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Educational Measurements

In Assessment 1

1.Jayson Santos
2.Adeliza Guban
3.Harwin Cosme
4.Rhonalyn Manuel
5.April Ibañez
6.Yveth Gonzaga
7.Patrick Javier


Measurement tools and
skills have a variety of
uses in everyday life. The
ability to use measuring
tools, rulers,
thermometers, scales, and
to estimate with these
tools are necessary skills
that enable us to quantify

Function of Measurements
1. - to determine what knowledge, skills,
abilities, habits and attitudes have been
2. to determine what progress or extent
of learning attained
3. to determine strengths, weaknesses,
difficulties and needs of students.


Types Of Measurement .

.Measurement can therefore: •Objective –(as in testing) or •Subjective (as in perception).

.•Testing produces objective measurement while expert ratings provide subjective measurement.

then if the Objective is attained.•Objective measurement determine the outcomes of learning. it may serve as a basis for determining the effectiveness of a teaching process. the teaching process is effective. otherwise it is not .

and other psychological traits of the learner. grade level.Characteristics of Objective Measurement: • Objectives must be stated clearly and unequivocally. . • It must be fit the age .

• Objectives for that subject matter must cover all the important aspects of that subject matter. .•Objective must be behavioral.

-aesthetic appeal of a product or a project of students. It follows that it maybe best to use both methods of assessment whenever the constraints of time and resources permit .g.However. there are certain facets of the quantity or quality of interest that cannot be successfully captured by objective procedures but which can be done by SUBJECTIVE methods e.

Variables may be directly measurable as in X = AGE or X = HEIGHT OF A STUDENT . . Variables and Factors An educational variable (denoted by an English alphabet .Indicator. like X ) is a measurable characteristic of a student .

if the characteristic is absent . •Thus I = 1. denotes the presence or absence of a measured characteristic . if the characteristic is present I=0.• A Variable cannot be directly measured like when we want to measure “ class participation ’’ of a student . • An Indicator . I .

I2.The Variable X= Class Participation .. In denote the participation of a student in N class recitations and let X= SUM OF THE I’s divided by n recitations .. . we can let I1.

•Indicators are the building blocks of educational measurement upon which all other forms of measurement are built •A group of indicators CONSTITUTE A VARIABLE .• If there were n= 10 recitations and the student participated in 5 of these 10 . •A group of variables form A CONSTRUCT or A FACTOR . then x= 5/10 or 50% .

Example : The following variables were measured in a battery tests : X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 = = = = = = Computational Skills Reading Skills Vocabulary Logic and Reasoning Sequences and Series Manual Dexterity .

X4 . X3 )= Language Ability Factor .These variables can be grouped as follows: Group 1 : ( X1. X5 ) = Mathematical Ability Factor Group 2 : ( X2.


Assessment as learning • refers to the collection of data to describe or better understand an issue. • begins as students become aware of the goals of instruction and the criteria for performance .

•involves goal-setting. and reflecting on results • implies student ownership and responsibility for moving his or her thinking forward . monitoring progress.

Practicality and Efficiency . Fairness 6.Principles of Quality Assessment 1.Appropriateness of the Assessment Method 3. Validity Reliability 5. 4.Clarity of the Learning Target 2.

Reliability •it refers to the consistency of score obtained by the same person when retested using the same instrument or one that is parallel to it. . • does not refer to the test itself.Validity •is the most important quality of a test.

ethnic.Fairness •the assessment procedures do not discriminate against a particular group of students example students from various racial. . or gender groups. or students with disabilities.

Time required .Teacher’s familiarity with the method 2.Practicality and Efficiency 1.

Various Roles of Assessment .

.-used to measure Summative Roleafter student growth instruction and are generally given at the end of a course in order to determine whether long term learning goals have been met.

Summative Assessments are often created in the following formats: Selected response items Multiple choice True/false Matching Short answer Fill in the blank One or two sentence response .

.-is a process used by teachers and students Formative Role that during instruction provides explicit feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes.

.Learning goals and criteria for success should be clearly identified and communicated to students. Learning Goals and Criteria for Success .Five Attributes of Effective Formative Assessm Learning Progressions -Learning progressions should clearly articulate the sub-goals of the ultimate learning goal.

Descriptive Feedback -Students should be provided with evidencebased feedback that is linked to the intended instructional outcomes and criteria for success.and peer-assessment are important for providing students an opportunity to think metacognitively about their learning. Self.A classroom culture in which teachers and students are partners in learning should be established. Collaboration . .and Peer-Assessment -Both self.

diagnostic assessment looks backwards rather than forwards. .Diagnostic Role -is intended to improve the learner’s experience and their level of achievement. However.

. reliable. practical and acceptable to those involved. valid. -It should be systematically built in to the curriculum.Key Elements of Diagnostic Assessment The nature of diagnostic assessment: -It must be linked to pre-determined learning objectives. -However the assessment is done. care should be taken to ensure that it is adequate in scope.

. -Pupils should understand why and how they are to be tested. -A test’s instructions and administration must be clear and not distort results.-Testing should be fair. taking account of equal opportunities issues.

. -a test usually given to a student entering an educational institution to determine specific knowledge or proficiency in various subjects for the purpose of assignment to appropriate courses or classes.Placement -a test to determine a student's level of ability in one or more subjects in order to place the student with others of the same approximate ability.


evaluat ion .

 The evaluation is systematic approach that will guide in measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of a training. a course .

 Evaluation uses methods and measures to judge student learning and understanding of the material for purposes of grading and .

. It is meeting the goals and matching them with the intended outcomes.

. direct observation. Evaluation might be based on measurement data but also might be based on other types of data such as questionnaires .



. represent an attempt to provide objective data that can be used with subjective impressions to make better. reliable decisions.TESTS are tools that effectively enhance the educational process.

Student Evaluation is necessary to help teachers determine the degree to which educational objectives have been achieved and to help teachers know their students as .

A Systems Model for Evaluation Conte xt Input Outpu t Outco me Proce ss .

Context  It refers to the environment of the curriculum. Simply put context evaluation . The real situation where the curriculum is operating is its context.

instructional strategies. . and all the materials needed. the teachers.Input  Refers to the ingredients of the curriculum which include the goals. the learners.

Process  Refers to the ways of means of how the curriculum was .

.Output  output is used to refer to the amount of something that a person or thing produces.

.Outcome  It is an activity. process. or situation that exists at the end of it.

It will determine to what extent the curriculum objectives .Product  Indicates if the curriculum accomplishes its goals.

 Evaluation is part of a larger program planning process. .

time. Instead. and effort can we put into this?  Propriety: Who needs to be involved in the evaluation to be ethical?  Accuracy: What design will lead to accurate information?  . best choice at each step is options that maximize: Utility: Who needs the info from this evaluation and what info do they need?  Feasibility: How much money.The Four Standards of Evaluation No one “right” evaluation.

Kirkpatrick Four-levels of Evaluation .


The End Thanks for listening  Imparted by: 1.Rhonalyn Manuel 5.Yveth Gonzaga 7.Adeliza 3.April Ibañez 6.Harwin Cosme 4.Patrick Javier .Jayson Santos Group 1 Guban 2.