equations to solve

problems

Simultaneous equation by substitution

Problems from credit past papers

Equations of the type

y=x ;

y=x+3 ;

y = 4x - 5; x + y = 2

are equations of straight lines . The general equation of a

straight line is

y = ax =b

By finding the coordinates of some points which lie on the

straight lines, plotting them and joining them up the graph of the

straight line can be drawn.

Table of values

To draw the graph of a straight line we must find the coordinates of

some points which lie on the line.We do this by forming a table of

values . Give the x coordinate a value and find the corresponding y

coordinate for several points

Make a table of values for the equation y = 2x + 1

x

y=2x+1

0

1

(3,7) all lie on the line

with equation y=2x + 1

3

7

and join them up

y

7

6

5

Now join

then up to

give a

straight line

(2,5) and (3,7) on the grid

.

0

x

1

the equation y = 2x + 1

and the y axis A quicker method

Straight lines cross the x axis when the value of y = o

Straight lines cross the y axis when the value of x =0

Sketch the line 2x + 3y = 6

Line crosses x axis

when y = 0

when x = 0

2x + 0 =6

0 + 3y = 6

3y =6

2x =6

y=2

x =3

at ( 3,0)

at ( 0,2)

Ex 2 page 124

up with a straight line

y

7

6

5

Now join

then up to

give a

straight line

4

3

2

1

0

x

4

the equation 2x + 3y = 6

line graphs

Two lines either meet at a point intersect or they are

parallel they never meet

the graphs of both lines on the same

grid and read off the point of

intersection

x +y=5

line or better still three

the line x + y = 5

the line

x y =1

-1

where the two lines meet

y

7

6

5

(3,2)

1

0

-1

.

1

x + y =1

x + y =5

4

The lines

intersect at

(3,2)

algebraically

Whoopee no

more drawing

graphs

But you will have

to learn a strategy

to solve the

equations

Yikes!

Elimination method

Solve the simultaneous equations algebraically

HOW DO I

SOLVE TWO

EQUATIONS

WITH TWO

UNKNOWNS ?

x +y=8

x - y= 4

2x =

ADD

12

x= 6

How do I

find y. It is

gone.It has

been

ADD the

two

equations

together

equation with

one unknown

which is easy to

solve

OF X INTO ONE OF YOUR

EQUATIONS

x = 6

x +y = 8

6+y = 8

y = 2

Check by putting

the values of x

and y into , the

other equation,

x-y,and see if

you get 4

Now I have

the solution

Am I

correct?

62=4

Solution is x =6

and y = 2

x + 3y = 7

x - 3y = -5

ADD

Substitute x =1 into

x + 3y = 7

Remember

to check

2x = 2

x = 1

1 + 3y = 7

3y =6

y = 2

Solution is x = 1 and y = 2

1 3X2

= 1 -6

= -5

If I add I

get

another

equation

in x and y

3x + 2=12

no use

3x + y = 8

x + y = 4

3x + y = 8

-x -y = -4

ADD

2x = 4

x = 2

SUBSTITUTE

Put x=2 into

x + y =4

x+y=4

2 +y=4

y= 2

Solution x = 2 and y = 2

Multiply

one of the

equations

by ( -1)

3X2 + 2 = 8

check

It changes

the sign

of

everythin

g

problems

example

But not for you IF

you have learned the

work so far

Solve the simultaneous equations

3x + 2y = 29

2x + 3y = 26

Multiplying by a

negative does not

eliminate any of

the letters

Adding

gives 5x +

5y = 55 no

use

That s good

lets try it but

be careful

Could I

multiply

and then

add?

numbers together which are

the negatives of each other

they are eliminated

algebraically

Multiply the equations by two

suitable numbers so that the

coeficients of x or y are the

negatives of each other

3x + 2y = 29

2x + 3y = 26

3x + 2y = 29

2x + 3y = 26

9x +6y

We choose y to

be eliminated

X3

X -2

equivalent equations

= 87

Now add

9x +6y

ADD

substitute

= 87

Remember

practice

makes

perfect

-4x + -6y =

-52

5x = 35

x =7

x = 7 into

9x+6y = 87

check

-4 X 7 - 6X 4

9 X 7 + 6y = 87

63 +6y

= 87

6y

= 24

y =4

Solution x = 7 and y = 4

= -28 24

= -52

Ex 7B p 139

solve problems

Example : The problem

For the cinema

2 adults tickets and 5 childrens tickets cost 26

4 adults tickets and 2 children tickets cost 28

Find the cost of each kind of ticket.

Introduce Letters

Let the cost of adult ticket = A

Let the cost of childrens ticket = C

Write the equations

2 A 5C 26 .......(1)

4 A 2C 28 .......(2)

2 A 5C 26 . X2

4 A 2C 28 X ( - 1)

4 A 10C 52 .

- 4 A (- 2C ) 28

ADD

8C 24

C 3

2 A 5 3 26

2 A 15 26

2 A 11

A 55

Conclusion

Adult Ticket costs 5.50

Children's tickets cost 3

strategy

1. Read the problem

2. Introduce two letters

3. Write two equations that describe the information

4. Solve the problem using simultaneous equations

5. check

Substitution method

This an excellent method of solving simultaneous equations

when the equations are given to you in a certain form

Example 1 Solve the equations y = 2x and y = x + 10

We take the equation

y = x + 10

And substitute 2x for y

2x = x + 10

Take out y and

replace it with 2x

x =

y = 10

Solution x = 5 y = 10

Example 2

Solve the equations y = 2x 8 and y x = 1

Sub y =2x-8 in the equation

y - x=1

2x 8 -x = 1

x8=1

x = 9

Sub x = 9 in the

equation y = 2x -8

Solution x = 9 and y =10

y = 18-8

y = 10

Check 10 9 =1

past papers

1. The tickets for a sports club cost 2 for members and

3 for non- members

a) The total ticket money collected was 580

x tickets were sold to members and y tickets were

sold to non-members.

Use this information to write down an equation involving

x and y

2x + 3y =580

Write down another equation involving x and y.

x + y = 250

c ) How many tickets were sold to members ?

We now have two equations in x and y so lets solve

them simultaneously

2x + 3y = 580

x + y = 250

2x + 3y = 580

X 1

x + y = 250

X (-2)

2x

ADD

+ 3y

= 580

y = 80

x + 80 =250

x = 170

170 tickets were sold to

members

check

2 x170 + 3x80

=340 + 240

=580

alloys are made using iron and lead. To make the first

alloy, 3 cubic cms of iron and 4 cubic cms of lead are

used.

This alloy weighs 65 grams

a ) Let x grams be the weight of 1 cm3 f iron and y

grams be the weight of 1 cm3 of lead Write down an

equation in x and y which satisfies the above equation.

3x + 4 y = 65

To make the second alloy, 5 cm3 of iron and 7cm3

of lead are used . This alloy weighs 112 grams.

b ) Write down a second equation in x and y which satisfies

this condition

5x + 7y = 112

and the weight of 1cm3 of lead.

X (-5)

3x + 4 y = 65

X 3

5x + 7y

= 112

-15x + -20 y = -325

ADD

y

SUB

Check

5x7 + 7x11

= 35 + 77= 112

= 11

y = 11 into 3x + 4y = 65

3x + 44 = 65

3x = 21

x =7

7gms and 1cm3 of lead

weighs 11 gms

cm .

A security grid is made to fit

this window. The grid as 5

horizontal wires and 8 vertical

wires

a ) The perimeter of the window is 260 cm. Use this information

to write down an equation involving l and b .

2 l + 2 b = 260

b) In total, 770 cm of wire is used. Write down another

equation involving l and b

5 l + 8 b = 770

2 l + 2 b = 260

5 l + 8 b = 770

8l +8b

ADD

X (4)

X (-1)

= 1040

-5 l + (-8) b = -770

3 l = 270

l = 90

SUB

l = 90 into 2 l + 2 b = 260

180 + 2b = 260

2b = 80

b = 40

5x90 +8x40 =

450 + 320=770

the breadth is 40 cm

The number on the brick above is always equal to the sum of

the two numbers below.

fig1

9

12

5

-3

-1

-7

-6

Fig 2

-2

16

7

34

11

18

4

-11

34

and q

Show that p + 3q = 10

Fig 3

Adding the numbers in the

second row to equal the top row

simplifying

-3

p +2q -5 q-8

p+q

q -5

-3

-5

p + 2q 5 + q -8 = -3

P + 3q 13 = -3

P + 3q = 10

14

fig 4

2q+1

2q-2 3

2q

Adding the numbers in the

second row to equal the top row

simplifying

-2

8-p

5-p

-p

2q+1+8-p =14

2q +9 p = 14

2q p = 5

3q + P = 10

2q p =

around q under q

and p under p

Remember

to check

3q + P = 10

2q - p = 5

ADD

5q = 15

q

SUB

q = 3 into 2q p =5

6 p = 5

p=1

Check 3x3 +1 = 10

p = 1 and q = 3

5. A sequence of numbers is

1 ,5 ,12 ,22 ,

Numbers from this sequence can be illustrated in the following way

using dots

First number

( N = 1)

Second number

(N=2)

Fourth number

(N=4)

Third number

(N=3)

N

D= no 1

of dots

12

22

35

When N= 1 D = 1

When N=2

D=5

number in this sequence is given by the formula

D =aN - bN

Find the values of

a and b

N=1D=1

When N=2

D=5

D =aN - bN

Form two equations by substituting the values

of n and D into the equation D =aN - bN

N=1D=1

N=2

D=5

Now solve

simultaneously

1=a-b

5 = 4a -2b

ADD

SUB

1=a-b

X (-2)

5 = 4a -2b

X1

-2 = -2a + 2b

Check

5 = 4a - 2b

4x3/2-2x1/2

3 = 2a

a = 3/2

1 = 3/2 -b

b = 1/2

=12/2-2/2 =10/2=5

a = 3/3 b= 1/3

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