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RAPID

PROTOTYPING

INTRODUCTION

OUTLINE

Basics of Rapid Prototyping(RP),

Need for RP system,

Classification of RP system,

Fundamental fabrication Process,

Basic Process of RP system,

Impacts of RP and its tooling in
Product Development process,

Benefits of RP system,

Applications of RP systems,

Digital and Virtual Prototyping.

Journals

PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENT
PROCESS

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PROTOTYPE
Prototype is the first or original
example of something that has
been or will be copied or
developed ; it is a model or
preliminary version.

ASPECTS OF PROTOTYPE

Implementation of prototype from the
entire product or system.

The form of the prototype ; from a
virtual

prototype

to

a

physical

prototype.

The degree of the approximation of the
prototype,

from

a

very

rough

representation to an exact application

dies and fixtures and also with little human intervention.RAPID PROTOTYPING  Rapid prototyping technologies are able to produce physical model in a layer by layer manner directly from their CAD models without any tools. .  RP is capable to fabricate parts quickly with too complex shape easily as compared to traditional manufacturing technology.

WHY PROTOTYPES .

 A potential foundation to developing the system. mistakes visual aids and for . function tests.  It gives excellent communicating. fit.  Decrease the costly development time.NEED OF RAPID PROTOTYPING  Enable to explore the problems.  Early detection of errors.  Increase of possible form.  Increasing complexity.

IMPORTANT NEED OF RP .

 Solid based RP systems. .  Powder based RP systems.CLASSIFICATION OF RP SYSTEMS  Liquid based RP systems.

.  Solid Ground Curing (SGC).  Solid Object Ultraviolet-Laser Printer (SOUP).  Solid creation system (SCS).LIQUID BASED RP SYSTEMS  Stereolithography Apparatus (STL).  Rapid Freeze Prototyping (RFP).

LIQUID BASED RP SYSTEMS .

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.SOLID BASED RP SYSTEMS  Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM).  Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM).  Melted Extrusion Modeling (MEM).  Multi-Jet Modeling System (MJM).  Paper Laminated Technology (PLT).

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 Direct Shell Production Casting.  Three Dimensional Printing.  Laser Engineered Net Shaping.  Electron Beam Melting Process.POWDER BASED RP SYSTEMS  Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). .  Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS).

POWDER BASED RP SYSTEMS .

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FUNDAMENTAL FABRICATION PROCESS  Subtractive  Additive  Formative .

SUBTRACTIVE  In a subtractive process. . one starts with a single block of solid material larger than the final size of the desired object and portion of the material are removed until.

.ADDITIVE  An additive process is the exact reverse in that the end product is much larger than the material when it started . materials are manipulated so that they are successively combined to form it into the desired shape.

FORMATIVE  The formative process is one where mechanical forces or restricting forms are applied on a material so as to form it into the desired shape. .

BASIC PROCESS OF RP Three stages: pre-processing. building.STL file in CAD in RP systems Build Supports if needed RP Process Build Prototype Post Process Remove Supports Clean Surface Post Cure if needed Slicing Part Completed . and post processing CAD Model Pre Process Surface/Solid Model Generate .

such as Pro/ENGINEER. .CAD MODEL CREATION  First.  Solid modelers. and will therefore yield better results. the object to be built is modeled using a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software package. tend to represent 3-D objects more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD.  This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques.

therefore. they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. the STL (stereolithography. is to convert the CAD file into STL format.  The second step. Increasing .CONVERSION TO STL FORMAT  To establish consistency.  STL files use planar elements. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of planar triangles. the first RP technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid prototyping industry.

CONVERSION TO STL FORMAT .

CONVERSION TO STL FORMAT .

File menu-save copy As 2.Select STL from the types drop down 3. CATIA 1.Select STL command 2.Check options-choose high(for quality surface) 4.015mm 3.Maximum seg to 0.Select the model. then select yes 4. ok. .CONVERSION TO STL FORMAT   Auto Desk 1.Select Export.Click save.

SLICE THE STL FILE  In the third step.  The program may also generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build. . internal cavities.  The pre-processing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0. depending on the build technique. a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built.7 mm thick. Supports are useful for delicate features such as overhangs.01 mm to 0.

SLICE THE STL FILE .

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 Most machines are fairly autonomous. paper. . needing little human intervention. or powdered metal.  RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers.LAYER BY LAYER CONSTRUCTION  The fourth step is the actual construction of the part.

LAYER BY LAYER CONSTRUCTION .

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CLEAN AND FINISH  The final step is post-processing. and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability. This involves removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports.  Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use  Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. sealing.  Sanding. .

CLEAN AND FINISH .

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IMPACT OF RAPID PROTOTYPING AND TOOLING IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT .

count and thereby . So there is a possible to compress the over all product development time  It can greatly reduce the TIME-TO-MARKET  Reducing the part reducing assembly...CONT.  Time  In saving (CAD & CAE) Rapid Prototyping the different design and manufacturing activities are carried out concurrently.

.  The manufacturer can reduce the labour content of machining/casting.  The product designers can increase part complexity with little significant effects on lead time and cost. waste disposal cost.  It can greatly reduce material waste.  The main savings are in costs...CONT.

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BENEFITS OF RP .

Can reduce the part count. 2. FOR TOOL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERS 1.DIRECT BENEFITS   FOR PRODUCT DESIGNERS 1. 3.Can minimize design and manufacturing and verification of tooling.Can reduce the part count and therefore reducing assembly. .The main savings are cost 2.Minimizing the time consume to discussion and evaluation of manufacturing possibilities.Can increase the part complexity with little significant effects. 3.

2.Can easily expand distribution and quickly enter foreign markets.INDIRECT BENEFITS   FOR MARKETING 1.The customers can buy products which meet more closely individual needs and wants.It greatly reduces the TIME-TO-MARKET 2. . FOR CONSUMERS 1.Consumer can buy products at lower prices.

APPLICATIONS  Aerospace  Automotive  Biomedical  Jewelry  Coin  Tableware  Consumer Electronics  Architecture .

AEROSPACE (8.2%) .

7%) .AUTOMOTIVE (31.

8%) .BIOMEDICAL (8.

4%) .CONSUMER PRODUCTS (18.

6%) .ACADEMIC (8.

ARCHITECTURE .

validate and visualize their products.  It creates photorealistic rendering and animations of products prior to manufacturing.DIGITAL PROTOTYPING  The digital prototyping gives virtual explore to a complete product before it built.  DP use to design. optimize. iterate. for conceptual design. manufacturing. sales and marketing departments. engineering. .

 Digital prototyping goes beyond simply creating product design in 3D. 3.It gives a way to access to operation of moving parts.  For product development team 1.Also we can see how the various product components interact with subsystems. 2. to determine the product will fail or not. ..CONT.It reduces the number of physical prototype thereby reducing cost and time.

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 A virtual prototype intended to producing an initial concept of design.VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING  It is the technique in the process of product development.  Virtual prototyping involves CAD/CAE software to validate a design before committing to make a physical prototype.  The virtual prototype predict the performance prior to constructing physical prototype. .

assembly and matting etc... (Mechanical motion.VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING  Using VP ability to explore a wide range of design alternative leads to improvements in performance and design quality.  Using VP time to market gets reduced sustainly because the VP much faster than physical prototype. .

JOURNALS  Rapid Prototyping Journal – Emerald insight  International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing – Inderscience Publisher  Virtual and Physical Prototyping – Taylor and Francis .