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1. Introduction
 A paragraph is a which a basic unit organization in writing

in which a group of related sentences develops one main
A paragraph can be use short as one sentence or as long as
ten sentences.
The number of sentence is unimportant; however the
paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea
A paragraph has three major structural parts : a topic
sentences, supporting sentences, and a concluding
sentence, as you will see in this section.
Your main task in most paragraphs will be develop a main
idea or topic. A paragraph is a which a basic unit
organization in writing in which a group of related

Identify and describe a topic sentence. Specific Instructional Objectives Students will be able to : 1. Write a short composition or essay. Develop a paragraph. 2. and write a reason paragraph. . a supporting sentence.2. and a concluding sentence. 3.

An advance writers sometimes state the topic sentence at the end.3. A good topic sentence controls the paragraph in that it does not only clarify what the paragraph is about. you should not suddenly switch the subject to horticulture cultivation will support your ideas about fish cultivation. but also points out what the paragraph is not about. The Topic Sentence A topic sentence shows what the paragraph is about. and others do not state it but rather suggest with other parts of the . For example. A topic sentence is placed at the beginning of a paragraph. Its is often the first sentence in the paragraph. if you are writing about fish cultivation at the beginning of the paragraph.

A paragraph must have a subject (S). what you say about the subject (often with an opinion).A topic sentence (TS) has two requirements : 1. that is. what you are talking about (subject not mean the grammatical subject of a sentence). 2. that is. A paragraph must have controlling idea (CI). Examples : Sun-drying of a wet paddy is cheaper S CI The hand-tractor is easy to operate S CI Paddy is dried by using the method of sundrying S CI .

The Outline Sentence After making the topic sentence of your paragraph. the next step is to make an outline. S CI List of ideas :      Opening employment opportunities. Farmers utilization of land to its maximum capacity.4. . Simultaneous planting to tight insects. In the outline. Two to three harvests a year. which restates the topic sentence in different words. Outline : Example I : (TS) : Irrigation system help farmers in rural areas. Not dependent on seasons. you simply write down ideas is a list which will give solid support to your controlling idea. Then write the concluding sentence (CS).

.  Chemical attack on the parasite. irrigation is indent. Outline : Example II : (TS) : A crop can be protected from parasite by several methods.  Destroying the source of infection.  Rotating annual crops. S CI List of ideas :  By plant quarantine.  Use of clean seed. these methods have worked well to protect the crops.5. “slash and burn”. Conclusion Sentence Therefore. beneficial to farmers. Conclusion : As you can see.

a paragraph has three parts : First : a topic sentence or an introduction. .FORM AND ORGANIZATION • In the precious chapters. you have been explained how to make a topic sentence on outline. • Thus. In the outline. Second : the discussion which contains the development of the controlling idea to support the topic sentence. and Third : a conclusion which is a restatement of the topic sentence in different words. you simply write down a list of ideas that will developed to support the topic sentence.

namely. The discussion of the paragraph which supports the topic sentence can be develop in several ways.6. Paragraph Development A paragraph has three main divisions :    A topic sentence (introduction) The discussion (controlling idea) The concluding statement (conclusion). . by using :       Details. Comparison and contrast. examples and illustrations. Narrations. Definitions. Arguments. Reasons.

therefore.However. will be on the first three types of paragraph development since these are the types most commonly used in technical textbooks. and papers. examples. However. . Paragraph development :   Using Details. our focus in this chapter. you should give a number of reasons why you think that the cultivation of golden snails should be carefully controlled. they should be narrowed down but adequately supported. It should not be too broad. they are will relatively general statements in relation to the content of the paragraph. To support this opinion. Examples and Illustrations. your statement of opinion is “the cultivation of golden snails (keong emas) in Indonesia should be cautiously controlled. First lesson in paragraph development will be about “detail. and illustration on the subject of food production for example. scientific reports. The topic sentence indicates the controlling idea of a paragraph. A topic sentence should clear and specific. Observe that in the example bellow the paragraph provides details. no matter how carefully you create and limit your topic sentences. examples and illustrations”.

. whereas the thesis sentence governs the whole essay connecting of several paragraph. The role of the veterinarians is crucial. Ideally. The thesis sentence should be written in the first paragraph of an essay. The Thesis Sentence     The sentence has another function. that is.7. to express a thesis in an essay which essentially comprises several paragraphs combined together to form a piece of writing. The topic sentence governs the controlling idea. 2. it is one sentence summary of the whole essay. b.  The thesis sentence above can be divided into two parts : a. The thesis sentence governs the content and structure of a whole composition which may consist two or more paragraph. They safeguard the public health. The difference between a topic sentence and a thesis sentence are as follow : 1. A thesis sentence also indicates the purpose of the composition and conveys the central or main idea contained in the article. Example on the Thesis Sentence : “The role of veterinarians is crucial because they safeguard the public health”.

or it may follow a sentence or two and then lead to the climax (thesis sentence) of the first paragraph of the article. A thesis sentence maybe divided into two or more parts or support. 2. and each support should be treated in the same order as it appears in the thesis sentence. 3. . A thesis sentence serves as a guide to the content and organization of a composition. Writing A Short Composition or Essay 1.8. A thesis sentence maybe the only sentence in the introductory paragraph of an essay.

Animal diseases. .       Tropical climates. Indonesian rural development. Animal husbandry Forestry. Write your own paragraph relating to the aspect of agriculture. Plant diseases. Exercises Task 1.9.

Task 3. the controlling idea and the conclusion in the sentence above conclusion. .  Seed Production.Task 2. Write a paragraph of reasons one of the following topics :  Agricultural Mechanization. Indicate the topic sentence.  Plant Protection.

Stotsky. 1982. Reising Roberth W. Colorado State University. Published by Macmillan Publishing.References    Oshima Alies. The Process of Composition. . Reid. 1983. Grammar and Writing. 1981. Freeman Donald. Laurence Ptricia. Joy M. Loban Walter. English Published Wesley Publishy Company. New York. Writing Academic. Haque Ann.