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Ramadan Youssef Sakr Moustafa_Lecture9-Turbulent Combsution

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Outline

Types of Flames

Basic Concept of Turbulence

Turbulent Flame

Flame Stability

Types of Flames

Two basic categories

Pre-mixed

Non-premixed

(Diffusion)

Both characterized as

Laminar or Turbulent

Premixed

Results from gaseous

reactants that are mixed

prior to combustion

Flame propagates at

velocities slightly less

than a few m/s

Non-premixed (Diffusion)

Gaseous reactants

are introduced

separately and mix

during combustion

Energy release rate

limited by mixing

process

Reaction zone

between oxidizer and

fuel zone

Laminar

Premixed

Flame moves at fairly low velocity

Mechanically create laminar

conditions

Diffusion

Ex. Candle Flame

Fuel: Wax, Oxidizer: Air

Reaction zone between wax

vapors and air

Turbulent

Premixed

Heat release occurs much faster

Increased flame propagation

No definite theories to predict

behavior

Diffusion

Can obtain high rates of

combustion energy release per

unit volume

Ex. Diesel Engine

Modeling is very complex, no

well established approach

Turbulent flow results when instabilities in a flow are not

sufficiently damped by viscous action and the fluid velocity

at each point in the flow exhibits random fluctuations.

The random unsteadiness associated with various flow

properties is the hallmark of a turbulent flow and is

illustrated for the axial velocity component in the next

figure.

One particularly useful way to characterize a turbulent flow

field is to define mean and fluctuating quantities. Mean

properties are defined by taking a time-average of the flow

property over a sufficiently large time interval

t = t2 t1.

instantaneous value of the property, p(t), and the mean

value, pavg , or

p(t)= pavg+ p'(t)

Or, in general, we can write:

Y(t)= Yavg + Yi'(t)

This manner of expressing variables as a mean and a

fluctuating component is referred to as the Reynolds

decomposition.

turbulent flow?

partial answer to this

question. In this figure, we

see fluid blobs and filaments

of fluid intertwining. A

common notion in fluid

mechanics is the idea of a

fluid eddy

An eddy is considered to be

a macroscopic fluid element

in which the microscopic

elements composing the

eddy behave in some ways

as a unit.

considered an eddy.

A turbulent flow comprises many eddies with a multitude

of sizes and vorticities, a measure of angular velocities.

A number of smaller eddies may be imbedded in a larger

eddy. A characteristic of a fully turbulent flow is the

existence of a wide range of length scales, i.e., eddy

sizes.

For a turbulent flow, the Reynolds number is a measure

of the range of scales present; the greater the Reynolds

number, the greater the range of sizes from the smallest

eddy to the largest. It is this large range of length scales

that makes calculating turbulent flows from first

principles intractable. We wilt discuss length scales in

more detail in the next section.

characteristic that distinguishes turbulent flow

from laminar flow.

The turbulent motion of fluid elements allows

momentum, species, and energy to be

transported in the cross-stream direction much

more rapidly than is possible by the molecular

diffusion processes controlling transport in

laminar flows.

Because of this, most practical combustion

devices employ turbulent flows to enable rapid

mixing and heat release in relatively small

volumes.

1.

been defined; however, the following four scales are of

general relevance to our discussion and, in general,

are frequently cited. In decreasing order of size, these

scales are as follows:

(L) Characteristic width of flow or macroscale

This is the largest length scale in the system and is the

upper bound for the largest possible eddies. In a

reciprocating internal combustion engine, L might be

taken as the time varying clearance between the

piston top and the head, or perhaps the cylinder bore.

2.

The integral scale physically represents the

mean size of the large eddies in a turbulent

flow; those eddies with low frequency and large

wavelength. The integral scale is always

smaller than L, but is of the same order of

magnitude.

3. (l)

Taylor microscale

scale between the integral scale (lo) and

Kolmogorov Scale (lk), but is weighted more

towards the smaller scales. This scale is

related to the mean rate of strain.

The Kolmogorov microscale is the smallest length scale

associated with a turbulent flow and, as such, is

representative of the dimension at which the dissipation

of turbulent kinetic energy to fluid internal energy occurs.

Thus, the Kolmogorov scale is the scale at which

molecular effects (kinematic viscosity) are significant.

The final point we wish to make concerning lk is possible

physical interpretations. In Tennekes model of a

turbulent flow, lk represents the thickness of the smallest

vortex tubes or filaments that permeate a turbulent flow,

while others suggest that lk represents the thickness of

vortex sheets imbedded in the flow.

SPEED

Unlike a laminar flame, which has a propagation velocity

that depends uniquely on the thermal and chemical

properties of the mixture, a turbulent flame has a

propagation velocity that depends on the character of the

flow, as well as on the mixture properties.

For an observer traveling with the flame, we can define a

turbulent flame speed, St as the velocity at which

unburned mixture enters the flame zone in a direction

normal to the flame.

represented as some time-mean quantity, recognizing

that the instantaneous position of the high-temperature

reaction zone may be fluctuating wildly.

Since the direct measurement of unburned gas velocities

at a point near a turbulent flame is exceedingly difficult,

at best, flame velocities usually are determined from

measurements of reactant flow rates. Thus, the turbulent

flame speed can be expressed as :

St= m / (Aavg u)

The reason for using this time-smoothed flame area is

shown below :

Experimental

determinations of

turbulent flame speeds

are complicated by

determining a suitable

flame area. A, for thick,

and frequently curved,

flames. The ambiguity

associated with

determining this flame

area can result in

considerable uncertainty

in the measurement of

turbulent burning velocity.

FLAMES

Again, referring to the previous figure we can say that The

instantaneous flame front is highly convoluted, with the

largest, folds near the top of the flame (Fig. a). The

positions of the reaction zones move rapidly in space,

producing a time-averaged view that gives the appearance

of a thick reaction zone (Fig. b).

This apparently thick reaction zone is frequently referred to

as a turbulent flame brush.

The instantaneous view, however, clearly shows the actual

reaction front to be relatively thin, as in a laminar premixed

flame. These reaction fronts are sometimes referred to as

laminar flamelets.

turbulent premixed flames. Recent developments in

laser-based instrumentation have allowed researchers to

explore, in much more detail than previously possible,

the hostile environment of the internal combustion

engine combustion chamber. This is shown in the next

slide.

In these flame visualizations, we see that the division

between the unburned and burned gases occurs over a

very short distance and the flame front is distorted by

both relatively large- and small-scale wrinkles.

sequence of twodimensional flame

visualizations in a sparkignition engine from a

study.

The flame begins to

propagate outward from

the spark plug, as shown

in the first frame, and

moves across the

chamber until nearly all

the gas is burned.

The visualizations of

turbulent, flames

presented before suggest

that the effect of

turbulence is to wrinkle

and distort an essentially

laminar flame front.

Turbulent flames of this

type are referred to as

being in the wrinkled

laminar-flame regime.

classification of turbulent

premixed flames. At the

other pole is the

distributed-reaction

regime.

Falling between these

two regimes is a region

sometimes referred to as

the flamelets-in-eddies

regime.

Regime Criteria

Recall that the smallest scale, the Kolmogorov

microscale, lk, represents the smallest eddies in the flow.

These eddies rotate rapidly and have high vorticity,

resulting in the dissipation of the fluid kinetic energy into

internal energy, i.e., fluid friction results in a temperature

rise of the fluid.

At the other extreme of the length-scale spectrum is the

integral scale, lo which characterizes the largest eddy

sizes. The basic structure of a turbulent flame is

governed by the relationships of lk and lo to the laminar

flame thickness, l.

the thickness of a reaction zone controlled

by molecular, not turbulent, transport of

heat and mass. More explicitly, the three

regimes are defined by :

Wrinkled laminar flames: l < lk

Flamelets in eddies: lo > l > lk

Distributed reactions:

l > lo

smallest scale of turbulence, the turbulent motion can

only wrinkle or distort the thin laminar flame zone. The

criterion for the existence of a wrinkled laminar flame is

sometimes referred to as the Williams-Klimov

criterion.

At the other extreme, if all scales of turbulent motion are

smaller than the reaction zone thickness, then transport

within the reaction zone is no longer governed solely by

molecular processes, but is controlled, or at least

influenced, by the turbulence. This criterion for the

existence of a distributed-reaction zone is sometimes

referred to as the Damkohler criterion.

have another number that that characterizes the

turbulent flame velocity called Damkhler number (Da).

The fundamental meaning of the Damkhler number,

Da, used here is that it represents the ratio of a

characteristic flow or mixing time to a characteristic

chemical time.

It represents the ratio between the characteristic flow

time to the characteristic chemical time.

rates are fast in

comparison with fluid

mixing rates, then Da > 1,

and a fast-chemistry

regime is defined.

Conversely, when

reaction rates are slow in

comparison with mixing

rates, then Da < 1.

This is shown in the

figure to the right.

1) WRINKLED LAMINAR-FLAME REGIME

In this regime, chemical reactions occur in thin

sheets.

Referring again to the previous figure, we see

that reaction sheets occur only for Damkohler

numbers greater than unity, depending on the

turbulence Reynolds numbers, clearly indicating

that the reaction-sheet regime is characterized

by fast chemistry (in comparison with fluid

mechanical mixing).

2) DISTRIBUTED-REACTION REGIME

One way to enter this regime is to require

small integral length scales, (lo / lk) < 1, and

small Damkohler numbers (Da < 1). This is

difficult to achieve in a practical device,

since these requirements imply that,

simultaneously, lo, must be small and vrms

must be large, i.e., small flow passages and

very high velocities.

Pressure losses in such devices surely

would be huge and, hence, render them

impractical. Also, it is not clear that a flame

can be sustained under such conditions.

3) FLAMELETS-IN-EDDIES REGIME

This regime lies in the wedge-shaped

region between the wrinkled laminar flame

and distributed-reaction regimes as shown

in the previous figure. This region is

typified by moderate Damkohler numbers

and high turbulence intensities. This

region is of particular interest in that it is

likely that some practical combustion

devices operate in this regime.

Flame stabilization

Low velocity bypass ports

Refractory burner tiles

Bluff body Flame-holder (Recirculation)

Swirl or jet-induced recirculating flows

Rapid increase in flow area creating

recirculating separated flow

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