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“Air Quality Monitoring”

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Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun

Monitoring benefits:
 Air quality monitoring helps us in better understanding the

sources, levels of different air pollutants, effects of air pollution
control policy, and exposure of various substances in the air we
breathe.

 Air

quality monitoring program assists us in improving and

developing air pollution control programs to reduce the effect of
air pollution.

 The purpose of air monitoring is not merely to collect data, but

also to provide the information necessary for engineers, scientists,
policy makers, politicians and planners to make informed decisions
on managing and improving the air environment.

carbon monoxide.  EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants : ground-level ozone. EPA has established national air quality standards to protect public health.  For each of these pollutants.Air Quality Index (AQI)  AQI helps in understanding the level at which air is polluted and the associated health effects that might concern. particulate matter. and nitrogen dioxide. sulfur dioxide. .

This means they are likely to be affected at lower levels than the general public. Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups: When AQI values are between 101 and 150. for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people. however. meaning everyone may experience more serious health effects. Moderate: The AQI is between 51 and 100 then the Air quality is acceptable. . members of sensitive groups may experience health effects.Good: The AQI value for a community is between 0 and 50 then the air quality is considered satisfactory. Hazardous: AQI values over 300 trigger health warnings of emergency conditions. Unhealthy: Everyone may begin to experience health effects when AQI values are between 151 and 200. The entire population is more likely to be affected. and air pollution poses little or no risk. Members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects. Very Unhealthy: AQI values between 201 and 300 trigger a health alert.

children.Air Quality Standards  Clean Air Act has developed National Ambient Air Quality Standards to protect public health and environmental resources. and buildings. . crops. vegetation. and the elderly. including the health of "sensitive" populations such as asthmatics. including protection against decreased visibility. damage to animals.  The air quality standards are classified into two types:  Primary standards: Protect public health.  Secondary standards: Protect public welfare.

January. 2010) .National Ambient Air Quality Standards (Source: USEPA.

  Likely to issue final standards by Aug. seasonal secondary standard.Ozone NAAQS Revisions On Jan. 2010.. set in 2008. to protect sensitive vegetation and ecosystems. 6. within the range of 7-15 ppmhours. to a level within the range of .075 ppm.   EPA is also proposing a new cumulative. EPA proposed to further lower the 8- hour primary ozone standard from . . 31.060 . 2010.070 ppm to protect public health.

 The proposed changes would not impact the SO 2 secondary 3-hour standard. 2009. .  EPA is also taking comment on both revoking the current 24-hour and annual primary SO2 standards (because it anticipates that the new proposed 1-hour standard would better protect public health) as well as maintaining the current 24-hour and annual standards.SO2 NAAQS Revisions    On December 8. EPA proposed to revise the primary SO2 standard to a level between 50 and 100 parts per billion (ppb) measured over 1-hour. This proposed primary NAAQS is based on a three-year average of the annual 99th percentile (or 4th highest) of 1-hour daily maximum concentrations.

Remedies and Solutions Efforts to reduce air pollution have largely fallen into three categories: a) Regulatory. criminal sentences as well). b) Technological.  Market-based solutions: These solutions allow firms the flexibility to select cost-effective solutions to achieve established environmental goals. and in the extension of emissions rules to trucks and pickup.  Technological Solutions: This includes the progress in emissions technology (e. reformulated gasoline).g. . and c) Economic or Market-based solutions. in exceptional cases..  Regulatory Solutions: Regulatory solutions involve the passage of laws and the establishment of government agencies which attempt to reduce air pollution through government monitoring and punitive measures (usually fines but. pre-warmed catalytic converters..

. and weather sensors that are continuously maintained and operated. particle collectors.Monitoring Stations Monitoring stations continuously monitor and collect information about the presence and level of atmospheric contaminants as well as the meteorological indices. A typical monitoring station include sophisticated gaseous pollutant analyzers.

Emissions Monitoring Ambient Monitoring Visibility Monitoring Upper Air Monitoring Deposition Monitoring Health Monitoring .

airplanes etc. .  Upper Air Monitoring: A look at ambient concentrations in upper atmosphere with the help of satellites.  Ambient Monitoring: The emphasis is on ambient air concentration of toxic as well as non-toxic contaminants.  Deposition Monitoring: This type of network measures the dry and wet deposition of atmospheric contaminants.Monitoring Types In general air quality monitoring can be grouped into following types:  Emissions Monitoring: This type of monitoring focuses on emissions coming out of natural and man made sources.  Health Monitoring: Recognizes the importance of risk assessment and risk management in public health studies.  Visibility Monitoring: Ability to see things is primary focus of this type of monitoring.

S.  Canadian Air Monitoring Network  Mexican Network  Emission monitoring at industrial plants  Health monitoring program by WHO  Satellite monitoring by NASA and USEPA .S.Monitoring Networks Different types of air quality monitoring networks operating today in the world:  Ambient Air Monitoring Program in the U.  Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network in the U.

. rate meters and velocity meters.  Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS): Real time monitoring of stack gases is the basic thrust behind such systems.  Meteorological Instruments: Basic devices used for measuring atmospheric variables are included in this category.  Air Measuring Devices: This category includes volume meters.Monitoring Instrumentation Air pollution instruments are available for the measurement of indoor and outdoor air pollution. The available instruments could be grouped into the following major categories:  Concentration Measurement Instruments: This group includes the instruments available for gaseous and particulate sampling.

Concentration Measurement Continuous Emission Monitoring System Meteorological Instrument Air Measuring Device .

Emission Inventory Emission inventory is an estimate of the amount of pollutants emitted into atmosphere. and o Time period over which emissions are estimated. Developed by: o  Plant o  Local environmental agency o  National environmental agency Characterized by the following aspects: o Type of activities that cause emissions. . o Chemical or physical identity of the pollutants included. o Geographic location.

Details for development of an emission inventory depend on:  Area of coverage  Nature of sources  Purpose Well known emission inventories in the US Inventory of criteria pollutants    Toxic release inventory (TRI) Greenhouse gas emissions (first reporting: March 31. 2010) .

Emission factor is an estimate of the rate at which a pollutant is released into the atmosphere per unit level of activity .Emission Rate Emission rate is the weight of a pollutant emitted per unit time. To EMISSION calculate RATE [APPLICABLE = emission [INPUT] CORRECTION x rate: [EMISSION FACTORS] OPERATION] x [SEASONAL VARIATION] x FACTOR] [HOURS x OF .

o MOBILE6 o NON-ROAD These models are computer based applications and are available for free from the EPA’s official website.  The EPA has developed several models to estimate current and future emissions in the atmosphere from different sources.Emission Inventory  The EPA estimates emission levels ranging from counties to the nation level. .

Steps to Develop Emission Inventory Steps Involved in development of an emission inventory are:  Planning  Data Collection   Data Analysis  Reporting Data .

Planning Defines scope and purpose of inventory Major points considered during this step are:  Pollutants to be enlisted in the inventory are specified along with the methods to collect or estimate data  Use of data and geographical area involved are determined  Legal authority and responsibility of specific groups to acquire data is considered assessment of cost and resources along with an .

or burned is determined Collection Methods: During this stage data may be collected by – Mail survey – Plant inspection – Field surveys Data from literature: – Industrial files – Government files – Periodicals – Trade journals – Scientific publications .Data Collection Steps to be taken: – Emissions are classified – Pollutant sources are located and classified – Quality and quantity of materials handled. processed.

type of pollution control devices Information required to estimate emissions - temperature. hours of operations.location. seasonal variation and other data . ownership.amount of fuel and materials (input) Amount of production . tank conditions.output of the plant Control device information . and nature of business Activity levels .Information Collected During Data Collection General source information .

Data Analysis Check accuracy Calculation of emission rate is done using: Monitoring data (most accurate & most expensive) Emission factors. Mass balance. and  Engineering calculation .

data gathered by state agencies are reported to the USEPA   Emission data are available from the USEPA’s web site .Reporting Data Information can be filed with the following pollution control agencies:  Local  Regional  National In US.

Uses of an Emission Inventory • The Emission Inventory developed may be used for: – Identifying types of pollutants emitted from specific sources. – Determining the magnitude or amount of emissions from those sources – Developing the emissions distribution in time and space – Calculating emission rates under specific plant operating conditions – Finding out the relation of ambient air pollutant concentration with specific sources – Input data for air quality modeling and risk – Determine pollution control options for public health – Estimating cost based on emissions .

. explosive industrialization. and few environmental regulations China: China is polluted with sulfur dioxide (15 million tons) and particulate matter (20 million tons) because of the use of the high sulfur coal used to generate energy.Air Pollution in Asia Asia represents a major source of air pollution as a result of rapid population growth.   Other Chemicals:  1.  2.  3. Carbon Dioxide from Industry Greenhouse Gases from Industry Nitrogen Oxides from Cars Acid Rain With all these problems China has started implementing air pollution control technology.  4.

.India: • Most common air pollutant: Suspended particulate matter is due to use of coal in power plants • Use of low quality coal produces 45 million metric tons of ash annually • When particulate matter ash is mixed with auto exhaust the emissions across limits resulting in an increase in respiratory diseases and allergies South Korea: • SO2 is the major pollutant in South Korea. it is being controlled by using air pollution control equipment Hong Kong: • Vehicular emissions contribute to air pollution problems with diesel powered engines being the prime culprit. however.

Importance of Climate Protection At standard atmospheric pressure. CO2 Cube in Copenhagen – December (2009) . one tonne of CO2 occupies a cube the size of a three-story building (8.2m).2m x 8.2m x 8. This is the amount of CO2 produced by an average person in an industrialized country in one month.