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Group #4

Annisa Sara
Any Choirunnisa
Husnul Khotimah
Muhardi Saffa
Novia Elma

Adverbial Clause
An adverbial clause is a dependent clause that
functions as an adverb; that is, the entire clause
modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
As with all clauses, it contains a subject and predicate,
although the subject as well as the (predicate) verb
may sometimes be omitted and implied.
Adverbial clauses are connected with the main clause
by means of subordinators some of these have one
meaning only, so that we can immediately classify the
clause as belonging to a certain type of adverbial
clause. They are not normally connected with the
main clause by a zero marker (asyndetically).

#1. Adverbial Clauses of Time

Finite Clauses of Time
Express the time or duration of the action and
answer such questions as when, how long, since
The two actions may be simultaneous, one may
follow or precede the other, it may last until the
other has begun, etc.:
He whistled while he washed the car.
When he finished he went for a drive.
The most common subordinators introducing
clauses of time are: when, whenever, while, as,
as soon as, as long as, till, until, since, after,
before, hardly...when, no sooner... than

a. When
Expresses that the action of the main clause and that of the
subordinate clause are either:
Simultaneous: When the cat is away, the mice will play.
Follow each other: Ill ring you up when I come home.
When is sometimes homonymous:

The adversative coordinating conjunction when introducing an

adversative co-ordinate clause denoting an action that is in
opposition (contras) to that of the main clause:
How on earth can you expect to pass your exam when (ko pa)
you sleep until ten every day?
The co-ordinating conjunction when (and then) introducing a
copulative co-ordinate clause:
I turned off the light when (and then) the baby began to cry.
The connective adverb when introducing nominal clauses:
When the murder had been committed (S) has not been
established yet.

A clause of time introduced by the conjunction when may

function as a postmodifier in a nominal phras when the
headword is a noun denoting time: the instant, the moment,
the minute...
There are moments when he feels miserable.
When and that may be deleted, whereby the nouns
themselves assume the function of conjunctions introducing
adverbial clauses of time:
The moment the secretary opened the parcel, the bomb
exploded in her hands.
He was born the year the war started.
Some adverbs of time directly, immediately, instantly may
function as conjunctions when when is dropped: He ran to
the hospital immediately / directly /instantly he heard about
his wifes accident.
Whenever has a generalizing meaning: Whenever we
meet we stop to have a chat.

b. While
Denotes a continuous activity the action is:
Simultaneous: While she was waiting for the train, she read a
Already in progress before the action in the main clause: While I
was mowing the lawn he came up to me.
While and when are often synonymous: While / When she was
resting upstairs, the burglar broke into the basement.
Subordinating conjunction while introducting a clause of time is
homonymous with:
the co-ordinating conjunction while expressing contrast
John is a small sickly child while his sister has grown a tall,
strong girl.
(while is always in the
second clause)
the subordinating conjunction while (though) expressing
While (though) we agree with most of what he says, we
cannot stand his manners.

c. As
As normally introduces a clause in which the action is in
progress refers to past action only and denotes:
Simultaneity: His eyes glittered as he looked at his
new car.
Gradual development: As night came on, the wind
calmed down.
Action of the main clause immediately follows that of the
subordinate clause: Just as he neared the corner, a little
girl jumped directly in front of the car.
1. As soon as
Denotes that the actions in the subordinate and in the main
clause closely follow each other: As soon as we received
your telegram, we prepared the goods for shipment.
Simultaneous with (inversion!): no sooner than: No
sooner was the pickpocket set free than he stole the
purse from an old ladys handbag.

2. As long as
Ill never eat oysters as long as I live.
3. Till, Untill
Denotes the concluding moment of the action expressed in
the main clause; until is usually preferred when the
subordinate clause precedes the main clause:
He stood thunderstruck till the danger was past.
Until she learns to behave we wont invite her to our
4. Since
Denotes a point of time to which the action in the main
clause is subsequent:
He has been living with the sam landlady since he
entered the university.

5. After
Indicates that the action of the subordinate clause precedes
that of the main clause:
She went to England after she graduated
We arrived at the theatre after the play had started.
6. Before
Shows that the action expressed by the main clause
precedes that of the subordinate clause:
He always reads an hour or so before he falls asleep.
Do it before it is too late.

Non-finite Clauses of Time

Gerundial clauses of time are introduced by the
subordinator on and in.
On emphasizes the idea of an immediate succession: On
arriving at the cottage, Tom found it burnt down.
In followed by the gerund, forms a temporal frame for the
action expressed in the main clause: He was mistaken in
thinking she was single.
Participial clauses of time:

-ing participial clauses of time indicate an activity which is

more or less simultaneous Whistling to himself, the
office-boy went out.
Entering the room, he noticed that the windows were
open. (present participle expresses the anterior of two
consecutive actions) On (upon) arriving at the station

Perfect participle denotes the action that took place appreciably

Having travelled around Africa for nearly three years, he
wrote a book about the social conditions in that part of the world
After travelling around Africa for nearly three years, he
wrote a book about the (more common)
Participial clauses of time introduced by when or while if the action
expressed in the non-finite clause is simultaneous with the action
expressed by the finite verb of the main clause;
When going to his office, he met his friend.
While driving home, he had an accident.
Past participial clauses of time

Related participial structures

Arrived at the spot, we lost no time in getting to work.
Absolute participial structures
The letter finished, I took it to the post-office to have it

#2. Adverbial Clauses of Place

Indicate the place of the action and answer the question where; they
are introduced by where, wherever, anywhere.
Adverbial clauses of place introduced by where denote:
the place of the action: I found the bag where I had left it.
the direction of the action: He went where the doctor sent him.
Where introducing an adverbial clause is homonymous with the
subordinator where introducing subject, object, predicate and adjectival
clauses if where can be replaced with there it is surely adverbial:
Stay where you are. Stay there
Where he lives is unknown. - *There he lives is unknown.
Wherever, everywhere are used in generalizing sense:
Wherever he went he was welcome.
Adverbial clauses of place may function as object to a preposition:
I could see him very well from where I stood.

#3. Adverbial Clauses of

Finite Clauses of Cause or Reason
Indicate why an action was done and answer the question why; while the
subordinate clause denotes causer or reason, the main clause expresses
Subordinators: because, as, since, seeing that, that, now that, on the
grounds that, for the reason that, in that
a. Because
Because is the most common conjunction introducing a clause of cause or
The pilot had to descend because he was short of fuel. Because the
student was 20 minutes late, he didnt dare to enter the lecture
Because is the only causal conjunction that can be used:
in answers to questions beginning with why:
Why did they call of the garden party? Because it was raining.
in cleft sentences after the emphatic it is, it was
It is because you got up so late that you missed the bus.

b. As, since
The emphasis is not so much on the reason as on the result expressed in
the main clause: As it was raining, we stayed indoors all day.
Since the girl was very shy too, the young couple sat in silence.
c. Seeing that
Seeing that his wife was not well, he postponed his journey.
d. That the preceding main clause is a rhetorical question
Are you a millionaire that you spend your money so lavishly?
e. Now that
Now that you are well again you will have to make up for lost time.
f. On the grounds that
He resigned from his job on the grounds that he was in poor health.
g. For the simple reason that
We couldnt go to the concert for the simple reason that we hadnt got
h. In that
He is like his father in that he is fond of sailing.

Some other Ways of expressing cause or

1. that-clauses functioning as postmodifier to predicate
adjectives denoting emotion
I am glad (that) you have changed your mind.
2. subordinate clause introduced by as, postmodifying
a predicate adjective or an adverb.
Busy as he was she hardly listened to him.
3. phrasal prepositions function as conjunctions when
followed by the fact that
Owing to the fact that

Non-finite Clauses of Cause and Reason

1. Gerundial clauses:
Owing to his careless driving he has had many accidents.
He was fined for driving too quickly through the village.
2. Participial clauses (in initial, medial or final position):
Knowing that he couldnt go to his daughter, he tried to telephone her.
a. present participle expresses simultaneity:
Knowing French well, he translated the letter without dictionary.
b. perfect participle denotes an action which precedes the action denoted
by the finite verb:
Having missed the bus, I was late for my appointment.
c. ing participial clauses may have the structure of:
i. related: Having plenty of time, we did not hurry.
ii. absolute participle: A storm coming on, the children fled to a
d. past participial clauses may have the structure of:
i. related: Exhausted by the games, John didnt want to go to the
ii. absolute participle: The work finished, we were able to enjoy our

#4. Adverbial Clauses of

Result or Consequence
Finite Clauses of Result or Consequence
Clauses of result denote the result of the action expressed in the
main clause; they answer the question With what result? and are
connected with the main clause by the phrasal conjunction so that
or by that:
He left after seven so that he must have caught the 8.15 train.
She must be blind that she doesnt realize what a drunkart he is.
Some other ways of expressing result:
1. nominal phrases: such a + singular countable noun + that
It was such a dismal performance that I left before it was over.
2. adjectival phrases: so + adjective + that-clause
They were so tired that they couldnt go any further.
3. adverbial phrases: so + adverb + that-clause
He has gone so far that there is no retreat for him.

Non-Finite Clauses of Result or Consequence

are infinitival clauses functioning as postmodifiers in
nominal adjectival or adverbial phrases:
1. nominal phrases
enough + noun + infinitival clause:
We havent got enough money to buy a new house.
too + adjective + an + noun + infinitival clause:
Politics is too serious a business to be played with.
such + noun + as + infinitival clause
such + as + infinitival clause
I hope you are not such a fool as to lend him

2. Adjectival phrases:
adjective + enough + infinitival clause
Im lucky enough to know her.
too + adjective + infinitival clause, used as SC
Yesterday I was too tired to play tennis.
so + adjective + as + infinitival clause
She was so lucky as to escape.
3. Adverbial phrases:
too + adverb + infinitival clause
She ran too slowly to win the first prize.
adverb + enough + infinitival clause
She plays the piano well enough to perform at a

#5. Adverbial Clauses of

Finite Clauses of Purpose
indicate the purpose of the action expressed in the
main clause; they answer the question what for, for
what purpose; introduced by subordinators in order
that, for the purpose that, so that, so as to, for fear
that, lest
I spoke louder in order that everybody might hear
I posted the letter immediately so that you should
get it before your departure.

Non-Finite Clauses of Purpose

Infinitival clauses:
She rang up her mother to ask her to dinner.
Ill be there to help you.
I had to keep shaking my head in order to stay awake.
Ill go there at once in order not to be late.
My parents saved money to go abroad.
My parents saved money for her to go abroad.
Gerundial clauses:
This earoplane is used for transporting goods.
A French delegation arrived in London wit the object of
conducting negotiations.

#6. Adverbial Clauses of

Conditional clauses state the condition that must be satisfied
before the action of the main clause can come true; they are
introduced by subordinators such as: if, if only, so long as,
suppose, supposing, provided, providing, on condition, on the
understanding, unless, in case
If is the most common conditional subordinator; it may also have
the meaning of:
whenever: If I make a promise, I keep it.
as, since, because: If the children havent eaten, they must be

If only is mostly used in exclamations:

If only I were able to pass this exam!!!
So long as often has more conditional than temporal force, nearly
equivalent to if only:

Suppose that, supposing that are used to make a

supposition about future or the past:
Suppose / Supposing that you told her the truth, what
would she do?
Suppose / Supposing that you had told her the truth, what
would she have done?
Unless is used for a negative condition and has the same
meaning as if not
You wont catch the train unless you take a taxi
Unless she studies harder, she wont pass the exam.
In case introduces a possibility against which a precaution
is needed in advance
Youd better take an umbrella with you in case it rains
later on.

Types of Conditional Clauses

1. Conditional clauses of open condition (contain a
condition that may or may not be fulfilled)
If it is fine tomorrow, we shall go out.
If you leave for London, let me know.
If my wife should ring up, tell her that I shall be home
for lunch.
2. Conditional clauses of rejected condition referring to
Present and / or future time represent
a. a condition that is contrary to fact:
If I were a bird, I should fly away.
b. a condition is considered possible but unlikely to be
May would accept him if he asked her to marry him.

3. Conditional clauses of rejected condition referring to

past time
a. main clause represents a situation contrary to
present fact:
If Tom had gone to college, he would be a doctor now.
b. main clause represents a situation contrary to past
If tom had gone to college he would have become a
Omission of the subordinator If and inversion:
If Tom should be at home tomorrow,
Should Tom be at home tomorrow,
If I had known that, I shouldnt have told her.
Had I known that,

#7. Adverbial Clauses of

Finite Clauses of Concession
denote some obstacle which does not prevent the realization of the action
expressed in the main clause; they answer the question In spite of what?;
they are introduced by the following subordinators:
a. Although, though
Although they had done all they could, they failed to complete the
project on time. Although it was cold and rainy, we enjoyed the trip.
b. For all
For all your arguments you wont convince me. I am still very fond of
him for all you say against him.
c. Even if
Even if you offered him a million, you still could not bribe him.
I cannot be angry with him, evern if I try.
d. Whether or
Your father wont raise any objection whether you take ony a part-time
job or you stop working altogether in order to finish your studies.

e. Whereas
Whereas she never openly disagrees with her husband,
she never hesitates to tell him what is on her mind when
they are at home
f. While (only in initial position)
While he has an expert knowledge on his subject, he
cannot explain it clearly to others.
g. Whoever (whatever)
Whoever els lets you down, Ill remain true.
Whatever you may do, he will always grumble.
No matter how much money he esarns, his wife is never

Prepositional phrases expressing concession may function as

conjunctions by the addition of the fact that:
They elected him in spite of the fact that he was a foreigner.
Concession may also be expressed:
by a predicate adjective or noun, or by an adverb in initial
position postmodified by a clause introduced by as or
Dazed as she was, she managed to explain how the
accident happened. Quickly as she walked, he couldnt
catch up with the others
by using the modal verb may in the first of two co-ordinate
clauses joined by an adversative conjunction or conjunct:
He may have a car but he walks to his office every morning
He may be dissatisfied yet he vener loses his temper.
by the structure verb + as (what) + subject + may (will)
Do what I might, I could not convince him.

Non-Finite Clauses of Concession

-ing participial clauses of concession:
Although admitting his mistake, he refuses to
Even if still working, the engine is not reliable.
past participial clauses of concession:
Even though troubled by the financial situation, he
never mentioned his difficulties to his wife.

#8. Adverbial Clauses of Manner

Finite Clauses of Manner
express the manner in which an action is done; they answer the
question how; they are introduced by the subordinators: as, as if, but:
a. As
They keep the house as it was in the poets lifetime.
Things turned out just as I had predicted.
b. As if (as though) expresses a supposed present or past fact ; the
subjunctive were or the modal past tense or the modal past perfect is
He spends his money as if he were rich
She could remember it as if it were yesterday
c. Like
It rained like it would never stop.
d. But occurs in formal style after a negative main clause:
I never pass that house but I think of the happy days we spent in it.

Non-Finite Clauses of Manner

infinitival clauses of manner are introduced by as if
and as though
He sighed deeply as though to emphasize his
gerundial clauses of manner, preceded by prepositions
by, in or without
Mr. Jones raised his money by selling his wifes jewelerry.
He spoke without thinking of the consequences.
participial clauses of manner; emphasizes the
simultaneousness of the action expressed by the
She came into the house, calling her husband.

Clauses of Comparison
are introduced by as and than; it is typical of them that the conjunction
they are introduced by has a correlative element functioning as
premodifier in the adjectival or adverbial phrase in whiche the
comparative clause functions as postmodifier thus comparative
clauses do not function as sentence elements, but on a lower lever, i.e
as phrase elements
a. As
She was as friendly as she had ever been (postmodifier in adj. phrase)
His brothers work as hard as he does (postmodifier in adv. phrase)
b. Than
This metal is heavier than you may imagine.(postmodifier in adj.
This is a heavier metal than you may imagine. (postmodifier in
nominal phrase)
She loves him more that he deserves. (postmodifier in adv. phrase)

Elliptical structures may often occur in clauses of

in connection with be the subject it is omitted:
He drives much faster than is safe.
the predicator only may be omitted:
Our garage is not as big as yours (is).
in some cases the subject and the predicator are omitted:
She is not so reserved as when I first met her. (as she was)
Clauses of comparison are strongly related in meaning
toclauses of proportion introduced by thethe denoting a
correlative increase or decrease:
The less you see those people the better it will be for you.
The more he has the more he wants.