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Teori Tingkah Laku Kognitif

dalam Kaunseling


Behavior Theory

Skinner • Skinner championed radical behaviorism. but he denied that they CAUSED our actions. which places primary emphasis on the effects of environment on behavior. . Instead he stresses the cause and effect links between objective.B. observable environmental conditions and behavior. Environmental factors can be directly observed and changed. In 197 Skinner wrote a book “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”. He acknowledged that feelings and thoughts exist. he did not believe that humans had free choice.F. Skinner was also a determinist.

4 Areas of Development • • • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Theory Cognitive Behavior Therapy .

Positive and negative reinforcement. Examples are reading.(respondent conditioning). driving a car and eating with utensils.refers to what happens prior to learning that creates a responds thought. writing.• Classical Conditioning. . punishment and extinction techniques. salivation • Operant Conditioning-most of the significant responses we make in everyday life. pairing.knee jerks. Example. illustrates how operant conditioning in applied settings can be instrumental in developing prosocial and adaptive behaviors.

It involves a triadic reciprocal interaction among the environment. • Cognitive behavior Therapy-this approach offers various action-oriented methods to help people change what they are doing and thinking. self-perception and so forth). personal factors (beliefs.• Social learning theory is interact ional. and individual behavior. . A basic assumption is that people are capable of self-directed behavior change. expectations. interdisciplinary and multimodal. preferences.

View of Human Nature • The person is the producer and the product of his or her environment • Developing producers that actually give control to acts and thus increases their range of freedom • It aims to increase peoples skills so that they have more options for responding • Given the techniques and skills of self change. people have the capacity to improve their lives by altering one or more of the various factors influencing their behavior .

Rather than simply talking about their condition they are required to DO something to bring about change. At times understanding of the past may offer useful info.Basic Characteristics and Assumptions: • • • Behavior therapy are based on the principles and procedures of the scientific method. & learning is viewed as being at the core of therapy. Experimentally derived principles of learning are systematically applied to help people change their maladaptive behavior Behavior therapy deals with the clients current problems and the factors influencing them as opposed to an analysis of possible historical determinants. About the environmental events related to present behavior Clients involved in behavior therapy are expected to assume an active role by engaging in specific actions to deal with their problems. Behavior therapy is an action-oriented approach. Although referred to as “therapy” this is an education approach in which clients participate in a teachinglearning process. .

• • • The Behavioral approach emphasizes teaching clients skills of self-management with the expectation that they will be responsible for transferring what they learn in the therapist’s office to their everyday lives. Behavior therapy emphasizes a self-control approach in which clients learn self-management strategies. and evaluating change. identifying the problem. Clients are empowered through this process of being responsible for their changes. Therapists frequently train clients to initiate.Cont. conduct. . The focuses is on assessing overt and covert behavior directly.. and evaluate their own therapy. Behavior therapy is generally carried in the clients natural environment as much as possible. Therapists also assess their clients culture as part of their social environments. including social support networks relating to target behavior.

• • • • Behavioral treatment interventions are individually tailored to specific problems experience by clients. “What treatment. Interventions are applied to all facets of daily life in which maladaptive behaviors are to be increased Therapists strive to develop culture specific procedures and obtain their clients adherence and cooperation . by whom. is the most effective for this individual with that specific problem and under which set of circumstances? The practice of behavior therapy is based on a collaborative partnership between therapist and clients and every attempt as made to inform clients about the nature and course of treatment The emphasis is on practical applications.Cont..

Therapeutic Goals • • • • • • • The general goals of behavior therapy are to increase personal choice and to create new conditions for learning The clients with the help of the therapists defines specific goals at the outset of the therapeutic process The counselor provides rationale for goals. and the clients participation in the goalsetting process Client identifies the outcomes specifying the positive changes that he and she wants from counseling Client is the person seeking help. and he or she can only make the changes in their life The benefit effect of all identified goals are explored and counselor and client discuss the possible advantages and disadvantages of these goals Client and counselor then decide to continue pursuing the selected goals. purpose of goals. explain role of goals. or to seek the services of another practitioner . to reconsider the clients initial goals.

monitoring self form. changes are all or nothing Behavior therapy is used for a specific person not some random therapy Behavioral therapy can be incorporated into other approaches Some approaches of the behavioral therapy ranges from behavioral analysis. and simple observation techniques Treatment outcomes are multifaceted. assertion training. and multimodal therapy . exposure therapies. self-direct behavior. functional assessment model. eye movement. self-management programs. behavior rating scales. relaxation training. self-report inventories. systematic desensitization.Therapeutic techniques and procedure • • • • • • Client keeps record of intensity or occurrences to devise if the therapy is working Some assessment instruments including.

positive punishment and negative punishment Positive reinforcement involves the addition of something of value to the individual as a consequence of a certain behavior Negative reinforcement involves escape or avoidance of unpleasant stimuli. Individual motivated to exhibit a desired behavior to avoid the unpleasant condition Extinction can be used for behaviors that have been maintained by positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Doing so can eliminate certain behaviors. Positive punishment aversive stimulus is added after the behavior to decrease the frequency of a behavior Negative punishment id reinforcing stimulus is removed following the behavior to decrease the frequency of a target behavior Both kinds of punishment.Operant conditioning Techniques • • • • • • • Some key principles of operant conditioning are: positive reinforcement. extinction. negative reinforcement. the behavior is less likely to happen again .

Functional Assessment Model • • • • • The first step is to conduct a functional assessment using both indirect and direct observation. and information about antecedent events. including the time and place of the behavior and the people present when the behavior occurs The therapist develops hypotheses about the nature of the problem behavior and the condition contributing to this behavior Hypothesized to be maintaining the problem behaviors Negative punishment procedures may be used to decrease problem After treatment methods have been used it’s very important to develop strategies to maintain behaviors .

to notice their muscles getting tighter and study the tension. to hold and fully experience the tension • A normal relaxation practice lasts for 20 to 25 minutes • It helps relieve stress and anxiety .Relaxation Training • Clients are given a set of instructions that ask them to relax in a quite environment and taking deep and regular breathing patterns • Clients are suppose to “let go” • Clients are encouraged to actually feel and experience the tension building up.

then imagine the least anxiety arousing scene. disapproval. therapist moves progressivly up the hierarchy until the client signals anxiety. Conducts anxiety hierarchy which stimuli that elicit anxiety in a particular situation such as rejection.Systematic Desensitization • • • • • • • • Clients are to imagine successively more anxiety arousing situations at the same time that they engage in a behavior that competes with anxiety Gradually clients become less sensitive to the anxiety arousing situations The therapist conducts an initial interview to identify specific information about the anxiety and to gather relevant background information about the client Background information gives the therapist a good understanding of the client Find out under what circumstances does the clients have anxiety Therapist conducts a relaxation training before going to therapy. criticism. jealousy. or any phobia Desensitization begins after several sessions. relaxation is introduced again until little anxiety is experienced . client reaches complete relaxation with eyes closed.

riding in elevators and phobia of certain animals Because of the discomfort in this treatment with intense exposure some clients may not elect these exposures . riding in subways.Exposure Therapies • • • • • • Exposure therapies are designed to treat fears and other negative emotional responses by introducing client to the situation that contributed to such problems In Vivo desensitization involves the client exposure to the actual feared situation in the hierarchy in real life rather than simply imagining situations Flooding which refers to either in vivo or imaginal exposure to anxiety-evoking stimuli for a prolonged period of time Allows the anxiety to decrease on it’s own Flooding can be used for many fearful anxieties such as flying.

depression. grief. panic. children. cognitive restructuring.Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing EMDR • • • • • • • EMDR is a form of exposure therapy that involves imaginable flooding. sexual abuse victims. combat veterans. rhythmic eye movement and other bilateral stimulation to treat clients who have experienced traumatic stress EMDR is applied to many populations that deal with posttraumatic stress disorders. accident victims. rape survivors. addictions and phobias The client is instructed to visually track the therapist’s index finger as they move it back and forth 12 to 24 times Client is instructed to block out negative experience momentarily and breathe deep and to report what he/she is imagining. couples It also deals with individuals that have anxiety. and the use of rapid. feeling and thinking Client is asked the positive cognition and identify and body tension Do reevaluation in next session . victims of crime.

people who are overly polite and allows others to take advantage of them.Assertion Training • • • • • Useful for people who can’t express anger or irritation. assertive clients don’t stand up for their rights at all cost. and feelings and people who have social phobias The assumption underlying assertion training is so clients can have the right to express themselves A goal in assertion training is to teach clients to express themselves in ways that reflect sensitivity to the feelings and rights of others Clients have the CHOICE of whether to behave assertively in certain situations Assertion does not mean aggression. ignoring the feelings of others . people who find it difficult to express affection and other positive responses. difficult to say no. people who feel they have no right to express their thought beliefs.

self monitoring. self reward. client make self evaluation. self contracting. techniques aimed at self-change tend to increase involvement and commitment to their own treatment Self management strategies include but limited to.Self Management & Self Direct Behavior • • • • • Involves psychologists being willing to share their knowledge so that consumers can increasingly lead self-directed lives and not be dependent on experts Therapist teach clients skills that they will need to manage their own lives effectively Clients have a direct role of their own treatment. stimulus control and self as model Five characteristics are combination of self management. engage regularly over period of time. use self reinforcement and a degree of environmental support .

systematic. feel.Multimodal Therapy: Clinical Behavior Therapy • • • • • • Multimodal therapy is a comprehensive. holistic approach to behavior therapy develop This model implies that we are social beings who move. sense. that encourages technical eclecticism New techniques are being introduced constantly and existing techniques are refined Therapist take great plain to determine what relationship and what treatment strategies will work best with each individual in a particular situation Assumption of this approach is that because individuals are troubled by a variety of specific problems it is appropriate that multitude of treatment strategies be used in bringing about change . imagine and think Multimodal is an open system.

and therapist are willing to teach.Technical Eclecticism • • • • • Therapist borrow techniques from many other therapy systems Therapist recognize that many clients come to therapy to learn skills. provide positive reinforcement and are appropriately self disclosing Failure to apprehend the clients situation can easily leave the client feeling alienated and misunderstood . model and direct their clients Main function is provide information. train. coach. instructions and reactions Therapist challenge self defeating beliefs. offer constructive feedback.

nutrition and exercise . • • • • • B=Behavior A=Affective responses S=Sensations I=Images C=Cognitions • I=Interpersonal relationships • D=Drugs.The Basic I. biological functions.D.

consultants. offering positive reinforcement and being appropriately self-disclosing Therapists need to make choices regarding different styles of relating to clients Over the years has been learning to blend appropriate and effective techniques with the most suitable relationship style . and role models Therapist provide information. educators.Role of Therapist • • • • Therapist are very active during therapy sessions. instructions and feedback as well as modeling assertive behaviors. offering constructive criticism and suggestions. challenging self defeating beliefs.


and behaviors interact and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship • Is highly didactic. judging. evaluations. and reactions to life situations . emotions. interpretations. deciding. and doing • Assumes that cognitions.Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) • Stresses thinking. very directive. analyzing. and concerned as much with thinking as with feeling • Teaches that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs.

emotive. and behavioral processes .View of Human Nature • We are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinking • We are self-talking. • We have an inborn tendency toward growth and actualization • We learn and invent disturbing beliefs and keep ourselves disturbed through our self-talk • We have the capacity to change our cognitive. self-evaluating. and selfsustaining.

View of Emotional Disturbance • We learn irrational belief from significant other during childhood • Teach clients to feel undepressed even when they are unaccepted and unloved by significant others.. • Blame is at the core of most emotional disturbances • Irrational idea (e.g. I must be loved by everyone) internalize  self-defeating • We have a tendency to make ourselves emotionally disturbed by internalizing selfdefeating beliefs .

The A-B-C theory of personality .

But he want to change this pattern. – Using A-B-C-D-E-F to analyze and help Tom .Case discussion 1 • Tom. a college sophomore. want to overcomes his shyness around women. He doe not date and even des his best to keep away from women because he is afraid they will reject him.

but she fears that she has no talent. – Using A-B-C-D-E-F to analyze and help Mary . and afraid of follow through with taking the course.Case discussion 2 • Mary would like to take a course in creative writing. She is afraid of failing. afraid of being told that she is dumb.

Case discussion 3 • Each week John comes to his sessions with a new excuse for why he has not succeeded in following through with his homework assignments. which keep John from taking actions – What homework assignment might you suggest? . gets too busy. gets scared. Instead of really doing much of anything. Either he forgets. he whines each week about how rotten he feels and how he so much would like to change but just doesn’t know how. Or puts it off— anything but actually doing something to change what he says he wants to change. – What are the possible irrational beliefs.

for fear that he might displease someone who then would not like him. Rarely does he assert himself.Case discussion 4 • Brent feels that he must win everyone’s approval. He has become a “super nice guy” who goes out of his way to please everyone. – What are the possible irrational beliefs? – How do you help Brent? – If Brent is Asian American. what cultural components you might take into account? .

and I can’t stand it.” – “I must perform important tasks competently and perfectly. it’s terrible.Irrational Ideas • Irrational ideas lead to self-defeating behavior • Some examples: – “I must have love or approval from all the significant people in my life.” – “If I don’t get what I want.” .

The Therapeutic Process
• Therapy is seen as an educational
• Clients learn
– To identify and dispute irrational beliefs
– To replace ineffective ways of thinking
with effective and rational cognitions
– To stop absolutistic thinking, blaming,
and repeating false beliefs

Therapeutic Goals
• A basic goal is to teach clients how to
change their dysfunctional emotions and
behaviors into health ones.
• Two main goals of REBT are to assist
clients to achieving unconditional selfacceptance and unconditional other
– As clients become more able to accept
themselves, they are more likely to
unconditionally accept others.

Therapist’s function and
• 1. Encouraging clients to discover their
irrational beliefs and ideas
• 2. Making connection of how these
irrational beliefs lead to emotional
• 3. Challenging clients to modify or
abandon their irrational beliefs.
• 4. Dispute the irrational beliefs and
substitute rational beliefs and behaviors.

Client’s Experience in
• A learner---learn how to apply logical
thoughts, experiential exercises, and
behavioral homework to problem solving
and emotional change.
• Focus on here-and-now experiences
• Not spend much time to exploring clients’
early history and connecting present and
• Expect to actively work outside the therapy

when it occur. fostering dependence for approval.) . clients believe that they must be liked and loved by their therapists. But. Open and direct in disclosing their own beliefs and values Transference is not encouraged.. (accept them as persons but confront their faulty thinking and self-destructive behaviors) Ellis believes that too much warmth and understanding can be counter-productive. Therapists shows great faith in their clients’ ability to change themselves. • Intensive therapeutic • • • • REBT unconditionally accept all clients and teach them to unconditionally accept others and themselves.Relationship Between Therapist andrelationship Clientis not required. the therapist is likely to confront it (e.g.

.Therapeutic techniques and procedures • Cognitive methods – Disputing irrational beliefs • If I don’t get what I want. • Replace negative self-statement to positive message – Changing one’s language • It would be absolutely awful. it is not at the end of the world – Doing cognitive homework • Applying ABC theory in daily life’s problems • Put themselves in risk-taking situations to challenge their self-limiting beliefs.It would be inconvenient – Using humor • Humorous songs .

– Use of force and vigor • From intellectual to emotional insight • Reverse role playing .Therapeutic techniques and procedures • Emotional Techniques – Rational-emotional imagery • Imagine the worst things that could happen to them – Role playing – Shame-attacking exercises • Take a risk to do something that they are afraid to do because of what others might think…until they realize that their feelings of shame are self-created.

. • Research Efforts – Most studies focus only on cognitive methods and do not consider emotive and behavioral methods.Therapeutic techniques and procedures • Behavioral Techniques – Use most of the standard behavioral therapy approaches.

crisis. and marriage. problems of sex. depression. couple and family therapy… . psychotic disorders.Applications of REBT • REBT has been widely applied to several areas: anxiety. love.


the focus of his career at the University of Pennsylvania where the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research is housed © 2011 Brooks/Cole.Aaron Beck • Childhood fears were handled with reasoning • Likely motivated his work with cognitive therapy focusing on anxiety and depression • Graduated from Brown University and Yale Medical School • Studied psychiatry and was trained as a psychoanalyst • eventually his research led him to formulate cognitive therapy. A Division of Cengage Learning .

Aaron Beck Beck contended that various mental disorders have particular cognitive patterns and that the most effective and lasting therapy involves intervention into those patterns. A Division of Cengage Learning . © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

© 2011 Brooks/Cole.Beliefs • People are not passive victims of their inborn tendencies • People are actively creating and moving toward goals that are vital to them • Distress occurs when people experience a threat to their interests • The more crucial a person considers the goal to be. the greater the response. A Division of Cengage Learning .

and • schemas. A Division of Cengage Learning .Four levels of cognition • automatic thoughts. © 2011 Brooks/Cole. • core beliefs. • intermediate beliefs.

© 2011 Brooks/Cole. • The information contrary to core belief is cancelled out by the distortion process. and the person cannot identify any disconfirming evidence from his environment. A Division of Cengage Learning . • They use the assimilation process to maintain homeostasis.Cognitive distortions • Distortions convert incoming information to keep cognitive schema intact.

Cognitive activity impacts behavior. 2. © 2011 Brooks/Cole. Cognitive activity can be monitored and changed. A desired change in behavior can be accomplished through changing cognitions. A Division of Cengage Learning . 3.Three assumptions 1.

A Division of Cengage Learning .Cognitive distortions associated with distress and maladaptive behaviors • Catastrophizing: expecting disastrous event • Mental filtering: seeing an entire situation based on one detail with all else ignored • Blame or assigning internal responsibility entirely to external events © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

A Division of Cengage Learning .Cognitive distortions associated with distress and maladaptive behaviors • All-or-nothing thinking: the person thinks in terms of two opposite categories • Discounting the positive: person says positives do not count • Overgeneralization: a sweeping negative conclusion that goes beyond facts © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

Counselor Both a guide to help the client understand how beliefs and attitudes interact with emotions and behavior. and building skills. © 2011 Brooks/Cole. and a catalyst promoting corrective experiences. leading to cognitive change. A Division of Cengage Learning .

and 5. strengths and assets. working hypothesis. © 2011 Brooks/Cole. 3. A Division of Cengage Learning . 2. treatment plan. diagnosis.Case formation • Dynamic process • Requires the counselor to generate and test their hypotheses • Five parts: 1. 4. problem list.

Fundamental concepts Collaborative empiricism .a type of questioning designed to promote new learning Guided discovery . A Division of Cengage Learning .the cooperative working relationship of jointly determining goals and seeking feedback Socratic dialogue .when the counselor coaches the child in a voyage of self-discovery in which the child does his or her own thinking and draws his or her own conclusions © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

A Division of Cengage Learning .Session outline • • • • • • • • • • Build an agenda that has meaning for the client Ascertain and measure the intensity of the person’s mood Identify and review presenting problems Ask about the client’s expectation for counseling Teach the person about cognitive therapy and the client’s role in it Give information about the person’s difficulties and diagnosis Establish goals Recommend homework Summarize Obtain the client’s feedback © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

Counseling Session Four Steps 1 2 3 4 Review progress bringing counselor and client up to date.Low points 3.List high points 2. Four quadrants for last week 1. Homework assignments checked for completion. anticipate obstacles. evaluate session © 2011 Brooks/Cole. A Division of Cengage Learning .How week could have been better 4.Plans for next week Set agenda for current session based on 4 point quadrant Clarify and set specific behavioral goals for next week Have client summarize session as bridge to next week: review new homework.

Stress inoculation CBT technique that includes • Self talk • Practice tests • Visualization • Relaxation training • Deep breathing exercises © 2011 Brooks/Cole. A Division of Cengage Learning .

Stress inoculation Michenbaum’s 4 categories of self-talk Preparation: what do you have to do • Confrontation: you can handle it • Coping: keep stress manageable • Reinforcing: I did it • © 2011 Brooks/Cole. A Division of Cengage Learning .

feel. and behave. and what impact they have on others • Basic assumption: – Distressing emotions are typically the result of maladaptive thoughts . clients must notice how they think.• Donald Meichenbaum’s Cognitive Behavior Modification Focus: (CBM) – Changing client’s self-verbalizations or selfstatements • Premise: – As a prerequisite to behavior change.

or change thinking .Meichenbaum’s CBM • Self-instructional therapy focus: – Trains clients to modify the instructions they give to themselves so that they can cope – Emphasis is on acquiring practical coping skills • Cognitive structure: – The organizing aspect of thinking. interrupt.” which “holds the blueprints of thinking” that determine when to continue. which seems to monitor and direct the choice of thoughts – The “executive processor.

Starting a new internal dialogue • See adaptive behavioral alternatives – 3. realize they contribute to their depression through how they think. Learning new skills • • Teaching more effective coping skills . Self-observation • Listen to themselves.How Behavior Changes? • 3 Phases of Behavior Change – 1. and develop new cognitive structures – 2.

The conceptual phase • Creating a working relationship with clients – 2.Coping Skills Programs • Coping skills programs – Stress inoculation training (3 phase model) – 1. Skills acquisition and rehearsal phase • Giving coping skills to apply to stressful situations – 3. Application and follow-through phase • Transfer change to real world .

and systems ..g. “should”) instead of questioning the values – Stress the relationship of individuals to the family. community.From a multicultural perspective • Contributions – Diverse populationsappreciate the emphasis on cognition and actions – Challenge rigid thinking (e.

From a multicultural perspective • Limitations – Exploring core beliefs is important in CBTneeds to sensitive to cultural background and context • Value “working hard”feel ashamed for not living up to the expectations. divorcebring shame to her family – Diverse clients may be hesitant to question their basic cultural values – Diverse clients may value interdependence and may feel difficult to be independent .


Anaïs Nin © 2011 Brooks/Cole. or fix us in the present.Transactional analysis We do not grow absolutely. cells. We are relative. and future mingle and pull us backward. constellations. chronologically. and not in another. The past. present. A Division of Cengage Learning . We grow partially. We are mature in one realm. We are made up of layers. unevenly. childish in another. We grow sometimes in one dimension. forward.

process. A Division of Cengage Learning .Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter. and techniques •Demonstrate some therapeutic techniques •Clarify the effectiveness of transactional analysis © 2011 Brooks/Cole. you should be able to:       •Outline the development of transactional analysis and Eric Berne •Explain the theory of transactional analysis •Discuss the counseling relationship and goals in transactional analysis •Describe assessment.

S.Eric Berne(stein) • Born May 10. citizen and served in armed forces • 1964 published Games People Play • He attributed the book’s success to the recognition factor © 2011 Brooks/Cole. 1910 in Montreal. A Division of Cengage Learning . Canada • Graduated from McGill University 1935 with medical degree • Became U.

TA Development • Core of transactional analysis (TA) in 1954  • Berne was involved in the psychoanalysis when the patient suddenly said. Berne decided to gather some of these into a catalog. I’m just a little boy. “I’m not a lawyer. A Division of Cengage Learning .”  • Sparked the idea that each of us contains a child ego state accompanied by parent and adult ego states.  • Led to Games People Play (1964) © 2011 Brooks/Cole. • After listening to his patients relating “games” for some 30 years.

© 2011 Brooks/Cole. Games People Play (1964) had been on the nonfiction best seller list for 111 weeks—longer than any other book that decade.  o whereas some of us recognize other people in the descriptions of winners and losers.  • The everyday language and categories he used came from his preferences.  • Berne attributed the book’s success to the recognition factor— o some of us recognize ourselves in it.TA Development • Three years after its publication. A Division of Cengage Learning .

A Division of Cengage Learning .The Nature of People and The Theory of Counseling • TA theory is a statement about human personality • Derives from four types of analysis Structural Analysis Analyze a person’s personality Transactional Analysis What people do and say to each other Script Analysis The life dramas people play out Game Analysis Ulterior transactions leading to payoff © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

A Division of Cengage Learning . spontaneous passive • The well adjusted person can choose which one is active © 2011 Brooks/Cole.Structural Analysis • Each person has three ego states Parent (nurturing or critical) Mimics our own parents Adult (rational thinking) Reality based Child (natural or adaptive ) Free.

A Division of Cengage Learning Adaptive Child “I did my job” Expectant .The Picture Nurturing Parent “Let me help you” Extends hand Critical Parent NP P CP “You shouldn’t” Pointing finger Adult “The facts are” Attentive A Free Child “I want” Excited FC C AC © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

Transactional Analysis • A transaction is a unit of human communication Complementary Crossed Covert Response comes from the ego state to which it was addressed Response comes from an ego state not addressed More than one ego state of each person involved dishonest © 2011 Brooks/Cole. A Division of Cengage Learning .

A Division of Cengage Learning . You’re not smart enough.Transaction Types P P A A C C P P A A C C P P A A C C Where are the keys? In the drawer. Where are the keys? Why is it always my fault? You should go to college. © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

procrastinator. blamer. distracter • Three basic types: winner. A Division of Cengage Learning . failure.Script Analysis • Your life script – usually learned from your parents child o Examples: martyr. success. loser. non-winner • Five Components o o o o o Directions from parents Corresponding personality development Confirming childhood decision on life Penchant for success or failure Pattern of behavior © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

A Division of Cengage Learning .Game Analysis • There are three basic roles o o o Persecutor Rescuer Victim • People turn their life scripts into games • Games are a pattern of ulterior transactions • Their purpose is to maintain homeostasis • Counseling goal is to move to complimentary transactions. not games © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

A Division of Cengage Learning As a child couldn’t depend on parents .Life Positions YOU I OK NOT OK OK NOT OK Mature independence Battered child. dependent © 2011 Brooks/Cole. criminal Normal child.

Games Clients Play Why don’t you. A Division of Cengage Learning . yes but Most common client game I’m only trying to help Counselor’s response to above Courtroom Counselor roped into being judge of two people Kick me and NIGYYSOB Always the victim Double Bind Gossiping Talking about someone who isn’t there Wooden leg Try to get counselor to give up on you If it weren’t for you Avoids responsibility Red cross Persecutor gets victim in trouble then rescues Make someone sad Get attention by making other jealous © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

A Division of Cengage Learning .The Pursuit of Strokes Conditional Unconditional Positive I like you when ___ I like you Negative I don’t like you when ___ I don’t like you • Structuring time in pursuit of strokes o o o o o o Withdrawing: avoid any strokes Rituals: socially determined – safe Pastimes: baseball shopping – minimal Activities: career – reality – more interaction Games: stroking is manipulated Intimacy: unconditional positive – game free o Collect bad stamps to be cashed in later for free bad behavior • Rackets © 2011 Brooks/Cole.

Counseling method • The counselor as teacher o Teach the concepts of TA and guide the client in how to apply them • Teach o o o o o o Definition and explanation of ego states Analysis of transactions between ego states Positive and negative stroking (“warm fuzzies” and “cold pricklies”) I’m OK you’re OK as a goal Games and rackets Scripts © 2011 Brooks/Cole. A Division of Cengage Learning .

A Division of Cengage Learning .Cross Cultural Applications • Eric Berne believed everyone worked in these three ego states • Appeals to groups or cultures that prefer a cognitive approach • The same approach is used regardless of culture or age of client © 2011 Brooks/Cole.