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POMOLOG

What is POMOLOGY?
Pomology is a branch of horticulture
which focuses on the cultivation,
production, harvest, and storage of
fruit especially tree fruits.

How the fruits are


formed?
Fruitis a structure
of aplantthat
contains itsseeds.
Beginning of the
fruit formed starts
from the flower.

Flower
Development
Before a fruit can be formed, the flowers must
bloom so the male and female parts can develop and
produce pollen and receptive ovules.
Within the flower, pollen is produced in the
stamens, while the female ovules form inside a
pistil. In most cases the male stamens and female
pistil occur within the same flower, but there are
times where flowers with develop into male or
female units.

Pollination
Once the flowers open, a mechanism is needed to transport the pollen
from the stamen to the pistil. In most flowering plants the pollen
musttravelto a different plant of the same species in order for
fertilization to occur.
This process is called cross-fertilization and it ensures that the
genetic offspring are not completely identical to the parent. Insects
and the wind are the two most common means of transporting pollen
to another plant, but flowers can also be pollinated by bats, birds,
spiders, butterflies, moths or water.
Self-pollination is rare but does occur in a few plants.

Fertilization
Once the pollen arrives at the
top of the pistil, where the
stigma is located, it needs to
travel down the pollen tube to
the base of the pistil, where it
can find a receptive ovule; this
is the female genetic material
found inside the ovary.
Once the pollen finds the
ovule, the male and female
genetic material combines to
form an embryo, which will
eventually develop into a seed.

Seed Growth
Once the embryo is formed, the cells of the embryo will
start to grow in a normal method.
After the embryo grows beyond its two-cell stage it is
referred to a zygote.
As time goes on the zygote will grow larger. Eventually
cell differentiation begins and the zygote will begin to
change into a seed.

Fruit Development
Once the zygote starts to grow, the ovary will begin
developing into a fruit and the ovules will begin to form
seeds.
The outside wall of the ovary and pistil becomes the skin
of the fruit, or in some cases like the apple and pear, there
develops a fleshy and edible material outside the ovary wall
which will become the edible part of the fruit.
This fleshy material is then covered by an outer covering
that is derived from the petals, sepals and bracts. In
either case the fruit will grow as long as the plant does,
but eventually it will fall from the tree when the plant goes
dormant for the winter.

Example of fruit forming:

Ways of seed dispersal


Wind dispersal
Water dispersal
Animal dispersal

Wind dispersal
Wind dispersal is also a popular method of seed
dispersal. Some plants have "winged fruits" so their
seeds can float on the air to a new home.
The way it transports them depends on the type of
seed and where it grows.

Water dispersal
Seed dispersal by water is not as common as wind
dispersal.
Coconuts are famous for traveling to new locations
by ocean currents.
Their heavy outer layer gives theirs seeds some
protection for such a long journey.

Animal dispersal
Animals help disperse seeds in a variety of ways. Fruits
eaten birds and other animals. Their enticing shape,
color, taste and odor draw animals and birds to eat the
entire fruit, seeds and all.
The seeds are not fully digested, so animals then
disperse the seeds through their droppings. Some
animals may also spit out the seeds while eating the
fruit.
Other inedible fruits may develop spikes or burrs, which
can cling to an animal's fur or hooves. When removed at
a later distance, they can then grow in a new location .

FRUIT
S

L
P
P
L
P
A
P
A
E
E

A
E
A
P
E
P
R
R

QUINC
QUINC
E
E

U
L
P
PLU

Y
Y
R
R
R
R
E
E
H
C
CH

PEACH
PEACH

APRICO
APRICO
T
T

STRAWBERRY
STRAWBERRY

BLACKBERR
BLACKBERR

R
R
E
B
R
P
R
S
E
A
B
R
R AS P
Y
Y

E
P
A
E
R
P
G
A
GR
S
S

R
R
E
B
R
E
R
E
U
L
B
B
BLUE
Y
Y

NUT
NUT

HAZELNU
HAZELNU
T
T

ALMOND
ALMOND

CHESTN
CHESTN

MAK
MAK

PEANU
PEANU
T
T

N
N
O
O
L
L
E
E
M
M

O
L
E
O
L
M
E
R
E
M
T
R
A
E
W
WAT
N
N

LEMON
LEMON

ORANGE
ORANGE

TANGERIN
TANGERIN
E
E

GRAPEFRU
GRAPEFRU
IT
IT

FIG
FIG

KIWI
KIWI

P
PIIN
NE
EA
AP
PP
PLL
E
E

BANANA
BANANA

COCONU
COCONU

THE
END
By Mateja Dokuzovi
2010. Horticulture