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Simultaneous Sketching straight lines

equations Solving simultaneous equations by


straight line graphs

Solving simultaneous equations by


substitution
Solving simultaneous equations by
elimination
Knowing two points which lie on a
line find the equation of the line
Using simultaneous equations to solve
problems
Simultaneous equation by substitution
Problems from credit past papers

Sketching straight lines


Equations of the type
y=x ;
y=x+3 ;
y = 4x - 5; x + y = 2
are equations of straight lines . The general equation of a
straight line is
y = ax =b
By finding the coordinates of some points which lie on the
straight lines, plotting them and joining them up the graph of the
straight line can be drawn.

Table of values
To draw the graph of a straight line we must find the coordinates of
some points which lie on the line.We do this by forming a table of
values . Give the x coordinate a value and find the corresponding y
coordinate for several points
Make a table of values for the equation y = 2x + 1

x
y=2x+1

0
1

So (0,1) (1,3) (2,5) and


(3,7) all lie on the line
with equation y=2x + 1

3
7

Now plot the points on a grid


and join them up

y
7

6
5

Now join
then up to
give a
straight line

Plot the points (0,1) (1,3)


(2,5) and (3,7) on the grid

.
0

x
1

All the points on the line satisfy


the equation y = 2x + 1

Sketching lines by finding where the lines cross the x axis


and the y axis A quicker method
Straight lines cross the x axis when the value of y = o
Straight lines cross the y axis when the value of x =0
Sketch the line 2x + 3y = 6
Line crosses x axis
when y = 0

Line crosses y axis


when x = 0

2x + 0 =6

0 + 3y = 6
3y =6

2x =6

y=2

x =3
at ( 3,0)

at ( 0,2)
Ex 2 page 124

Plot 0,2) and (3,0) and join them


up with a straight line

y
7
6
5

Now join
then up to
give a
straight line

4
3
2

1
0

x
4

All the points on the line satisfy


the equation 2x + 3y = 6

Solving simultaneous equations by straight


line graphs
Two lines either meet at a point intersect or they are
parallel they never meet

To find where two lines meet draw


the graphs of both lines on the same
grid and read off the point of
intersection

Find where the lines x + y = 5 and x y =1 intersect


x +y=5

get two points that lie on each


line or better still three

(0,5) and (5,0) and (1,4)lie on


the line x + y = 5

(0,-1) and (1,0) and ( 4,3) lie on


the line

x y =1

-1

Now plot the points and find


where the two lines meet

y
7
6
5

(3,2)

1
0
-1

.
1

x + y =1

x + y =5
4

The lines
intersect at
(3,2)

Solving simultaneous equations


algebraically
Whoopee no
more drawing
graphs
But you will have
to learn a strategy
to solve the
equations
Yikes!

Elimination method
Solve the simultaneous equations algebraically
HOW DO I
SOLVE TWO
EQUATIONS
WITH TWO
UNKNOWNS ?

x +y=8
x - y= 4
2x =

ADD

12

x= 6

How do I
find y. It is
gone.It has
been

ADD the
two
equations
together

This gives one


equation with
one unknown
which is easy to
solve

SUBSTITUTE THE VALUE


OF X INTO ONE OF YOUR
EQUATIONS

x = 6
x +y = 8
6+y = 8
y = 2

Check by putting
the values of x
and y into , the
other equation,
x-y,and see if
you get 4

Now I have
the solution
Am I
correct?
62=4

Solution is x =6
and y = 2

Solve the simultaneous equations


x + 3y = 7
x - 3y = -5
ADD

Substitute x =1 into
x + 3y = 7

Remember
to check

2x = 2
x = 1
1 + 3y = 7
3y =6
y = 2

Solution is x = 1 and y = 2

1 3X2
= 1 -6
= -5

Solve the simultaneous equations

If I add I
get
another
equation
in x and y
3x + 2=12
no use

3x + y = 8
x + y = 4
3x + y = 8
-x -y = -4
ADD

2x = 4
x = 2

SUBSTITUTE
Put x=2 into
x + y =4

x+y=4
2 +y=4
y= 2

Solution x = 2 and y = 2

Multiply
one of the
equations
by ( -1)
3X2 + 2 = 8
check

It changes
the sign
of
everythin
g

Using simultaneous equations to solve


problems
example

Slightly more difficult


But not for you IF
you have learned the
work so far
Solve the simultaneous equations
3x + 2y = 29
2x + 3y = 26

Multiplying by a
negative does not
eliminate any of
the letters

Adding
gives 5x +
5y = 55 no
use

That s good
lets try it but
be careful

Could I
multiply
and then
add?

Remember when we add


numbers together which are
the negatives of each other
they are eliminated

Solve the following simultaneous equations


algebraically
Multiply the equations by two
suitable numbers so that the
coeficients of x or y are the
negatives of each other

3x + 2y = 29
2x + 3y = 26

3x + 2y = 29
2x + 3y = 26

9x +6y

We choose y to
be eliminated

X3
X -2

Giving two new


equivalent equations

= 87

-4x + -6y = -52

Now add

9x +6y

ADD

substitute

= 87

Remember
practice
makes
perfect

-4x + -6y =
-52
5x = 35
x =7
x = 7 into
9x+6y = 87

check
-4 X 7 - 6X 4

9 X 7 + 6y = 87
63 +6y
= 87
6y
= 24
y =4
Solution x = 7 and y = 4

= -28 24
= -52

Ex 7B p 139

Using simultaneous equation to


solve problems

Problem Solving With Simultaneous Equations


Example : The problem
For the cinema
2 adults tickets and 5 childrens tickets cost 26
4 adults tickets and 2 children tickets cost 28
Find the cost of each kind of ticket.
Introduce Letters
Let the cost of adult ticket = A
Let the cost of childrens ticket = C
Write the equations
2 A 5C 26 .......(1)
4 A 2C 28 .......(2)

Solve the Problem using simultaneous equations


2 A 5C 26 . X2
4 A 2C 28 X ( - 1)
4 A 10C 52 .
- 4 A (- 2C ) 28
ADD

8C 24
C 3

Substitute C 3 into (1)


2 A 5 3 26
2 A 15 26
2 A 11
A 55

Conclusion
Adult Ticket costs 5.50
Children's tickets cost 3

strategy
1. Read the problem
2. Introduce two letters
3. Write two equations that describe the information
4. Solve the problem using simultaneous equations
5. check

Substitution method
This an excellent method of solving simultaneous equations
when the equations are given to you in a certain form
Example 1 Solve the equations y = 2x and y = x + 10
We take the equation
y = x + 10
And substitute 2x for y
2x = x + 10
Take out y and
replace it with 2x

x =

Sub x=5 into y=2x


y = 10

Now solve the equation


Solution x = 5 y = 10

Example 2
Solve the equations y = 2x 8 and y x = 1
Sub y =2x-8 in the equation

y - x=1
2x 8 -x = 1
x8=1
x = 9

Sub x = 9 in the
equation y = 2x -8
Solution x = 9 and y =10

y = 18-8
y = 10
Check 10 9 =1

Problems with simultaneous equations from


past papers
1. The tickets for a sports club cost 2 for members and
3 for non- members
a) The total ticket money collected was 580
x tickets were sold to members and y tickets were
sold to non-members.
Use this information to write down an equation involving
x and y
2x + 3y =580

b) 250 people bought raffle tickets for the disco.


Write down another equation involving x and y.
x + y = 250
c ) How many tickets were sold to members ?
We now have two equations in x and y so lets solve
them simultaneously
2x + 3y = 580
x + y = 250

2x + 3y = 580

X 1

x + y = 250

X (-2)

2x
ADD

+ 3y

= 580

-2x + (-2 )y = -500


y = 80

Sub y = 80 into x + y = 250


x + 80 =250
x = 170
170 tickets were sold to
members

check
2 x170 + 3x80
=340 + 240
=580

2. Alloys are made by mixing metals.Two different


alloys are made using iron and lead. To make the first
alloy, 3 cubic cms of iron and 4 cubic cms of lead are
used.
This alloy weighs 65 grams
a ) Let x grams be the weight of 1 cm3 f iron and y
grams be the weight of 1 cm3 of lead Write down an
equation in x and y which satisfies the above equation.
3x + 4 y = 65
To make the second alloy, 5 cm3 of iron and 7cm3
of lead are used . This alloy weighs 112 grams.
b ) Write down a second equation in x and y which satisfies
this condition
5x + 7y = 112

C ) Find the weight of 1 cm3 of iron


and the weight of 1cm3 of lead.
X (-5)
3x + 4 y = 65
X 3
5x + 7y
= 112
-15x + -20 y = -325
ADD

15x + 21y = 336


y

SUB

Check
5x7 + 7x11
= 35 + 77= 112

= 11

y = 11 into 3x + 4y = 65
3x + 44 = 65
3x = 21
x =7

1cm3 of iron weighs


7gms and 1cm3 of lead
weighs 11 gms

3. A rectangular window has length , l cm and breadth, b


cm .
A security grid is made to fit
this window. The grid as 5
horizontal wires and 8 vertical
wires
a ) The perimeter of the window is 260 cm. Use this information
to write down an equation involving l and b .

2 l + 2 b = 260
b) In total, 770 cm of wire is used. Write down another
equation involving l and b

5 l + 8 b = 770

Find the length and breadth of the window


2 l + 2 b = 260
5 l + 8 b = 770
8l +8b

ADD

X (4)
X (-1)

= 1040

-5 l + (-8) b = -770
3 l = 270
l = 90

SUB

l = 90 into 2 l + 2 b = 260
180 + 2b = 260
2b = 80
b = 40

5x90 +8x40 =
450 + 320=770

Length is 90cm and


the breadth is 40 cm

4. A number tower is built from bricks as shown in fig 1.


The number on the brick above is always equal to the sum of
the two numbers below.

fig1
9

12
5

-3
-1

-7

-6

Find the number on the shaded brick in fig 2


Fig 2
-2

16
7

34
11

18
4

-11

34

In fig 3, two of the numbers on the bricks are represented by p


and q
Show that p + 3q = 10

Fig 3
Adding the numbers in the
second row to equal the top row

simplifying

-3
p +2q -5 q-8
p+q
q -5
-3

-5

p + 2q 5 + q -8 = -3
P + 3q 13 = -3
P + 3q = 10

Use fig 4 to write down a second equation in p and q

14
fig 4

2q+1
2q-2 3

2q
Adding the numbers in the
second row to equal the top row

simplifying

-2

8-p
5-p

-p

2q+1+8-p =14
2q +9 p = 14
2q p = 5

d) Find the values of p and q

3q + P = 10
2q p =

Change the terms


around q under q
and p under p
Remember
to check

3q + P = 10
2q - p = 5
ADD

5q = 15
q

SUB

q = 3 into 2q p =5
6 p = 5
p=1

Check 3x3 +1 = 10

p = 1 and q = 3

5. A sequence of numbers is
1 ,5 ,12 ,22 ,
Numbers from this sequence can be illustrated in the following way
using dots

First number
( N = 1)
Second number
(N=2)

Fourth number
(N=4)

Third number
(N=3)

a )Write the fifth number in the pattern

Form a table of values


N

D= no 1
of dots

12

22

35

When N= 1 D = 1

When N=2

D=5

b) The number of dots needed to illustrate the nth


number in this sequence is given by the formula
D =aN - bN
Find the values of

a and b

N=1D=1

When N=2

D=5

D =aN - bN
Form two equations by substituting the values
of n and D into the equation D =aN - bN
N=1D=1
N=2

D=5

Now solve
simultaneously

1=a-b
5 = 4a -2b

ADD
SUB

1=a-b

X (-2)

5 = 4a -2b

X1

-2 = -2a + 2b

Check

5 = 4a - 2b

4x3/2-2x1/2

3 = 2a
a = 3/2
1 = 3/2 -b
b = 1/2

=12/2-2/2 =10/2=5
a = 3/3 b= 1/3