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What is brick masonry ?

Brick masonry is the process of constructing a building from individual bricks laid in a specific
pattern and bound together, usually by mortar. Occasionally, the term is also used to refer to
the brick units themselves. Masonry is considered a durable construction method, and brick is
one of the most common types of masonry used in industrialized nations. The strength of a
structure created with this method depends on the type and uniformity of the individual bricks
selected, as well as the style of masonry used.
Brick masonry can support substantial weight, but does not respond well to shaking, twisting,
or stretching. For this reason, some kind of structural reinforcement, like steel beams, is
usually included.
Many attributes make brick a practical and popular construction choice. In addition to the
inherent beauty of brickwork, it is also thought to create the impression of solidity and
permanence, so brick homes often sell for higher prices. Brick is almost maintenance-free,
never needs to be painted or stained, and resists damage from wind, fire, and water. It also
offers both noise and thermal insulation, so structures created from it generally stay cooler in
the summer and warmer in the winter.

Types of bricks
Bricks are made in a range of varieties, each intended for a specific
purpose, but all are created from some combination of sand, water,
clay, and heat. Building brick, or common brick, is used in construction
and is provided with frog, which reduce weight of brick and increase
strength. Face brick is chosen for visible surfaces or exposed walls and
comes in different colors, sizes, and shapes. Firebrick is made with
special clay to offer additional heat resistance in fireplaces or boiler
rooms. Glazed brick is coated on one surface with a ceramic finish that
is sanitary and easy to clean, making it popular in hospitals and
laboratories.

Fire
bricks

Brick
tile

Glazed
bricks

Common brick

Standard size of brick

Assignment no 1
Enlist various sizes of brick defined
in different standards.

Terminology used in brick masonry Header stretch er Brick on side Brick on side Brick on end .

Use of brick on End .

Hearting: It is the interior portion of a wall between the facing and backing. The joint which are perpendicular to the bed joints are termed as vertical joints or side joints or perpends. If the joint is parallel to the bed of bricks or stones in a course then it is termed as bed joint. . The material used in the face of the wall is known as facing. Face: The exterior of wall exposed to weather is known as face.Back: The inner surface of a wall which is not exposed is called the back. The material forming the back is known as backing. Bat: it is the portion of brick cut across the width. Joint: It is the junction of two or more bricks or stones.

Bevelled Closer: it is that portion of a brick in which the whole length of the brick is beveled for maintaining half width at one end and full width art the other. King closer Bevelled closer . King Closer: these are the portions of a brick obtained by cutting off the triangular piece between the center of one end and the center of one side.Closer: it is the portion of the brick cut length wise in such a manner that its one long face remains uncut.

Reveals: These are exposed vertical surfaces left on the sides of an opening after the door or window frame had been fitted in position. . These may be plain or splayed or may be provided with recesses to receive the frames of doors and windows.through which a section is cut to show the plan of the structure.Jambs: these are the vertical sides of an opening for doors and windows. sill level: it is the level of the window from the base (floor) .

A course having all the bricks laid header wise is called header course.Course: A course is a horizontal layer of bricks or stones. . Header: a masonry unit laid with its small dimension and parallel to the face of the masonry wall. Stretcher: A masonry unit laid with its greatest dimension horizontal and its face parallel to the wall and a course having all the bricks laid in stretcher is called a stretcher course.

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Terminology Queen Closer: A brick cut lengthwise in 9’’x2¼’’ is called a queen closer and is placed next to the header course to break the joints. .

POINTING Tooling: compressing and shaping the face of a mortar joint with a special tool other than a trowel. Tuck pointing: filling in with fresh mortar of cutout or defective mortar joint in masonry. Tooling Tuck pointing .

Detail of masonry wall .

. Any wall higher than 1. anything higher should be double-skinned for stability. who will take account of prevailing ground conditions. 200mm wide on the left and a single skin wall. and design a wall suitable to the project. A single skin wall is only suitable to a height of around 450mm. planned usage etc.Simple Wall The diagram illustrates the salient points of constructing a low wall of the type found in most applications. on the right. This shows a double skin wall.2 meters must be designed by a structural engineer. 100mm wide.

it costs very little and guarantees a longer life for the wall. It is always laid to a course at least 150mm above ground level and is simply rolled out on top of the preceding course. The easiest dpc to install is the polymer sheet. the brick laying continues as normal. because of their very low water absorption capability. . • Engineering bricks can also be used to create a dpc in freestanding walls. dpc detail we never build any wall without dpc. they prevent the upward migration of groundwater.Damp Proof Course A damp proof course (dpc) is a layer of impermeable material built into the wall to prevent upward migration of ground water. as damp cannot rise above the dpc to saturate the facing brickwork. Once in position. Two courses of engineering bricks are laid and. covering the dpc with a bed of mortar and then laying the first course of bricks above dpc. supplied in rolls to suit all widths of brickwork.

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• Bricks should give clear ringing sound when struck each other. free from cracks and with sharp and square edges. well burnt in kilns. • Bricks should not absorb water more than 20 percent by weight for first class bricks and 22 percent by weight for second class bricks. when soaked in cold water for a period of 24 hours. • Bricks when broken should show a bright homogeneous and compact structure free from voids. • Bricks should be uniform shape and should be of standard Size.  Qualities of a Good Brick • Bricks should be table moulded. copper coloured. .

• Bricks. should be left on brick surface. when soaked in water for 24hours. • No brick should have crushing strength below 55kg/cm2. • Bricks should be low thermal conductivity and they should be sound proof.Qualities of a Good Brick • Bricks should be sufficiently hard no impression. should not show deposits of white salts when allowed to dry in shade. . when it is scratched with finger nail. • Bricks should not break when dropped flat on hard ground from a height of about one meter.

• To distribute the load over larger resisting area.Bond in Brick Masonry The arrangement of bricks or stones in each layer in such a way to break the continuity of vertical joints in the successive courses both on the face as well as inside of a masonry structure is called a bond. • To ensure the longitudinal and lateral strength. • To provide pleasing appearance by laying bricks symmetrically. this is done by overlapping bricks or stones in successive courses longitudinally as well as transversely. Necessity of providing bond: • To break the continuity of vertical joints. .

Types of Bond in Brick Work • English bond • Flemish bond • Header bond • Stretcher bond • Garden wall bond • Raking bond • English cross bond .

• Hoop iron bond • Facing bond • Dutch bond • Monk bond • Zig Zag bond • Brick-on-Edge bond • Silver lock’s bond .

vertical joints in the header courses come over each other and the vertical joints in the stretcher course are also in the same line in alternate courses. In this arrangement.English bond   This bond consists of alternate course of headers and stretchers. .

• A queen closer is placed after every quion heading course when the thickness of wall is 20 cm or above. .Salient features of English bond: • Header and stretcher are laid in alternate courses.

• The same course will show headers on the face and stretchers on the back and vice versa. . if the thickness of wall is an odd multiple of half brick.

English bond .

• The same course will show headers or stretchers on face and back if the thickness of wall is an even multiple of half brick. • Each alternate header in the heading course lies centrally over every stretcher of the underlying stretching course.• The length of queen closer is usually kept equal to the thickness of wall. • The inner filling is done in headers in the wall having thickness 40 cm or above. Suitability: English bond is commonly adopted for brickwork of building where strength is of prime importance. .

In this bond a queen closer is provided after every quion header in the alternate courses to break the continuity of vertical joints. . Brick bats are to be used for forming this bond when the thickness of wall is equal to an odd multiple of half brick.Flemish bond • The bond having headers and stretchers laid alternately in the same course is called Flemish bond.

Salient features of Flemish bond • Headers and stretchers are laid in the same course. . The length of queen closer is not kept equal to the thickness of wall and is usually intercepted by ¾ bats. • Brick bats are to be used in wall having thickness equal to an odd multiple of half brick. • Queen closer is placed after every quoin header brick in the heading course when the thickness of wall is 20 cm or above. • Every header in each course lies centrally over every stretcher of the underlying course.

Types of Flemish bond • Flemish bond has following two types: • Double Flemish bond • The bond having headers and stretchers laid alternately in each course both in the face and back of the structure is called double Flemish bond. .

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This bond is commonly known as Flemish bond. it is easier to obtain a fair and more uniform face on both sides of 20 cm thick wall than incase of English bond. Double Flemish bond is considered as an economical bond as it facilitates the use of brick bates and closers. . In this bond.This type of bond provides good appearance but is weaker in strength than English bond for wall having thickness more than 20 cm.

Each course will show different elevation on face and back if the thickness of wall is an odd multiple of half brick i. if header is seen in the front elevation then stretcher will be seen in line with that header in back elevation in the same course and vice versa.e.The salient features of double Flemish bond are the same as that of Flemish bond in addition to the following features. Suitability: Double Flemish bond is used for brick work of building where appearance is of prime importance. .

Single Flemish bond • The bond provided in a wall with Flemish bond facing and English bond in backing is called Single Flemish bond. .

• Suitability: Single Flemish bond is used where first class bricks are specified for facing in order to provide good appearance to the facing of wall. • It weakens the overall strength of the wall because of maximum use of brick bats and existence of continuous vertical joints. . • It can be made more economical by using cheap quality of bricks on the back of the wall. • It cannot be provide in walls having thickness less than one and half brick.F.B • It provides better appearance.Advantages and Disadvantages of S.

It is easy to lay with little waste and composed entirely of stretchers set in rows. . offset by half a brick.Stretcher bond Stretcher bond is one of the most common bonds.

It is therefore the most economical bond pattern and is extensively used in modern building .Stretcher Bond Originally used for single brick walls. it became the obvious choice for cavity walls with the least amount of cutting required.

This bond is often use to create curved brickwork. . This method is particularly strong as the width of the wall is the whole length of a brick. Historically it was used for buildings of high quality.Header bond Header bond is created by rows of headers. only displaced by half a brick on each row. often used for curved brickwork. A brick course laid flat with the short end of the brick exposed.

Header Bond .

Header Bond .

Assignment no 02 • Self study of remaining types of brick bond • Submit hard as well as soft copy in power point presentation format till 30/10/2013 .

General Principal for Brick Masonry • Bricks shall be soaked in water before use for a period not less than six hours. • Bricks shall be laid in English Bond unless other wise specified. .