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Peripheral Nervous System

Place of the PNS in the structural organization of the nervous system

CNS

PNS

Sensory division

Sympathetic
division
Parasympathetic
division

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Motor division

Autonomic
nervous
system

Somatic
nervous
system

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Structure of a nerve

Axon
Blood vessels

Perineurium

Myelin sheath
Endoneurium
Perineurium

Epineurium
Fascicle
Fascicle
Blood
vessels
(a)

Endoneurium

Nerve fibers

(b)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e
by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn

Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

– Spinal nerves: 31 • • • • • Cervical: 8 (above C1. IV­VI.Spinal Nerves and Nerve Plexuses • Characteristics: – Somatic sensation (conscious) and somatic motor control (voluntary  control) of skeletal muscles. II. XI and XII. – Includes cranial nerves: I. VIII. and below C1­C7) Thoracic: 12 (below T1­T12) Lumbar: 5 (below T1­T5) Sacral: 5 ( below S1­S5) Coccygeal: 1 exit coccyx – Mixed nerves • Sensory  • Motor – Dorsal and ventral rami (nerve branches)  plexuses (network of nerves) .

. Inc..Distribution of spinal nerves Cervical plexus Brachial plexus Cervical nerves C1– C8 Cervical enlargement Intercostal nerves Thoracic nerves T1– T12 Lumbar enlargement Lumbar plexus Sacral plexus Cauda equina Human Anatomy and Physiology. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Lumbar nerves L1– L5 Sacral nerves S1– S5 Coccygeal nerve C0 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education.

Formation of spinal nerves and rami distribution Dorsal ramus Ventral ramus Spinal nerve Rami communicantes Intercostal nerve Dorsal root ganglion Ventral root Sympathetic trunk (chain) ganglion Dorsal root Thoracic cavity Lateral cutaneous Anterior cutaneous Sternum (b) Branches of intercostal nerve .

The cervical plexus Key: = Ventral rami Hypoglossal nerve (XII) Lesser occipital nerve Segmental branches Ventral rami: C1 Greater auricular nerve C2 Transverse cutaneous nerve C3 Ansa cervicalis C4 Accessory nerve (XI) Phrenic nerve Supraclavicular nerves C5 .

The brachial plexus Roots: Key: Dorsal scapular = Roots Nerve to subclavius Suprascapular = Trunks = Anterior division = Posterior division Cords C4 C5 C6 Posterior divisions C7 Lateral C8 Posterior T1 Medial Upper Middle Trunks Lower Long thoracic Medial pectoral Lateral pectoral Axillary (a) Upper subscapular Musculocutaneous Lower subscapular Radial Thoracodorsal Median Medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm Ulnar .

The brachial plexus Trunks Humerus Radial nerve Musculocutaneous nerve Ulna Radius Ulnar nerve Median nerve Radial nerve (superficial branch) Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve Superficial branch of ulnar nerve Digital branch of ulnar nerve Muscular branch Median Digital nerve branch (c) Human Anatomy and Physiology. .. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Inc. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education.

7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education.The lumbar plexus Ventral rami: L1 Iliohypogastric Ilioinguinal Iliohypogastric Ilioinguinal Genitofemoral L2 Femoral Lateral femoral L3 cutaneous Obturator Lateral femoral cutaneous L4 Anterior femoral cutaneous Saphenous Obturator Femoral L5 Lumbosacral trunk (a) Key: = Ventral rami (b) Human Anatomy and Physiology. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.. .

. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. .The sacral plexus Ventral rami: L4 Superior gluteal L5 Lumbosacral trunk Inferior gluteal Common fibular Tibial Posterior femoral cutaneous Pudendal Sciatic (a) Key: = Ventral rami Human Anatomy and Physiology. Inc. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 C0 Superior gluteal Inferior gluteal Pudendal Sciatic Posterior femoral cutaneous Common fibular Tibial Sural Deep fibular Superficial fibular Plantar branches (b) Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education.

• Activity 2 – Identify spinal chord tracts • Activity 3 – Identify Major nerve plexuses and Peripheral  nerves .

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) .

. Inc.Place of the ANS in the structural organization of the nervous system CNS PNS Sensory division Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division Human Anatomy and Physiology.. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Motor division Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

 outside  the CNS and its axon synapses with the effector  organ. . glands. • Sympathetic (fight or flight) functions are  antagonistic  to the Parasympathetic (resting and  digesting) functions. smooth muscle. – Cardiac muscle. • Consists of chains of 2 motor neurons.  – Ganglion neuron: synapses with pregalnglion. – Preganglion neuron: located in the CNS.Characteristics of the ANS • Regulates body function unconsciously.

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.g.. . in gut) Ganglion Acetylcholine Autonomic nervous system Epinephrine and norepinephrine Blood vessel Adrenal medulla Acetylcholine Parasympathetic division Glands Cardiac muscle Ganglion Key: = Preganglionic axons (sympathetic) Human Anatomy and Physiology..Comparison of somatic and autonomic nervous systems Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Effector organs Acetylcholine Somatic nervous system Skeletal muscle Acetylcholine Sympathetic division Norepinephrine Smooth muscle (e. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn = Postganglionic axons (sympathetic) = Myelination = Preganglionic axons (parasympathetic) = Postganglionic axons (parasympathetic) Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education.

Overview of the subdivisions of the ANS Parasympathetic Sympathetic Eye Brain stem Salivary glands Heart Eye Skin* Cranial Cervical Sympathetic ganglia Salivary glands Lungs Lungs T1 Heart Stomach Stomach Thoracic Pancreas Liver and gallbladder Pancreas L1 Liver and gallbladder Adrenal gland Lumbar Bladder Bladder Genitals Genitals Human Anatomy and Physiology. . publishing as Benjamin Cummings.. Inc. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Sacral Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education.

clitoris. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.Parasympathetic (craniosacral) division of the ANS Eye Lacrimal gland Nasal mucosa Submandibular and sublingual glands Parotid gland CN III CN VII CN IX CN X III: Oculomotor Ciliary ganglion VII: Facial Pterygopalatine ganglion IX: Glossopharyngeal X: Vagus Submandibular ganglion Cardiac and pulmonary plexuses Otic ganglion Celiac plexus S2 Heart Lung Liver and gallbladder Stomach Pancreas S4 Pelvic splanchnic nerves Inferior hypogastric plexus Large intestine Small intestine Rectum Urinary bladder and ureters Genitalia (penis. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. Inc. . and vagina) Human Anatomy and Physiology..

 synapse with the  preganglion ganglion. • Sacral region ganglions synapse to pelvic  splanchnic nerves that travel to the pelvic cavity. which emits a  short axon to the organ.Characteristics of the  Parasympathetic Division • Preganglion axons are located in the cranial  nerves in the immediate area to be stimulated. • Terminal or intramural ganglion. .

.. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Inferior hypogastric plexus Genitalia (uterus. and penis) and urinary bladder Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. skin (arrector pili muscles and sweat glands) Medulla Middle cervical ganglion Inferior cervical ganglion T1 Salivary glands Heart Cardiac and pulmonary plexuses Lung Greater splanchnic nerve Lesser splanchnic nerve Celiac ganglion L2 Superior mesenteric White rami communicantes ganglion Lumbar splanchnic nerves Liver and gallbladder Stomach Spleen Aortic plexus on aorta Inferior mesenteric ganglion Adrenal gland Kidney Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Sympathetic division (thoracolumbar) Human Anatomy and Physiology.Sympathetic (thoracolumbar) division of the ANS Midbrain Superior cervical Pons ganglion Eye Lacrimal gland Nasal mucosa Sympathetic trunk (chain) ganglia Blood vessels. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. vagina.

– Travel up or downward through the sympathetic chain in the paravertebral  region to another ganglion. • (Postganglionic reenter spinal nerve through gray ramus communicans to  travel in dorsal or ventral ramus to innervate organs).Characteristics of the Sympathetic  Division • Preganglion are located in the lateral ramus of the spinal chord  T1 – L2.  • Celiac. . – Skip the ganglion and form part of the splanchnic nerves. Axon leaves the chord via ventral root  the spinal nerve   the ventral ramus white ramus communicans   paravertrebral ganglion in the sympathetic chain. superior mesenteric. • Preganglion axon may: – Synapse with a same level sympathetic ganglion chain  neuron. hypogastric ganglia. inferior mesenteric. which travele to  the organ to synapse with prevertebral or collateral ganglion.

Synapse in paravertebal region at the same level 2.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Synapse in prevertebral region anterior to vertebral column Human Anatomy and Physiology. Inc. .Sympathetic trunks and pathways Dorsal root Ventral root Sympathetic trunk (chain) ganglion Lateral horn (visceral motor zone) Dorsal root ganglion Sympathetic trunk Spinal cord Sympathetic trunk ganglion Body of a vertebra Ventral ramus of spinal nerve Gray ramus communicans Thoracic splanchnic nerves Intercostal nerve Intercostal muscle of thorax (a) Dorsal white column Rib 2 White ramus communicans Ventral root Dorsal ramus of spinal nerve 3 1 1. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn 2 1 Splanchnic nerve Blood vessels Skin (arrector pili muscles and sweat glands) (b) To effector Collateral (prevertebral) ganglion such as the celiac 3 Target organ (in abdomen) Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. Synapse in chain ganglion at different level 3.

.• Activity 4 – Locate the ANS chains in the models.

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– Somatic reflexes: activate skeletal muscles. • Two systems – Autonomic reflexes (unconscious): digestion.Human Reflex Physiology • Definition: – Rapid. .  sweating etc. predictable and involuntary motor  response to stimuli through pathways called  reflex arcs.

red. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Inc. reticular formation.) Segmental motor controls (CPG) Lowest Spinal cord Sensory input Reflex activity Human Anatomy and Physiology. . 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Motor output CNG: central pattern generator Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. etc..Hierarchy of motor control Interactions Control level Programs and instructions (modified by feedback) Structures involved Highest (precommand) Cerebellum and basal nuclei Internal feedback Feedback Middle Projection areas Motor cortex (pyramidal system) and brain stem nuclei (vestibular.

.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.The basic components of all human reflex arcs Spinal cord (in cross section) Stimulus 2 Sensory neuron 1 Receptor 4 Motor neuron Skin 3 Integration center Interneuron 5 Effector Human Anatomy and Physiology. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. Inc.

.  – Reciprocal inhibition: antagonistic efferent  muscles are relaxed (damped). • Somatic Reflexes (skeletal muscle effectors) – Stretch reflexes: Postural and locomotion reflexes. – Patellar reflex (activity 1).The reflex arc • Characteristics: Structurally (number of neurons  involved) – Monosynaptic arc: one synapse – Polysynaptic arc: one or more association neurons. • Muscle spindle stimuli/Golgi organ in tendons  (stretching) initiates reflex.

7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. . Inc.The stretch reflex Interneuron 1 Afferent impulses from stretch receptor to spinal cord Initial stimulus: muscle stretch Cell body of sensory neuron Motor neuron serving quadriceps 2 Efferent impulses to alpha () motor neurons cause contraction of the stretched muscle that resists/reverses the stretch Motor neuron serving antagonist muscle group (hamstrings) – Spinal cord (L2–L4) Patella Muscle spindle Quadriceps (extensors) Muscle spindle Patellar ligament 3 Efferent impulses to antagonist muscles are damped (reciprocal inhibition) Hamstrings (flexors) Key: + Excitatory synapse – Inhibitory synapse (a) (b) Human Anatomy and Physiology. publishing as Benjamin Cummings..

7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Afferent fiber from Golgi tendon organ Efferent fiber to muscle associated with stretched tendon Efferent fiber to antagonistic muscle Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education.The Golgi tendon reflex Quadriceps (extensor) Golgi tendon organ Hamstrings (flexor) Spinal cord Interneurons + + + – Key: + Excitatory synapse – Inhibitory synapse Human Anatomy and Physiology. .. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

. AP frequency constant AP: Action Potential Human Anatomy and Physiology. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. AP frequency increased (c)  Motor neuron stimulation only.Operation of the muscle spindle Muscle spindle Intrafusal muscle fiber Primary sensory (la) nerve fiber Extrafusal muscle fiber Time Time Time Time (a) Unstretched muscle. unable to signal length changes (d)  Neuron coactivation. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. AP frequency constant (b) Stretched muscle. . Inc. no APs.

. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. Inc. .Anatomy of the muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ  Efferent motor fiber to spindle Secondary sensory endings (type II fiber) Primary sensory endings (type Ia fiber) Muscle spindle Connective tissue capsule Capsule  Efferent motor fiber to extrafusal muscle fibers Extrafusal muscle fiber Intrafusal muscle fibers Sensory fiber Tendon Golgi tendon organ Human Anatomy and Physiology. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Somatic Reflexes • Crossed extensor reflex: Withdrawal reflex. • Activity 2? .  followed by extension of the opposite limb.

7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Right arm (site of stimulus) Left arm (site of reciprocal activation) Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. .The crossed-extensor reflex Interneurons + + – Afferent fiber Extensor inhibited Flexor stimulated + – + Efferent fibers Efferent fibers x Fle es Flexor inhibited Extensor stimulated Arm movements ds n e t Ex Key: + Excitatory synapse – Inhibitory synapse Human Anatomy and Physiology.. Inc.

Somatic Reflexes • Autonomic Reflexes – Pupillary reflexes – Salivary reflex • Reaction time of a reflex – Relative to the myelination of an axon andits  length relative to the interneuron or association  center. .  – Visual stimulus 150­300 ms.

 Activity 3. – Cranial nerve reflex: optical (motor) nerves. • Plantar reflex.Somatic Reflexes • Superficial cord reflex: Abdominal. toes  flex and move close together. • Corneal reflex (V). Normal pyramidal activity. Activity 4 .  cremaster and plantar reflexes.

– Cranial nerve II. Smooth/skeletal muscles.  • Actvity 6: Contralateral response. – Salivary reflex. Pupilary. ipsilateral  response. . – Ciliospinal reflex.Autonomic reflexes • Pupillary reflexes. III.

. Inc. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Integration center (may be preganglionic neuron) Preganglionic axon Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. .Visceral reflexes Stimulus Sensory receptor in viscera Dorsal root ganglion Central nervous system Visceral Visceral reflex arc (sensory) (Autonomic reflex) fiber Postganglionic axon Response Visceral effector Ganglionic neuron Autonomic ganglion Human Anatomy and Physiology.

. Inc.Referred pain Heart Lungs and diaphragm Liver Gallbladder Gallbladder Heart Appendix Liver Stomach Pancreas Small intestine Ovaries Colon Kidneys Urinary bladder Ureters Human Anatomy and Physiology. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education. .