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Belt Training

Welcome to
Module 1

Administration Details

Emergency Exits and Fire Drills

Contact Point

Mobile phones and Pagers


Please leave them switched off during
the workshop sessions.

Coffee and Meals

Introductions

Who are you?


Where do you work?
What is your
knowledge of
DMAICR?

The Course Structure


Introduction to DMAICR and to the
DMAICR process. The first two phases
(Define and Measure) of the DMAICR
process. (3 days)

Module 1

Module 2

The third phase (Analyse) in the DMAICR


process. (3 days)

Module 3

The fourth and fifth phases (Improve and


Control) in the DMAICR process. (3 days)

Module 4

The final phase (Replicate) in the DMAICR


process. (1 day)

This Modules Objectives

Understand the basic philosophy of DMAICR


Understand the fundamentals of data
management.
Understand the DMAICR process
Provide all the material so that the first two
phases can be commenced - Define and
Measure.

This Modules Agenda


Day 1

Day 2

0830

Define: Step 3
Forming Team

1000

Define: Step 4
Defining
Opportunity

1230
1330
1500

Introductions

Measure: Step 8
Collecting the
data

Introduction
to DMAICR

Measure: Step 5
Need

Lunch

Lunch

Lunch

PGT Process

Measure: Step 5
Need

Measure: Step 8

Measure: Step 6
Vision

The next phase

Data
Management
The DMAICR process

1830

Day 3

Define: Step 1
and Step 2

Measure: Step 7
Stakeholders

Coffee Break - 10 minutes

Belt Training

Introduction to
DMAICR

DMAICR is about reducing variation


Variation

Off-Target
X

X
XXXXX
X
XX
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

Centre the
Process

XXX
XXX
XXX X
X XX X

On-Target

X
X
X

Reduce the
Spread

As variation reduces so do errors


Sigma

Defects

Time

Money

1 misspelled word every


other line of text

1 hour wasted every


two working days

67,000 wasted per


1 million in assets

1 misspelled word in
13 lines of text

1 hour wasted every


2 working weeks

6,000 wasted per


1 million in assets

1 misspelled word in
7 pages of a document

1 hour wasted in
2.4 working years

230 wasted per


1 million in assets

1 misspelled word in
450 pages (a book!)

1 hour wasted in
160 working years

3 wasted per
1 million in assets

Factor

x11
x26
x68

DMAICR is 3.4 defects in every


million opportunities
But getting there isnt easy - it needs a systematic and
disciplined approach to process improvement

Where are we today ?


Activity

dpmo

Sigma

(defects per million opportunities)

Manual assembly
1000
Automated assembly
16
Typical s/w build
3000
Credit notes
20,000
Exchange build
160,000
Network upgrades
250,000

4.5
5.6
4.2
3.4
2.5
2.2

30
Cost of
Variation 25
%of
Sales

The Cost.

20
15
10
5
0

Sigma Level
6

So we must reduce variation...


.but who sets the targets?

Customers, Customers and


Customers
DMAICR is consistently meeting
customers requirements profitably

Knowing what causes the outputs to vary


Output (Ys)

Process
(Xs)

Input (Xs)

The variation in Y is caused by variation of the Xs


Therefore we need to understand the Xs and
improve the ones with most influence on Y

Y
Dependent
Output
Effect
Symptom
Monitor

X1 . . . XN
Independent
Input-Process
Cause
Problem
Control

Remember its the process not the people


Eighty-five percent of the reasons
for failure to meet customer
expectations are related to
deficiencies in systems and
process rather than the employee.
The role of management is to
change the process rather than
badgering individuals to do better.
W Edwards Deming

But DMAICR will impact and change people


A programme aimed at the near elimination of

defects from every product, process and


transaction - Financial Times
A hard-edged programme to deliver results

- Neil Sutcliffe, CEO Marconi Services


A consuming passion sweeping across the

company - Jack Welch, CEO General Electric

Getting to DMAICR is like.....

...trying to eat an elephant

Therefore...
Lots of small chunks - PROJECTS
A project must have a minimum level of potential

impact - TIME or MONEY


A rigorous quantitative improvement process

focused on what is important to the customer


- THE DMAICR PROCESS
Highly trained, highly capable people

- CHAMPIONS & BELTS

Does it work?
Motorola - turnaround in semiconductor

manufacturing & financial performance.


Allied Signal - Cost savings exceeding $800m
since1995.
General Electric - most admired company two
years running, and consistently increasing
growth and profit.

Case study: Motorola


Motorola began implementing its 6 improvement

programme in 1987 when it performed at a 4


level.

By 1992 Motorolas divisions averaged a 5.21

level of performance in their pursuit of 6.

During the same period Motorolas sales

productivity had increased from $68.9K to $110.1K


per employee and savings due to operations
improvements in the USA was over $2.2 Billion.

Motorolas 6 performance demonstrated that

high quality and low cost can be mutually


achieved.

Case study: Allied Signal


Implemented 6 in 1994 for operations excellence.
Initial 4 months, 600 projects reduced defects 68%.
Saved $175M at bottom line in 1995 -- $1.2B in 1996!

(These savings do not include overhead, inventory,


indirect charges or avoidance costs -- the impact is
bigger!)
Fastest improvement rate observed implementing 6!
Expects to save $1.8 billion annually (6% of revenues)

when linked to:

Product design

Customer service

Allied stock gains 162% (December 1994-June 1997)

Case study: General Electric


GE began its 6 efforts in late 1995 and targets to save over

$10B during the next year by reducing its current cost of


poor quality ($7B a year) to less than $1B annually, ($6B
savings annually).

Reducing scrapped parts to 6 levels.

Reducing reworked parts to 6 levels.


Rectifying transaction mistakes to 6 levels.

Analysts estimate 6 could free another $2B in cash from

improved inventory processes.

GE has trained 230 internal auditors as six sigma roving

consultants rotating to three assignments annually, in


addition GE will train a total of 1,400 black belts.

Why does Six Sigma work ?


DMAICR is driven by top level management.
DMAICR is aligned to strategic business

objectives.
DMAICR has universal application across the
business.
Projects are selected based on key business
issues and will not be chosen if there is no
tangible impact on the business.
DMAICR pays for itself; returns are far greater
than investment.
Benefits are visible and traceable; focus is on
profitability.

Why Are Most Companies at 3- 4 ?


Most
companies

Already Successful
Dependence on inspection and

3 sigma

rework
Reliance on trial and error
Rewarding fire-fighting behaviour
Little focus on quality
measurements
Functional silos

4 sigma

5 sigma

6 sigma

Taking the Operational Excellence Leap


Whats needed to make the leap?

Strong and sustained leadership


Systematic and rigorous approach
Strong focus on measurement and
Most
companies
3 sigma

analysis
Continuous and Breakthrough
improvement
Dedicated project support
4 sigma

5 sigma

6 sigma

In Conclusion, DMAICR is:

A philosophy
A measurement
A methodology
A standard - world class performance

Exercise 1 - Why 6
Identify the possible

benefits
to DMAICR
Identify the possible
obstacles to
DMAICR
How might you sell

DMAICR in your
division?
BeltM1D1 -26

Lunch Break - 60 minutes

BeltM1D1 -27

Belt Training

Introduction to
Data Analysis

Six Sigma is about reducing both.


Off-Target

Variation

X
XXXXX
X
XX
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X

Centre the
Process

XXX
XXX
XXX X
X XX X

X
X
X

Reduce the
Spread

To do this you need data


and you need to be able to analyse that data
BeltM1D1 -29

Drawing the same picture a different way..


Variation

Off-Target

On-Target
Centre the
Process

Reduce the
Spread

BeltM1D1 -30

Sizing variation...
X
X
X

Standard deviation = = (mean-value)2


n

X
X
X

X
X

= large number

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

= medium number

XXX
XXX
XXX X
X XX X

= small number

BeltM1D1 -31

Reducing variation...
Reducing variation is beneficial,
but you also need to know the
limits that apply to the process
output.
These are imposed either
directly or indirectly by the
customer.

The wider the process spread, or


the tighter the limits, the more
defects from the process.

BeltM1D1 -32

Process Potential Index - Cp


It would be useful if we
could have a figure that
defines how good a
process is, in relation to
the specification limits.
The first of these is
known as the Process
Potential Index and
abbreviated to Cp
Lower Specification
Limit (LSL)

Process Potential, Cp
= USL- LSL
DMAICR

Upper Specification
Limit (USL)

BeltM1D1 -33

Typical values of Cp
Approximately 2, Cp = 0.7

Approximately 3, Cp = 1.0

Approximately 4, Cp = 1.3
(for DMAICR, Cp = 2.0)

BeltM1D1 -34

Centering the process ...


target

X
XXXX X
XXX X
X X

The process is capable,


but off target. Quoting
standard deviation or even
Cp does not convey the
size of the problem.
target

X
XXX X
X
X
XX
X
XX

target
XXX
XXX
XXX X
X XX X

BeltM1D1 -35

Process Capability Index - Cpk


Cp assumes the process
is centred on the target
value, which is rarely the
case. So, when it isnt,
we have to use another
index.

Process Capability, Cpk


= Nearest Spec Limit - Mean
3

This is the Process


Capability Index and
abbreviated to Cpk
Lower Specification
Limit (LSL)

Upper Specification
Limit (USL)

BeltM1D1 -36

Typical values of Cpk


Cpk = 0.4

Cpk = 0.8

Interpreting Cpk

Cpk ( = Cp ) = 1.3

Incapable
<1
Capable
> 1, < 1.5
Very capable > 1.5

BeltM1D1 -37

Transactional Processes
In transactional processes we often do not

know the specification limits for the process.


Therefore we can not determine the sigma
level in the method using spec limits.
However, we will know the number of defects
produced by the process and the DMAICR
level can be calculated from this number.

Good

Defective

BeltM1D1 -38

Method for calculating dpmo


Count the observed level of defects.

(Occasions when customer requirements are


not met.)
Determine the number of opportunities for
defects to occur within the process.
From the two figures calculate the dpmo
(number of defects per million defect
opportunities).
Derive process DMAICR from a dpmo table.

BeltM1D1 -39

Rules for calculating dpmo


The defect opportunity must be important to

the stakeholder / customer.


When calculating process DMAICR after
improvement actions, use the same number
of opportunities as for DMAICR before the
changes.
Dont artificially hike the number of
opportunities - they must be reasonably likely
to occur!
First-pass yield is used, not final yield in
calculating DMAICR.

BeltM1D1 -40

Calculating Process DMAICR


Number of units processed
N = __________
Total number of defects made
(include defects made and later fixed) D = __________
Number of defect opportunities
per unit
O = __________
Calculate # defects per million
opportunities
dpmo = 1,000,000 x ( D )

NxO

= 1,000,000 x

(
(

= __________
Look up process DMAICR in

DMAICR conversion table

DMAICR(ST) = __________

BeltM1D1 -41

)
)(

DMAICR Scale
dpmo

(defects per
million
opportunities)

Yield %

(DMAICR
level)

Cp

308,537

69.20

0.7

66,807

93.32

6,210

99.379

1.3

233

99.977

1.7

3.4

99.99966

To increase the DMAICR value requires a


corresponding exponential reduction in defects.

BeltM1D1 -42

In the next module we will look in detail at the Data


Analysis Tools because.
We will have to understand
Data Analysis
Tools

variation and distribution.


We have to be able to compare
one set of data to another.
We often have to use samples
rather than test everything.
We will have to test out our
theories and understand the
results.
We have to predict what will
happen with some degree of
confidence.
BeltM1D1 -43

Exercise 3 - Base lining

Use the internal

scrap and customer


rejects to calculate
dpmo and the
DMAICR level.

Case study

BeltM1D1 -44

I-Nexus Belt Training

Introduction to
the DMAICR
Process
BeltM1D1 -45

DMAICR Process - Background

It has built on our knowledge of other


improvement methodologies that we have
used, e.g. IDEAL, DEFEAT, BEM Workshops.

It has built on the Public Domain material for


DMAICR.

It has built on the companys experiences of


balancing change management and statistics.

BeltM1D1 -46

Introducing the DMAICR Process

A 6 phase, 20 step rigorous and quantitative


improvement process.
Uses best practice tools and techniques from
change, project and data management
disciplines.
Incorporates monitor and review mechanisms.
Training is normally aligned with project
activity.

Requires:

Active senior champions.


Dedicated full-time resources.

BeltM1D1 -47

The DMAICR Methodology


Champion

Project Team

OPPORTUNITIES

DEFINE

Rework
Delays
Complaints
Expediting
etc. etc.

MEASURE

ANALYSE

IMPROVE

CONTROL

REPLICATE

Performance
Customers
Profitability

User Guide

Stats Package

Tools &
Techniques

BeltM1D1 -48

The DMAICR Process


Define Measure Analyse Improve Control Replicate -

forming a team with agreed, clear goals and


effective sponsorship.
involving users of the process and gathering
data on current performance.
identifying and quantifying root causes of
current performance limitations.
implementing performance improvements.
achieving predicted benefits and sustaining
performance.
maximising the benefits of the learning gained
during the project.

OPPORTUNITIES
DEFINE

MEASURE

ANALYSE

IMPROVE

CONTROL

REPLICATE

BeltM1D1 -49

The Toolkit
Process
Analysis
Tools
Data Analysis
Tools

Change
Management
Tools
Project
Management
Tools

BeltM1D1 -50

The Toolkit
Process
Analysis
Tools
Data Analysis
Tools

Change
Management
Tools

Using facts and real data


to make decisions,
therefore:
Teams trained to

understand and
Project
Management interpret data.
Tools
Data tools to ensure
the correct data is
collected.
Statistical Software
tool to speed the
statistical analysis.

BeltM1D1 -51

The Toolkit
Process
Analysis
Tools
Data Analysis
Tools

Change
Management
Tools

Processes deliver the


items to the customer,
therefore:

Project
Management
Tools
Teams trained to

understand and
analyse processes.
Process Analysis tools

in the general tool kit.

BeltM1D1 -52

The Toolkit
Process
Analysis
Tools
Data Analysis
Tools

Change
Management
Tools

Vital that improvements


are fully implemented
and sustained,
therefore:

Project
Management
Tools Careful selection of

the Champion.
General tools to
ensure softer side of
change is managed.
Involvement of Major
Stakeholders.

BeltM1D1 -53

The Toolkit
Process
Analysis
Tools
Data Analysis
Tools

Change
Management
Tools

Many projects, clear


targets, tight timescales, therefore:
Guides defining project

Project
management.
Management
Tools
Weekly Reviews.
Milestones and

Milestone Reviews.
Project Tracking Early
Warning System.
Templates.

BeltM1D1 -54

Whats New ???


We Have seen this before? BUT

Dont focus on customer needs


Dont engage all the right people
Dont have a rigorous process
Dont have a consistent set of tools
Dont demonstrate bottom line impact

Resulting in

incomplete/ inaccurate data / information

Resulting in

wrong or poor decisions

Resulting in ..

unsustainable solutions
another failed initiative

BeltM1D1 -55

Putting DMAICR in Context


Business Situation
Process roughly defined with

capability 2-4
Customers happy but want
improvement
Several processes around
the company doing the same
task. Customers happy but
want improvement
No real process or very
broken process.
Customers very unhappy

DMAICR

Improvement
Project

or

DMAICR Breakthrough
Project

BeltM1D1 -56

Typical Differences
Incremental

Breakthrough

Who sets goal

Senior Manager

Processes

Local/Support

Duration

3 - 6 months

12 - 36 months

Resources

Part-Time

Full-Time

Payback

1.5 - 3 Times

4 - 6 Times

Purpose

Resolve critical
issues

Achieve strategic
objectives

Risk

Small

The Board
Core/ Xfunctional

High

BeltM1D1 -57

Typical Approaches
Incremental

Breakthrough

Job Content

Minor mod.

Redefined

IT Systems

Minor mod.

Major mod.

Skills

Broadened

Redefined

Organisation

Existing

Re-aligned

Rewards/
Incentives

Modified

Re-evaluated

Leadership

Senior manager

The Board

BeltM1D1 -58

Tea Break - 10 minutes

BeltM1D1 -59

Belt Training

Define

BeltM1D1 -60

Define Process Summary


Project Sources
Purpose: To get the
team established with
an agreed, clear opportunity
Step 1*
and effective sponsorship
Prioritising
Opportunities

Summary
of Starting
outcomes

Step 2*
Selecting the
Champion

Step 3
Forming the
Team

Step 4
Defining the
Opportunity

Project Champion
Project Charter
Project Plan

* Normally done before the


project is formally set up

BeltM1D1 -61

Prioritising Opportunities
- What is done?

DEFINE
STEP 1

Purpose

To identify possible opportunities for


improvement in order to select the best ones
for the business at this time.

Deliverables

A list of prioritised opportunities, with a


scoping document detailing background
information, benefits and resources required
for each possible improvement opportunity.

BeltM1D1 -62

Why Prioritise
Opportunities?

DEFINE
STEP 1

Selecting the right opportunity where effort

will not be wasted and the benefits will be


tangible and sustainable.
Undertaken so that effort and resources
can be justified to all involved.
Avoids working on opportunities where the
organisation is not ready.

BeltM1D1 -63

Prioritising Opportunities
Process
Project
Sources

How -

DEFINE
STEP 1

Who Generate
Initial List

Normally done before the project


team has been formed -

Critical To
Quality aspects
Initial process
baseline

Done by key persons


in the business

Gap Analysis
Prioritise on
CTQs and gaps

BeltM1D1 -64

us
to
me

th
ec
of
Vo
ice

le
op
pe

Strategic analysis
Risks

(Voice of
Shareholder).

he

Future direction

Business
Impact

Hotline (Intranet)

t
of

Share price

STEP 1

Work Areas

ice
Vo

Account manager feedback


Customer complaints
Customer surveys

DEFINE

Hearing Voices
- Generating the Initial List

Voice of the process


Scrap and waste costs
Efficiency / overtime
Performance measures

BeltM1D1 -65

Hearing the Customer Voice

DEFINE
STEP 1

th
e
of

Shareholder).

consistently meeting
customers requirements
profitably. Therefore in
prioritising the projects we
need to select those where
the customer is least happy
with our performance.
Must listen to their voices
and convert their needs into
measurable CTQs (Critical to
Quality aspects).

le
op
pe
he

Business
Impact
(Voice of

t
of

Vo
ice

ice
Vo

cu
sto
me

DMAICR is about

Voice of the process

Note that CTQs can also come from other stakeholders Shareholders, Employees, Society, Suppliers and Government.

BeltM1D1 -66

CTQs to Ys to Xs

ANALYSE
STEP 9

Voice of Customer

Their key issues in


their speak

The key issues in


our speak

Issues

CTQs
X measures
The process and input measures
that will influence the size of Y.
Y is a function of X1, X2, X3 etc.

The key issues expressed in


a way that can be measured

Y measures
The process output measures
relating to that CTQ

BeltM1D1 -67

CTQs and Ys and Xs


Voice of Customer

I want to have a hot mug of coffee


Issue
Customer wants a mug of coffee which
they can start to drink within 1 minute
of being seated.
CTQ
Mug of coffee needs to be X + 2 oC at table.
Y Measure
Temperature of coffee at centre of mug, 5 cms from bottom
of mug, at point of pouring.
X Measures
X1 - temperature of water used to make coffee in oC.
X2 - temperature of milk used to make coffee in oC.
X3 - ratio of hot water volume to milk volume.
X4 - time from pouring coffee to point of sale in seconds.

BeltM1D1 -68

Keys to VoC translation

DEFINE
STEP 1

Ask the customer, do not assume that you can

speak on the customers behalf.


Probe to get underneath and really understand.
(Use the Kipling checklist; what, why, when, how,
where and who?)
Make sure your translations make sense for your

organisation.
Review and reflect with the customer and the
process team.
Refine and prioritise requirements.

BeltM1D1 -69

Kipling Checklist
I keep six honest serving-men, they taught me all I knew, their names are
What and Why and When, and How and Where and Who.

What

is done?
is the purpose of it?
and is it necessary?

Why

is it done?
is it done this way?
and is it just historic?

When

is it done?
would be better?
should it be done, before or
after?

How

is it done?
can it be done better/ easier/
more efficiently /more
effectively?

Where

is it done?
is the best place to do it?
and can it be done
somewhere else?

Who

does it?
could do it more easily/
economically?

BeltM1D1 -70

Guidelines For CTQs

DEFINE
STEP 1

Customers often express their requirements in

vague statements. These have to be translated


into measurable CTQs.
Write the CTQ as a requirement, not the solution.
Be concise.
Write as a sentence and maybe include an
example.
Remember, CTQs can be, and will need to be
measured.
Write the CTQ as a positive statement.

BeltM1D1 -71

Example: Translating Customer


Needs to CTQs
Voice Of The
Customer

Key Issue

If Im not put on
hold, I always
seem to get the
wrong department
or person

The customer
wants to be put
through quickly
to the right
person

You send me an
invoice at
different times
of the month

Consistent
monthly billing

DEFINE
STEP 1

CTQ

Add additional menu items


to voice system (BAD)

Customer gets to the correct


person the first time
(GOOD)

Customer wants timely bill


(BAD)

Customer bill received 15th


day of month, every month.
(GOOD)

BeltM1D1 -72

Hearing the Process Voice

DEFINE
STEP 1

Understanding how our

th
e
of

Shareholder).

le
op
pe
he

Business
Impact
(Voice of

t
of

Vo
ice

ice
Vo

cu
sto
me

processes are performing


today and which are causing
problems:

Voice of the process

Do they meet customer


requirements consistently?
How stable are they?
How much do they cost?
(rework and overtime!)
Can they be improved, or do
they need a fundamental
redesign?

Baseline the processes - to

help prioritise those for


improvement.

BeltM1D1 -73

What is meant by
base lining?

DEFINE
STEP 1

Base lining is evaluating initial process

capability.
We really ought to measure this, but that
comes later
Therefore we need to estimate:

Process DMAICR
Cpk
Rolled Yield
Quality Related Cost

BeltM1D1 -74

Hearing the People Voice

DEFINE
STEP 1

Give the employees the

th
e
of

Shareholder).

le
op
pe
he

Business
Impact
(Voice of

t
of

Vo
ice

ice
Vo

cu
sto
me

opportunity to highlight the


weak areas within the
organisation:

Which processes are difficult


to operate?
What reduces their morale?
Where do they continually
have to buck the system to
keep the customer happy?

What processes, if not

Voice of the process

changed, will cause people


to leave the organisation? !

BeltM1D1 -75

Hearing the Shareholder Voice

DEFINE
STEP 1

th
e
of

Shareholder).

problems and classify or


rank in terms of financial
impact - increased costs,
revenue lost or at risk.
Are we likely to loose
business as a result?
What will help us to meet our
future business strategy?
Ensure this ranked list meets
Shareholders requirements
(CTQs) - often efficiency,
cost reduction, or RoCE.

le
op
pe
he

Business
Impact
(Voice of

t
of

Vo
ice

ice
Vo

cu
sto
me

Look at all the potential

Voice of the process

BeltM1D1 -76

Gap Analysis

DEFINE
STEP 1

Identification of where we are (baselining) to


where we should be relative to the CTQ process
elements.
This is essentially subjective.
Each management team member rates the process gap

as high, medium or low (or a variant).


Voting and ranking allows processes to be listed
according to estimated gaps.
Some discussion and facilitation may be necessary,
including presentations of past performance measures
by process owners.

BeltM1D1 -77

So prioritising is...

DEFINE
STEP 1

For each problem, opportunity or


potential project identifying:
The business impact

the bottom line financial impact,


the relative effectiveness of the process,
impact on customers.

The resources required

expenditure and the time of all those involved

Likelihood of success

an assessment of the risks

BeltM1D1 -78

Business Impact

..and plot on a Desirability


Matrix

DEFINE
STEP 1

Likelihood of
Success

High

Low
Med

Med
High

Low
Low

Med

High

Resources Required

BeltM1D1 -79

Using the Desirability Matrix

DEFINE

cr
In

High

Likelihood of
Success

s
ea
g
in

Low

i
es
D

Med

lity
bi
ra

Business Impact

STEP 1

Med
High

Low
Low

Med

High

Resources Required

Plot all potential projects


and then focus on the
large circles nearest to the
TLH corner.

BeltM1D1 -80

Examples of Poor Projects

STEP 1

Business Impact

DEFINE

Writing a report
Quantifying the performance of a process
Reducing cycle time on a non-bottleneck process step

Resources

Installing a new computer system


Improving the profitability of an entire product range
Fixing the annual planning process

Likelihood of Success

Depends on completion of other risky projects


Not aligned with operational goals
Requires help from extremely busy people

BeltM1D1 -81

Exercise 4 - Voice of the Customer


Who are the customers

for the process under


consideration?
Use the Voice of the
Customer tool to
specify their main
needs and translate
them to CTQs.
Are there any other
CTQs?

BeltM1D1 -82

Selecting the Champion


- What is done?

DEFINE
STEP 2

Purpose

To select the most appropriate senior person


to mentor the project team and champion the
improvement within the business.

Deliverables

The champion agreeing to sponsor the project


and accepting the initial scoping document for
the project.

BeltM1D1 -83

Why Have a Champion?


Their role will be to.

DEFINE

Act as project sponsors,

approving results, delivering resources,


keeping in touch, but not doing the work.
Provide genuine and committed leadership
throughout the entire change process.
Assist, encourage, gain support and remove
roadblocks across the organisation.
Challenge the status quo.
Identify key players and gain their support.
Review the project regularly.
Stop the project if appropriate.
BeltM1D1 -84

STEP 2

Your Views..

DEFINE
STEP 2

What in your view are the

skills and behaviours of a


successful champion?
What will you do if your

champion does not meet


your expectations?

BeltM1D1 -85

The Champion should


be:

DEFINE
STEP 2

A member of the Division Management Team.


Someone with a specific interest in the process

or problem.
Ideally the process owner.
Prepared to commit the necessary time and
support.
Experienced, with a good track record on
improvement issues.

BeltM1D1 -86

What is the Black Belts role?


Work with the champion to bring about an

improvement on a defined opportunity within the


given time boundaries.
Coach a small team of part-time improvers; setting
direction, applying tools, managing risk, transferring
knowledge, developing their skills, discovering new
perspectives and influencing results.
Promote DMAICR across the organisation.
Selected for technical proficiency, interpersonal skills
and leadership ability.
Developed by project planning, statistics training,
on-the-job application and mentored reviews.

BeltM1D1 -87

The Leadership Styles


Autocratic
Styles

Tell

Exerting pressure, carrot and stick, being directive.


Reasoned case, persuading, personal appeal.
Sell
Coach Train, show how to

Consult

Ask for ideas, decide and inform.

Bargain
Work together as a team.

Give and take

Participate

Unbiased support and guidance

Facilitate

Assigning a task, allowing scope on how

Participating
Styles

Delegate

No involvement, leaving team on their own

BeltM1D1 -88

Avoid

The Leadership Styles


Autocratic
Styles

Tell
Sell
Coach

All styles are valid and have their


benefits. Good leaders move from
style to style as appropriate.

Which will be your


Consult
main styles as a
Black Belt?
Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

Participating
Styles

BeltM1D1 -89

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


Tell

When Used in DMAICR:

Sell
Coach
Pros:
- quick
Cons:
- check authority level
- check facts are correct
- buy-in may be limited

- Putting across facts


- Communication

Consult
Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -90

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


When Used in DMAICR:

Tell
Sell
Coach
Pros:
- gets buy-in

- Putting across solutions


- Changing methods
- Selling the DMAICR approach

Consult

Cons:
- what is the contingency?
- takes time
- smaller audiences

Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -91

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


Tell

When Used in DMAICR:

Sell
Coach
Pros:
- grows skill base
Cons:
- difficult to do well
- initially can be slow

- Using tools with team


- Teaching DMAICR
- Handover to work area

Consult
Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -92

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


Tell

When Used in DMAICR:

Sell
Coach
Pros:
- gets involvement
Cons:
- takes time
- check balance of views
- builds expectations

- Sizing the opportunity


- Researching root causes

Consult
Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -93

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


When Used in DMAICR:

Tell

- Rolling out difficult solution


- Gaining co-operation

Sell
Coach
Pros:
- works when other
methods fail

Consult

Cons:
- can show weakness
- know the bargaining limits

Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -94

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


Tell

When Used in DMAICR:

Sell
Coach
Pros:
- strengthens team
Cons:
- some team members
will expect direction
- it is easy to revert

- Problem solving
- Implementing pilot
- Implementing solution

Consult
Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -95

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


Tell

When Used in DMAICR:

Sell
Coach
Pros:
- very good buy-in
Cons:
- some team members
will expect direction
- facilitation is difficult

- Helping group develop


solution for themselves

Consult
Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -96

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


Tell

When Used in DMAICR:

Sell
Coach
Pros:
- efficient use of team

- Sharing the work load


- Getting actions completed

Consult

Cons:
- some need chasing
- day job takes prime place
- result not as expected

Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -97

The Leadership Styles - Black Belts


Tell

When Used in DMAICR:

Sell
Coach
Pros:
- essential at right time
Cons:
- knowing when to leave
- seen as lack of interest
- difficult to walk away

- Ensuring you do not do


the job for the work area
- Once handover complete

Consult
Bargain
Participate
Facilitate
Delegate
Avoid

BeltM1D1 -98

The autocrat in sheeps clothing


Guess whats on my mind

Ask a question and keep on going until the answer


corresponds to your answer.
Clay Pigeon Shooting
Shoot down every answer with reasons why they can not
work, until an answer corresponds to your answer.
Kindly Uncle/Aunt
What I would do if I were you, is...
Leading Questions
Telling the group under the guise of asking. Wouldnt
you agree that the best way to do it is .
The expert
There is only one way to do this, so do it my way.

BeltM1D1 -99

Exercise 5 - My team role as a BB?


What do you need to

do as the team leader


to set up a good
working relationship
with the team?
What will help to
cement your role as
leader?

BeltM1D1 -100

Overnight Challenge
S
S
S

S
S

Create a scheme to
help an individual to
remember the steps
that make up the
DMAICR process.

BeltM1D1 -101

Belt Training

Review of the Day

BeltM1D1 -102