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3 types of rocks

3 types of rocks
There are 3 types of
rocks found on Earth:
Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic

Knowing the
differences between
these 3 types of
rocks allows us to
learn about Earths
past.

Igneous Rocks - Formation


Igneous Rocks are
formed by melting,
cooling, and
crystallization of
other rocks.
Igneous rocks form as
a result of volcanic
activity, hot spots,
and melting that
occurs in the
mantle.

Igneous rocks
Igneous rocks are common along plate
boundaries or mantle hot spots

Igneous Rocks Classification


Igneous rocks are
classified using their
texture in the following
ways:
Glassy
Aphanitic (no visible
crystals)
Phaneritic (visible
crystals)
Porphyritic (Some visible
and some not visible
crystals)

Igneous Rocks - Texture


Crystal size is used
to classify igneous
rocks.
Crystals form as the
rock cools, and the
crystal size can tell
us a lot about its
cooling history:
The larger the
crystals, the
slower it cooled.

Igneous Rocks - Texture


Glassy igneous
rocks have no
crystal structure,
and probably
formed by very
rapid cooling (such
as on the surface
of a lava, or when
a lava enters the
water.)

Igneous Rocks - Texture


Aphanitic rocks
have no visible
crystals, and
probably formed by
fast cooling above
ground.

Igneous Rocks - Texture


Phaneritic rocks
have visible
crystals, and
probably formed by
slow cooling below
ground.

Igneous Rocks - Texture


Porphyritic rocks
have both visible
and nonvisible
crystals, and
probably formed by
two different
cooling events.

Igneous Rocks Classification


Dark igneous rocks are
formed from basaltic or
mafic magma. (Mafic
because it contains a lot
of magnesium and iron).
The magma that forms
these rocks is usually
very hot (around
1000C) and viscous
(about the same
viscosity as ketchup.)

Igneous Rocks Classification


Light colored igneous
rocks are formed from
silicic (high silica
content) or felsic
magmas.
The magmas that form
these rocks is usually
more cool, (lower than
850C), and more
viscous (about the
viscosity of peanut
butter.)

Igneous rocks - Formations


Structures and
formations seen in
igneous rocks
include:
Hexagonal
columnar joints
Pahoehoe lava
flows
Dikes, sills, and
batholiths
(plutons)
Pillow basalts
Volcanoes

Igneous Rocks - Examples


The most common
types of igneous
rocks include:

Rhyolite
Andesite
Basalt
Granite
Diorite
Gabbro

Igneous rocks charted

Igneous rocks - Story


What do you know
about the history of
the Earth in the
place where this
rock was found?

Sedimentary Rocks Formation


Sedimentary rocks are
formed by
weathering, erosion,
deposition,
compaction, and
cementation of other
rocks.
Sedimentary rocks
form in areas where
water, wind, or
gravity deposit
sediments.

Sedimentary rocks formation


Sedimentary rocks
are likely to form in
areas such as:

Deltas
Beaches
Rivers
Glaciers
Sand dunes
Shallow seas
Deep oceans

Sedimentary rocks Classification


Sedimentary rocks
are classified into
two groups:
Clastic rocks
Chemically formed
rocks

Sedimentary rocks
Classification
Sedimentary rocks
are Clastic if they
are made of pieces
of other rocks that
have been
weathered and
eroded.
Clastic rocks are
grouped based on
the size of grain that
they are made from.

Sedimentary rocks Classification


Very small particles
make up mudrock.
Medium sized
particles make up
sandstone.
Large particles
make up
conglomerates.

Sedimentary rocks Classification


Sedimentary rocks
that form from
chemical processes
are called
biochemical rocks
(formed from living
things) or Chemical
precipitates
(formed from lakes
or shallow seas.)

Sedimentary rocks formations


Structures and
formations seen in
sedimentary rocks
include:

Stratification
Cross bedding
Graded bedding
Ripple marks
Mud cracks
Fossils

Sedimentary rocks Examples

Some of the most


common types of
sedimentary rocks
include:

Conglomerate
Sandstone
Shale
Limestone
Gypsum
Oolites
Chert (including black
flint and red jasper)

Sedimentary rocks - Story


What do you know
about the history of
the Earth in the
place where this
rock was found?

Metamorphic rocks Formation


Metamorphic rocks
are formed by heat
and pressure
changing one type of
rock into another
type of rock.
Metamorphic rocks
form near lava
intrusions, at plate
subduction zones,
and in deep
mountain roots.

Metamorphic rocks Formation


Lava intrusions can
provide heat that
causes
metamorphic rocks
to form. These
small areas of
metamorphic rock
form from contact
metamorphosis.

Metamorphic rocks Formation


Rocks that
metamorphose
because of
increasing heat and
pressure found at
plate subduction
zones and in deep
mountain roots form
large areas of
metamorphic rock
through regional
metamorphosis.

Metamorphic rocks Classification


Metamorphic rocks
are classified into 2
major groups:
Foliated
Nonfoliated

Metamorphic rocks Classification


Foliated rocks form when
differential pressure
causes minerals to form
in layers.
These rocks will have
stripes or planes that they
will break easily along.
These stripes dont
usually line up with the
original bedding planes in
sedimentary rocks.

Metamorphic rocks
Nonfoliated
metamorphic rocks
formed in areas
where the pressure
from all sides was
equal, so there is
no linear quality
to the rocks.

Metamorphic rocks Formations


Structures and
formations seen in
metamorphic rocks
include:

Folding
Plastic deformation
Stretching
Alternating dark
and light layers
(gneissic foliation)

Metamorphic rocks Examples


Some common types
of metamorphic rock
include:

Slate
Schist
Gneiss
Amphibolite
Marble
Quartzite
Metaconglomerate

Metamorphic rocks Charted

Metamorphic rocks - story


What do you know
about the history of
the Earth in the
place where this
rock was found?