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# Ohm's Law

For many conductors of electricity, the electric current which
will flow through them is directly proportional to the voltage
applied to them. When amicroscopic view of Ohm's law is
taken, it is found to depend upon the fact that the drift
velocity of charges through the material is proportional to
the electric field in the conductor. The ratio of voltage to
current is called the resistance, and if the ratio is constant
over a wide range of voltages, the material is said to be an
"ohmic" material. If the material can be characterized by
such a resistance, then the current can be predicted from
the relationship:

Kirchoffs First Law – The Current Law. I1. I(exiting) + I(entering) = 0. I4 and I5 are negative in value. I3 are all positive in value and the 2 currents leaving the node. as no charge is lost within the node“. Kirchoffs Current Law   Here. In other words the algebraic sum of ALL the currents entering and leaving a node must be equal to zero. the 3 currents entering the node. This idea by Kirchoff is commonly known as the Conservation of Charge. I2. Then this . states that the “total current or charge entering a junction or node is exactly equal to the charge leaving the node as it has no other place to go except to leave. (KCL) Kirchoffs Current Law or KCL.

Also for current to flow either in or out of a node a closed circuit path must exist. .The term Node in an electrical circuit generally refers to a connection or junction of two or more current carrying paths or elements such as cables and components. We can use Kirchoff’s current law when analysing parallel circuits.

branches. When analysing either DC circuits or AC circuits using Kirchoffs Circuit Laws a number of definitions and terminologies are used to describe the parts of the circuit being analysed such as: node. We can use Kirchoff’s voltage law when analysing series circuits. paths. In other words the algebraic sum of all voltages within the loop must be equal to zero. It is important to maintain the same direction either clockwise or anti-clockwise or the final voltage sum will not be equal to zero. Kirchoffs Voltage Law   Starting at any point in the loop continue in the same direction noting the direction of all the voltage drops.Kirchoffs Second Law – The Voltage Law. the total voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop” which is also equal to zero. either positive or negative. . This idea by Kirchoff is known as the Conservation of Energy. states that “in any closed loop network. and returning back to the same starting point. (KVL) Kirchoffs Voltage Law or KVL. loops and meshes.

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To give an analogy to help you understand the difference. whereas in a three-phase system 3 wires carry alternating current with a definite time offset in between the voltage waves. In India a single-phase supply is a 230V supply through two wires and 3-phase supply is 415 V supply through 4 wires and in the house the line can be divided to give 230V at individual point. . A car and a two-wheeler may easily go in parallel on a single-lane highway. But beyond that things will not move. let’s take an example of a highway.What are single phase and three phase connections? Most of us know that in the world of electricity. The type of current that is supplied from electricity grid is Alternating Current (or AC). whereas if we have a 3-lane highway. In a single-phase supply. number of vehicles that can run together also depends on the size of vehicles. a single alternating current in supplied through a single wire. Even on a single-phase highway. we may put two cars running in parallel. or if we try to squeeze. only a few two wheelers may go on it in parallel. lot of vehicles can move together in parallel. current through the wires carry electricity that light our bulbs and run our appliances. If the highway is a single lane highway. but a truck may just have to be left alone. The basic difference between the two is that a three-phase connection can handle heavy load while a single-phase cannot.

There is a limit to the load that a single phase can handle and typically that number is set to 7.5 kW (or 7500 watts or 10 Horse Power).5 kW. Or you have a machine that has a motor that is more than 10 HP. then you need a three-phase connection. Only if you have more than 3 ACs that are all in use together you may need a three-phase connection. If the load is less than 7.5 ton ACs and a water heater all running together.5 kW. Which actually is not true because all ACs have motors designed to run on single-phase.Similarly consider single-phase as a single lane highway and three-phase as a multilane highway. And you can get to 7. . So if sum of wattage of all the appliances that you are running at a time is more than 7.5 kW if you have three 1. then a single-phase connection can easily handle it. Note: A lot of people have misconception that Air Conditioners require three-phase connection.

making it safer and less expensive to run •Highly efficient for equipment designed to run on 3-phase . a single-phase motor draws significantly more current than the equivalent 3-phase motor. high-density data centers •Expensive to convert from an existing single-phase installation. but 3phase allows for smaller. as well as industry and manufacturing •Increasingly popular in power-hungry. less expensive wiring and lower voltages.Single-phase power is: •Used in most homes in North America •Able to supply ample power for most smaller customers. non-industrial businesses •Adequate for running motors up to about 5 horsepower. making 3-phase power a more efficient choice for industrial applications . 3-phase power is: •Common in large businesses. including homes and small.

the power supplied at that moment is zero.. . Each phase reaches its peak 120 degrees apart from the others so the level of power supplied remains consistent. In the U. when the wave passes through zero. 3-phase power has 3 distinct wave cycles that overlap.S.With the wave form of single-phase power. the wave cycles 60 times per second.

The choice of earthing system can affect the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the power supply. If a fault within an electrical device connects a live supply conductor to an exposed conductive surface. an earthing system or grounding system is circuitry which connects parts of the electric circuit with the ground. anyone touching it while electrically connected to the earth will complete a circuit back to the earthed supply conductor and receive an  electric shock. . thus defining the  electric potential of the conductors relative to the Earth's conductive surface. and the effects it creates on equipment and people in the proximity of the circuit. In particular. it affects the magnitude and distribution of  short circuit currents through the system.EARTHING SYSTEM: In electricity supply systems.

It is cumbersome to install only one or two pits in a day. * GI Plat Earthing. * Copper plat Earthing Maintenance Free EARTHING Conventional Earthing: The Conventional system of Earthing calls for digging of a large pit into which a GI pipe or a copper plate is positioned amidst layers of charcoal and salt.Types of Earthing There are various ways of doing EARTHING: Conventional EARTHING * Pipe Earthing. The Conventional system of GI pipe Earthing or copper plate Earthing requires maintenance and pouring of water at regular interval. * Cast Iron plat Earthing. . Maintenance free earthing: It is a new type of earthing system which is ready made. standardized. scientifically developed.

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2ft x 2ft x 1/8 in) or galvanized iron (GI) of dimensions 60cm x 60cm x 6.5in) in diameter and 2.75m (15. The moisture of the soil will determine the length of the pipe to be buried but usually it should be 4. a plate made up of either copper with dimensions 60cm x 60cm x 3. Pipe Earthing: A galvanized steel and a perforated pipe of approved length and diameter is placed vertically in a wet soil in this kind of system of earthing. The dimension of the pipe is usually 40mm (1.5m (8.6in) diameter of galvanized steel or hollow section 25mm (1inch) of GI pipe of length above 2.e. The size of pipe to use depends on the magnitude of current and the type of soil. The length of embedded electrodes in the soil reduces earth resistance to a desired value.5mm (1/2 inch) diameter or 16mm (0. A copper rod of 12. Plate Earthing: In plate earthing system. 2).5ft).75m (9ft) in length for ordinary soil or greater for dry and rocky soil.35 mm (2ft x 2ft x ¼ in) is buried vertical in the earth (earth pit) which should not be less than 3m (10ft) from the ground level.2 ft) are buried upright in the earth manually or with the help of a pneumatic hammer. It is the most common system of earthing. .1). 3). Rod Earthing  it is the same method as pipe earthing.18mm (i.

6mm (1in x 0.4).5m. Make sure to check the resistance of GI pipes and use earthing clamps to minimize the resistance for proper earthing connection. If copper with a crosssection of 25mm x 4mm (1in x 0.0mm2 if it’s a galvanized iron or steel. the waterman (Galvanized GI) pipes are used for earthing purpose. then clean the end of the strands of the wire and make sure it is in the straight and parallel position which is possible then to connect tightly to the waterman pipe. strip electrodes of cross-section not less than 25mm x 1. Earthing through the Waterman In this method of earthing. . Strip or Wire Earthing: In this method of earthing.06in) is buried in a horizontal trenches of a minimum depth of 0. If stranded conductor is used as earth wire.15in) is used and a dimension of 3. 5).

5 m. •Installation of circuit in three wire system or in three different phases must be kept at maximum distance. •The entire wiring system and apparatus must be compliment Standard specifications.Electric wiring system in building must comply with few standard norms as per ISI in order to ensure security and safety. . •For safety purpose keep the load on circuit minimal. •The size of Earth wire for light circuit must be 1 mm square in copper and 1. •Make sure that all the conductors are accessible and fitted along with the wall. •In the Power wiring circuit maximum number of points should be 2 and keep the size of wire 1. •Wires fixed horizontally should be at minimum height of 3 m while the height of switch board must be 1. •Standard specification says fuse wire must be connected to phase wire only. •Cable wiring should be avoided from the ceiling.5 mm in copper & 2 mm in aluminum. •Connection of neutral wire must be given to neutral link only and in the same way all the switches should be connected in phase wire.5 mm square in aluminum. ISI lays some rules while fixing or installing cables in the wall in order to provide electricity in the entire building •The foremost specification that electric wiring system require is carrying out of wiring by distributing with main branch distribution boards to other convenient places and installing non-isolated fuse.

and installation details are often specified by wiring regulations. . form. but flexible conduit is used for some purposes. Conduit is generally installed by electricians at the site of installation of electrical equipment. fiber. plastic.An electrical conduit is a tube used to protect and route  electrical wiring in a building or nonbuilding structure. Electrical conduit may be made of metal. Most conduit is rigid. such as the US  National Electrical Code (NEC) and other building codes. or fired clay. Its use.

with a tubing wall that is thick enough to allow it to be threaded. . generally used in commercial and industrial applications where a higher resistance to corrosion is needed. is commonly used instead of galvanized rigid conduit (GRC). Aluminum cannot be directly embedded in concrete. It may be threaded.Metal Rigid metal conduit (RMC) is a thick-walled threaded tubing. [1] Intermediate metal conduit (IMC) is a steel tubing heavier than EMT but lighter than RMC. but can be used with threaded fittings that clamp to it. Its common applications are in commercial and industrial construction. sometimes called thin-wall. Such locations would include food processing plants. is a rigid tube. as it is less costly and lighter than GRC. Lengths of conduit are connected to each other and to equipment with clamp-type fittings. EMT is more common in commercial and industrial buildings than in residential applications. Electrical metallic tubing (EMT). usually made of coated steel. stainless steel or aluminum. where large amounts of  water and cleaning chemicals would make galvanized conduit unsuitable. Aluminum conduit. though it may be aluminum. Galvanized rigid conduit (GRC) is galvanized steel tubing. Like GRC. EMT is generally made of coated steel. similar to galvanized steel conduit. EMT itself is not threaded.

with the thin-wall variety only suitable for embedded use in concrete. since a length of aluminum conduit will have about one-third the weight of an equally-sized rigid steel PVC conduit is the lightest in weight compared to other conduit conduit materials. The conduit may be coated to prevent corrosion by incidental contact with concrete. The plastic material resists moisture and many corrosive substances. it is available in three different wall thicknesses. and heavier grades suitable for direct burial and exposed work. and is often flexible although the fittings are not. and usually lower in cost than other forms of conduit. Electrical nonmetallic tubing (ENT) is a thin-walled corrugated tubing that is moisture-resistant and flame retardant. Aluminum cannot be directly embedded in concrete. Rigid nonmetallic conduit (RNC) is a non-metallic unthreaded smooth-walled tubing. In North American electrical practice. It is pliable such that it can be bent by hand. Aluminum conduit is generally lower cost than steel in addition to having a lower labor cost to install. but since the tubing is non-conductive an extra bonding (grounding) conductor must be pulled into each conduit. by using special  heating tools designed for the purpose. PVC conduit may be heated and bent in the field. It is not threaded due to its corrugated . since the metal reacts with the alkalis in cement. Most of the various fittings made for metal conduit are also available in PVC form.

The main attribute common to all lightning rods is that they are all made of conductive materials. electrically bonded using a wire or electrical conductor to interface with ground or "earth"  through anelectrode. or even a tree. air terminals or strike termination devices.[1] . where it could start a fire or cause electrocution. Copper and its alloys are the most common materials used in lightning protection. flat strips or even bristle brush-like. Lightning rods come in many different forms. instead of passing through the structure. AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal  rod or metallic object mounted on top of an elevated structure.A lightning rod (US. such as copper andaluminum. engineered to protect the structure in the event of lightning strike. a lightning rod is a single component of the system. Lightning rods are also called  finials. solid. The lightning rod requires a connection to earth to perform its protective function. including hollow. a ship. rounded. pointed. it will preferentially strike the rod and be conducted to ground through the wire. such as a building. If lightning hits the structure. In a lightning protection system.

Lightning protection systems are used to prevent or lessen lightning strike  damage to structures. Lightning protection systems mitigate the fire hazard which lightning strikes pose to structures. Lightning current will divide to follow every conductive path to ground. the benefits of basic lightning protection systems have been evident for well over a century . blow apart brick. This is why trees are often shattered by lightning strikes. If lightning travels through porous and water-saturated materials. However. or concrete. Secondary "sideflashes" can be enough to ignite a fire. A lightning protection system provides a low-impedance path for the lightning current to lessen the heating effect of current flowing through flammable structural materials. Because of the high energy and current levels associated with lightning (currents can be in excess of 150. and the very rapid rise time of a lightning strike. stone. these materials may literally explode if their water content is  flashed to steam by heat produced from the high current. or injure occupants within a structure or building. no protection system can guarantee absolute safety from lightning. and even the divided current can cause damage.000 amps).

Connections to the earth electrodes must not only have low resistance. but must have low self-inductance. which are connected by the most direct route to one or more grounding or earthing terminals. and are electrically bonded together by bonding conductors (called "down conductors" or "downleads").The parts of a lightning protection system are air terminals (lightning rods or strike termination devices). or mesh). and all of the connectors and supports to complete the system. bonding conductors. plates. The air terminals are typically arranged at or along the upper points of a roof structure. . ground terminals (ground or "earthing" rods.

after the names of the manufacturers that established the standards. Juno. If the contact-tips are 1 inch apart. and "L" track. . "J". it is probably "J" type. if they are 7/8 inch apart. To identify a track fixture. Halo. This is selected by placing the tab of the connector on the fixture to one side or the other when attaching it to the track.[1] This is as opposed to the routing of electrical wiring to individual light positions. Typical systems have line voltage running through a recessed track. 2. They are often termed "H". you may use the following two rules: 1. They can also be hung with rods from especially high places like  vaulted ceilings. There are three standard types of tracks used in North America. or crosswise across rafters or joists. and Lightolier. so that multiple switched circuits can be used to control different fittings on the same track. it is probably "H" type. it is probably "L" type. Tracks can be mounted to ceilings or walls.Track lighting is a method of lighting where light fixtures  are attached anywhere on a continuous track device which contains electrical conductors. The track may have more than one live conductor. lengthwise down beams. as well as elsewhere in the world. if it has three contacts.

Many systems now simply use a single live and then use digital control interfaces such as DALI to control the fittings. Two-circuit configurations are rare in such systems. More modern systems are available with low voltage (10. The track is powered by a transformer which converts the high voltage into low voltage. the fixture may clamp onto a track made of two metal strips separated with an insulating strip. or 24 volts) running through the track. . which is in itself decorative. There are magnetic and electronic transformers. This means that each fitting can be independently controlled. In this case. 12.

distribution. and storage equipment. [1]  The different types of material handling equipment can be classified into four major categories:[2] transport equipment. goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing. positioning equipment.MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT : Material handling equipment is mechanical equipment used for the movement. . unit load formation equipment. consumption and disposal. control and protection of materials. storage.