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Neuron: Nerve


structural unit
nervous system
Consists of:

–nerve fibers /dentrites

Nerves Sensory Nerves: –carry messages to brain and spinal cord from body Motor Nerves: –carry messages from brain and spinal cord to body .

Connecting Nerves: or Mixed –Carry both sensory and motor messages .

Divisions of CNS CNS .central nervous system: –consists of brain and spinal cord .

Peripheral System Nervous –a. any nerves outside the brain and spinal cord –b. Autonomic nervous system: controls involuntary body functions .

Protected by membranes & the cranium or skull . Mass of nerve tissue –b. Brain: –a.Central Nervous System 1.

sensstion.C. thought. Cerebrum Largest section of the brain Responsible for: –reasoning. sight. memory. hearing. speaking. voluntary body movement .

Cerebellum Responsible for: –coordination of muscles. balance.D. posture. & muscle tone .

Midbrain Responsible for: –conducting impulses between brain parts –certain eye reflexes .E.

production of saliva .Pons Responsible for: –conducting messages to other parts of the brain –Reflex actions such as chewing.

b/p .Lowest G. swallowing. coughing. respirations. Medulla Oblongata part of brain stem Connects to the spinal cord Responsible for: –regulating heart beat.

2. Spinal Cord Goes down back of body from Medulla Oblongata Surrounded and protected by vertebrae Responsible for reflex actions Carries sensory and motor messages .

3. Meninges Consists of 3 membranes Covers and protects the brain and spinal cord .

Pia mater –inner most layer with blood vessels to nourish the nerves . Dura mater –thick. Arachnoid membrane –middle delicate weblike layer E.Three Membranes C. tough outer layer D.

Connected to each other Filled with fluid called cerebrospinal fluid . Ventricles Four hallow spaces located in the middle of the brain.4.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulates continuously Serves as shock absorber to protect brain and spinal cord .

.Carries nurients to parts of brain and spinal cord helps remove metabolic products & wastes after circulation. absorbed into the blood vessels of the dura mater.

Peripheral Nervous System Made of all nerves outside the brain and spinal cord Consists of cranial and spinal nerves .

taste. hearing. Cranial Nerves 12 pairs & their branches Some responsible for special senses: sight. pressure. pain.A. smell Others receive sensations: touch. temperature .

B. Spinal Nerves 31 pairs & their branches carries messages to & from the spinal cord Both sensory and motor nerves .

31 spinal nerves: –8 cervical –12 thoracic –5 lumbar –5 sacral –1 coccygeal .

. But allows the body to react in times of emergency.3. Autonomic Nervous System Helps maintain a balance in involuntary functions of the body.

2 divisions of ANS  Sympathetic  Parasympathe – acts in emergency – counter acts the sympathetic ns after the emergency nervous system tic .

rate – increase b/p – decrease digestive system activity  PNS – decrease heart rate – decrease resp. rate – decrease b/p – increase digestive system activity . SNS – increase heart rate – increase resp.