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Fire Detection

and Alarm
Systems

What is FDAS?

Fire Detection and Alarm System


What is the purpose of an
FDAS?
An FDAS is designed to detect the
unwanted presence of fire/smoke by
monitoring environmental changes
associated with combustion.

Why FDAS is required?


Notify building occupants to take
evasive action to escape the
dangers of a hostile fire.
Summon Fire Brigade Team
(Admin/Security/Staffs) to initiate or
assist in fire control activities.
Initiate automatic fire control &
suppression systems & to sound the
alarm.

Why FDAS is required?


Cont..
Supervise fire control
& suppression
systems to assure
operational status is
maintained.

Initiate auxiliary
functions involving
environmental, utility

Components of an FDAS
Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP) This component, the hub of the
system, monitors inputs and system
integrity, controls outputs and relays
information.
Primary Power supply- Commonly
the non-switched 120 or 240 Volt
Alternating Current source supplied
from a commercial power utility.

Types of FACP
1. Conventional - A conventional
system employs one or more
initiating circuits, connected to
sensors (initiating devices) wired in
parallel.
.

Main drawback with conventional panels is


that one cannot specify which device has
been activated within a circuit/area/floor.

ypes of FACP continued..

2. Addressable - This type of


installation gives each detector on a
system an individual number, or
address. Thus, addressable detectors
allow an FACP, and therefore
Admin/Security/Fire fighters, to know the
general location of an alarm where the
address is indicated on a diagram. (i.e
Unit number, floor number)

ypes of FACP continued..

3. Fully Addressable - This type of


installation gives each detector on a system
a SPECIFIC individual number, or
address. Thus, addressable detectors allow
an FACP, and therefore Admin/Security/Fire
fighters, to know the EXACT location of an
alarm where the address is indicated on a
diagram. (i.e Kitchen area inside the Unit,
Elevator hallway1 etc.)
*Commonly used system

FDAS System

FDAS System

tures of Fully Addressable FACP

Picture taken at MPV

Pictures FACP

Picture taken at LBT

Pictures FACP

Picture taken at LBT

Pictures FACP

Picture taken at SAUG

Pictures FACP

Picture taken at SAUG

Pictures FACP

Picture taken at SAUG

Pictures FACP

Picture taken at SAUG

omponents of an FDAS continued..

Secondary (backup) Power


supplies- This component, commonly
consisting of sealed lead-acid storage
batteries or other emergency sources
including generators, is used to
supply energy in the event of a
primary power failure (average idle
time: 8 hrs).
Initiating Devices- This component
acts as an input to the fire alarm
control unit and are either manually

FDAS Devices

condary (backup) Power supply/ Batterie

FDAS Devices

condary (backup) Power supply/ Batterie

Relay

FDAS Devices
Manually

Actuated Device (designed to be


initiated manually like pull stations or
buttons)

FDAS Devices
Manual Call Point/MPS & Horn Strobe

Taken at LBT at San


Juan

FDAS Devices

Taken at MPV - Cubao

Heat Detectors
Fixed Temperature Detectors
Oldest types in use
Relatively inexpensive
Least prone to false alarms
Activation temperature slightly
above highest ceiling temperature
May detect heat by means of
expansion of heated material,
melting of heated material ,
resistance changes in the heated
material.

Heat Detectors continued..


Rate-of-Rise Heat Detectors

Operate on the principle that the


temperature in a room will increase
faster from fire than from atmospheric
temperature.

Will initiate an alarm when the


temperature hits 40 C.

Heat Detectors continued..


Rate-of-Rise Heat Detectors
Reliable devices, not subject to
false activations
But if not properly installed, they
can be activated under non-fire
conditions
(eg. detector
located too close to doorway and
subject to extreme fluctuations in
temperatures)

Heat detector

Smoke Detectors
Can initiate an alarm much
quicker than a heat detector
because it responds to smoke
generated very early in a fires
development.
Are typically housed in a diskshaped plastic enclosure about
150mm (6in) in diameter and
25mm (1in) thick, but the shape
can vary by manufacturer or
product line.

Smoke Detectors continued..

Photoelectric Smoke
Detectors
Uses a photocell coupled with
a specific light source.
Basically smoke entering the
smoke detector
chamber
disrupts
the
light
beam
causing an alarm signal to be
initiated.

Smoke Detectors
Photoelectric Smoke
Detectors

Smoke Detectors
Basic Parts of Photoelectric Smoke Detectors
1.
Optical chamber
2.
Cover
3.
Case molding
4.
Photo diode
5.
Infra red LED

Smoke Detectors continued...


Ionization Smoke Detectors
Invisible products of combustion
enter the chamber decreasing
the current between the & +
plates (disrupts the flow of ions),
thereby initiating an alarm signal.
Generally responds faster to
flaming fires versus smoldering
fires.
Automatically resets when the
atmosphere clears.

Smoke Detectors

Smoke Detectors

Smoke Detectors

Smoke Detectors

Picture taken at MPV

Smoke Detectors

Picture taken at MPV

w does Smoke detectors work?

FDAS Testing, Inspection and


Maintenance
Fire alarm systems are expected to help
protect people, property, and assets. But you
cant tell if theyre fully operational just by
looking at them.
Dust, dirt, and other contaminants can
cause problems with smoke detectors. Such
things as vandalism, remodeling, and
improper maintenance procedures can
also damage fire protection equipment.

Fire Alarm System Testing,


Inspection and Maintenance Four
(4)
Steps
1. Test
and calibrate alarm sensors, such

as flame and smoke detectors, per


manufacturer specifications. This requires
knowing about the different sensorsand
their testing requirements, failure modes,
and re-installation requirements.
2. Simulate inputs and test the
annunciators. This requires specific
knowledge of the system under test.
3. Check the battery for corrosion and
date,
then
take appropriate
Verify expiration
if the equipment
is still
on warranty
period.
action, if necessary.

Causes of False
Alarm
Fumes from cooking processes
Steam
Tobacco Smoke/ E-Cigarette Vapor
Dust
Insect/s
Aerosol Spray
High air velocity
Electromagnetic interference
Incense/Candles
High Humidity
Substantial fluctuation in Temperature
Accidental damage (MPS)
Pressure surges (Sprinkler system)
Hot works

End of Report

Prepared by: Rayzon F. Santos


Telecoms Engr.