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Ackermann

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Ackermann Function

What lies beyond exponentiation?

Extending the arithmetic operations

beyond addition, multiplication, and

exponentiation to the complex

numbers.

Overview

Very high level overview because of the amount of material

in multiple branches of mathematics.

Arithmetic

Dynamics of the Complex Plane

Combinatorics

Vertical catalog of complex systems.

Based on iterated functions.

Arithmetic and physics are two major roles

played by iterated functions.

Iterated functions as a candidate for a

fundamental dynamical system in both

mathematics and physics.

Arithmetic

Arithmetic is part of the Foundations of

Mathematics.

Ackermann function is a recursive function

that isnt primitively recursive.

Different definitions of the Ackermann

function.

Transfinite mathematics

Operator

Spiral

Ackermann

Addition

a+b

ack(a,b,0)

Multiplication

a*b

ack(a,b,1)

Exponentiation

ab

Tetration

Pentation

Hexation

Knuth

Conway

ack(a,b,2)

ab

ab1

ack(a,b,3)

a b

ab2

ack(a,b,4)

a b

ab3

ack(a,b,5)

ab

ab4

...

Circulation

...

ack(a,b,)

a b

...

ab

Definition of Ackermann

Function

Let f(x) a x k and f(1) = a 1 k = a;

then

f2(1) = f(a) = a a k

= a 2 (k+1)

f3(1) = f(a a k) = a (a a k) k

= a 3 (k+1)

Negative Integers

a 12= a

a 0 2 = 1 This differs from the historical Ackermann function where a 0 2 = a

The next two are multivalued so the values on the principle branch are shown.

a -1 2 = 0

a -2 2 = -

Period three behavior

-1 0 3 = 1

-1 1 3 = -1

-1 2 3 = -1 -1 2 = 0

-1 3 3 = -1 (-1 2 3) 2 = -1 0 2 = 1

The first indication that for negative integer the Ackermann function can be very stable.

for n>2

-1kn = - 1 (k+3) n.

-1 0 n = 1

-1 1 n = -1

-1 2 n = 0

-1 3 n = 1

Hypothesis

For 1 a < 2

a=a

Tetration Through Octation

a k useful for creating a series of interesting transfinite number.

Transfinite nature of circulation:

22

= 4

23

= 2 (2 2 )

= 24

= 2 (2 (2 2 ) )

= 2 (2 4 )

=

32

= 33

= 3 (3 3 )

= 3 (3 (33) )

=

Tetration

First objective is understanding tetration.

What if tetration and beyond is vital for

mathematics or physics?

With so many levels of self organization in

the world, tetration and beyond likely

exists.

Tetration by period

Tetration by escape

Dynamical Systems

Iterated function as a dynamical system.

Analytic continuation can be reduced to a problem

in dynamics.

Taylor series of iterated function. Most

mathematicians believe this is not possible, but my

research is consistent with other similar research

from the 1990s.

Iterated exponents for single valued and iterated

logarithms for multi-valued solutions.

Fa di Bruno formula

n! f k g1

Yn ( fg1 , , fg n ) ( n )

k1! k n ! 1!

k1

gn

n!

kn

Fa di Bruno difference equation.

m

D f

n 1

m! D f Df

( m ) 1

k1!k m ! 1!

k

Hyperbolic case

Maps are Flows

k1

D f

m 1!

m 1

k m 1

Dm f n

Topological Conjugancy and Functional

Equations Multiple Cases for Solution

Fixed Points in the Complex Plane

Superattracting

Hyperbolic (repellors and attractors)

Irrationally Neutral

Rationally Neutral

Parabolic Rationally Neutral

Combinatorics

OEIS On Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences

Umbral calculus and category theory.

Bell polynomials as derivatives of composite functions.

Dm f(g(x))

Schroeder summations.

Hierarchies of height n and the combinatorics of tetration.

Exponential Generating

Functions

Hierarchies of 2 or Bell Numbers

Hierarchies of 3

Hierarchies of 4

Validations

Deeply consistent with dynamics.

f a (f b(z)) - f a+b(z) = 0 verified for a number of

solutions.

Software validates for first eight derivatives and

first eight iterates. Mathematica software reviewed

by Ed Pegg Jr.

A number of combinatorial structures from OEIS

computed correctly including fractional iterates.

NKS Summary

Wolframs main criticism is inability of

continuous mathematics to deal with

iterated functions.

CAs are mathematics not physics, many

non-physical solutions.

Physics CA needs OKS for validation.

CAs appear incompatible with Lorenz

transforms and Bells Theorem.

Summary

of research; numerous postings on sci.math.research lately.

Arithmetic Dynamics Combinatorics Arithmetic

If maps are flows, then the Ackermann function is transparently

extended.

Suggests time could behave as if it is continuous regardless of whether

the underlying physics is discrete or continuous.

Continuous iteration connects the old and the new kinds of

science. Partial differential iterated equations

Tetration displays sum of all paths behavior, so logical starting place

to begin looking for tetration in physics is QFT and FPI. Tetration and

many other iterated smooth functions appear compatible with the

Lorenz transforms and Bells Theorem.

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