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Asphalt

Cement

Construction Materials
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Processes

Woods
2nd semester
2006
Concrete

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Metals
Polymers
Ceramics

Composites

Construction materials
Materials use for construction of
buildings, highways, bridges, mostly
infrastructure.
 Three most importance materials are

 Woods
 Concrete
 Asphalt

Dept of Mat Eng

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Woods


Most familiar materials to mankind.
Not a high-technology materials but fantastic.
The only material that can be reproduced and
give oxygen to human.
Woods is very strong but yet lightweight.

Dept of Mat Eng

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Radial Surface •cutting along a radius of a round cross section Tangential Surface •cutting at a tangent to the growth rings.Woods structure  Wood surface Cross sectional •portion of a round cross section. clearly reveals an nual growth rings. or the surface you would see if you were to view the outside of a log Dept of Mat Eng 4 .

Raining season High water time Dept of Mat Eng Summer season Lower water time 5 .Woods structure  Annual Ring  trees grow in both diameter and height during growth periods that are interrupted by periods of rest.

will dry while in use under uncontrolled conditions giving rise to warp. and similar defects. twist.  Wet wood is susceptible to attack by decay and stain fungi.  Dept of Mat Eng 6 .  Water must be removed to provide void space for preservatives if wood is to be treated for prevention against fungal attack. if not predried.Woods VS water  Water caused negative effect to wood Wood. bow.

Wood shrinkage   Wood is an anisotropic material (having different properties in 3 dimensions) Three Dimensions in which Wood Shrinks = 0.7% to 12.3% = 2.9% = 4.1% to 7.7% L R T R Longitudinal Shrinkage Radial Shrinkage Tangential Shrinkage T R T Dept of Mat Eng 7 .1% to 0.

m2 ) 10 8 .m2 ) Tensile radial (MN.m-2) Compress // fiber (MN.m-2) 108 8 54 Oak 78 6 43 6 Pine 73 2 33 3 Wood species Maple Dept of Mat Eng Compress radial (MN.Mechanical Properties of woods   Wood strength depends on density Given a high efficiency when subject to tensile strength parallel to the fiber direction Tensile // fiber (MN.

4E4 Concrete 15 0.4E4 9 .7E4 1020 steel 50 2.s-2) Aluminum 127 2.s-2) (kg.9E4 Clear wood Dept of Mat Eng 178 2.Comparison of the specific strength  Specific strength (SF)= strength/density Material SF strength SF modulus (kg.m2.7E4 Copper 38 1.m2.

Types of wood construction 1) Beam element  2) Plate element   Structural plate  Non-structural plate  3) Wood-plastic composite Dept of Mat Eng 10 .

Wooden house Dept of Mat Eng 11 .

Concretes Common construction material  Strong hard but brittle  Heavy and can not be recycle  All ingredients compose of diminishing raw material  Dept of Mat Eng 12 .

Concretes   Concretes = a particular composite in which both the particular and the matrix are ceramic material Concretes = Portland Cement + Sand +Aggregate (A cementation reaction between water and the mineral in cement provide a strong matrix and good compressive strength)  Cements  Sand  Aggregate Dept of Mat Eng 13 .

a hydration reaction occurs.Cements  Cement binder a very fine in size  Compose of various ratio of chemical  When water is added to the cement. producing a solid gel that bond the aggregate particle •3CaO+Al2O+SiO2+3CaO+SiO2+4CaO • +Al2O3+Fe2O3+other minerals Dept of Mat Eng 14 .

Al2O3 Slowly during hydration but higher strengths Strength •2CaO . Al2O3 Dept of Mat Eng •3CaO .Cements  The composition on the cement helps determine the rate of curing and the final properties of the concrete  e. Al2O3 Time 15 .g. SiO2  Rapid setting but low strengths 2CaO . SiO2 •3CaO .  3CaO . Al2O3 and 3CaO .

Cements   The concrete is expected 28 days for nearly complete curing Some additional curing may continue for years Types of cement Type 1: General purpose  Type 2: Low rate of heat generation. moderate resistance to sulphate  Type 3: Rapid setting  Type 4: Very low rate of heat generation  Type 5: Good sulphate resistance  + Dept of Mat Eng = 16 .

Sand          Chemically sand = silica (SiO2) Fine minerals The order of 0.0 mm diameter Contain at least some absorbed water *** Fill voids between the coarser aggregate Giving high packing factor Reducing amount of open (or interconnected) porosity in the finished concrete Reducing disintegration of the concrete due to repeated freezing and thawing during service Dept of Mat Eng 17 .1 to 1.

and durable Angular aggregate particles provide strength due to mechanical interlocking between particles More surface on angular particles may form voids or cracks The large size of aggregate is preferred Aggregate particles should not be larger than about 20% of the thickness of the structure or it will cause the holding defect Dept of Mat Eng 18 . strong.Aggregate       Gravel & Rock Aggregate must be clean.

SiO2+ (x+1)H2O -> Ca2SiO4 . xH2O +Ca(OH)12 + heat 19 . Al2O3+6H2O -> Ca3Al2(OH)12 + heat 2CaO . xH2O + heat 3CaO . SiO2+xH2O -> Ca2SiO4 .Cements Reaction Cement Sand Aggregate Water Dept of Mat Eng •Hydration reaction occur 3CaO .

Properties of Concrete  The most importance factors that influence the properties of concrete  The water cement ratio  The amount of air entrainment  The type of aggregate Dept of Mat Eng 20 .

improve the workability of concrete ** Workability can be measured by slump test but .decreases the compressive strength of concrete .increases the shrinkage of concrete during curing & creating a danger of cracking Dept of Mat Eng 21 .Properties of Concrete    The water cement ratio Too little water causes low strength A high water cement ratio .

Properties of Concrete  The water cement ratio Dept of Mat Eng 22 .

improves workability of concrete .5% (sometimes up to 8%) by volume of the concrete may be trapped by air The entrained air . but – cause lower strength Dept of Mat Eng 23 .Properties of Concrete     The amount of air entrainment A small amount of air is entrained into concrete during pouring 1-2.minimise problems with shrinkage and freeze thaw conditions.

Properties of Concrete  The amount of air entrainment Dept of Mat Eng 24 .

Properties of Concrete    The type and amount of aggregate The size of aggregate affects the concrete mix .More water is required for smaller aggregate The volume ratio of aggregate in the concrete is based on the bulk density of the aggregate -about 60% of the true density Dept of Mat Eng 25 .

Cements Curing and Properties Dept of Mat Eng 26 .

Compression vs Tension  Concrete in tension is approximately 10% the strength of concrete in compression. Dept of Mat Eng 27 .

Reinforced and Pre-post-stressed Concrete  Concrete for construction material    Reinforced Concrete Pre-stressed Concrete Post-stressed Concrete Dept of Mat Eng 28 .

Concrete Construction Dept of Mat Eng 29 .

 Bitumen is the organic binder.Asphalt Asphalt is bitumen.  Dept of Mat Eng 30 . composed of HC with low melting point thermoplastic polymers and oils.  Asphalt mix is composite of aggregate and bitumen.

 A Dept of Mat Eng B 31 .Asphalt Mix The aggregate use as in the concrete that should be clean and angular.  Aggregate should have distribution of grain sizes to provide a high packing factor and good mechanical interlock between aggregate grains.

When asphalt mix is compress. Excess binder is weakening asphalt under load due to viscous deformation. Too much void space permit water to enter the structure. but voids are minimized. the binder can squeeze into voids.Composite and binder     Binder is just enough for the aggregate particle to touch. increase the rate of deterioration of asphalt and may also embrittle the binder Dept of Mat Eng 32 .

Operation of Asphalt Mix Dept of Mat Eng 33 .

Dept of Mat Eng 34 .Asphalt Mix Problem  Asphalt (bitumen) in asphalt mix soften at relative low temperature because it is a thermoplastic polymer.

Asphalt construction Dept of Mat Eng 35 .