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# DIRECTIONAL DRILLING

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this session, student will be able
to:
Describe the applications of directional drilling
techniques
Define the terms: KOP, BUR, Tangent section of
the well trajectory
Perform calculation for well trajectory operation

CONTENTS
Introduction
Applications
Reference Systems
Profile Planning

INTRODUCTION

## It is easy to drill a vertical well from the rig. But how

to drill at location far away from the rig?

## MEAN SEA LEVEL

SEABED
WELL 3
WELL 1

WELL 2

INTRODUCTION
Directional or deviated drilling is the
science of directing a wellbore along a
predetermined trajectory to intersect
a designated sub-surface target
There are many reasons for drilling a
deviated well: .

APPLICATION
Multiwell Drilling

Sidetracking

Fault Drilling

## Salt Dome Drilling

Inaccessible Location

Relief Drilling

REFERENCE SYSTEM

## The position of the target must be expressed with

respect to a 3D reference system:
The vertical depth below the reference point (i.e. platform)
The horizontal distance traversed from the wellhead in a
Northerly direction
The distance traversed from the wellhead in an Easterly
direction

## REFERENCE SYSTEM (contd)

Depth Reference:
Datum:
Mean Sea Level (MSL)
Rotary Table Elevation
(RTE) or Rotary Kelly
Bushing (RKB)

Depth of a point:
Along Hole Depth (AHD)
True Vertical Depth (TVD)

RTE /RKB
MSL

TVD

AHD

## REFERENCE SYSTEM (contd)

Geographical Reference:
Lateral displacement in
terms of:

## Feet or Meter from WH in

Northerly and Easterly
direction
Degrees of latitude or
longitude

Coordinates

as 0,0

## DEVIATED WELL PROFILE

There are three types of deviated well
profile:
Deep Kick Off

## Build and Hold

S-shaped

WELLPATH PARAMETERS

There are 3
parameters which
must be considered
while planning
Kick-Off Point (KOP)
Build-Up Rate (BUR)
or Drop-Off Rate
(DOR)
Tangent Angle

## KICK-OFF POINT (KOP)

KOP is the AHD at which a change in inclination of the well
is initiated and the well is orientated in a particular direction
(in terms of N, S, E, W)
Generally, it is easier to kick off a well in shallow formations
than in deep formations
Kick off should also be initiated in a stable formation and not
likely to cause drilling problems, i.e. unconsolidated clay

## BUILD-UP RATE / DROP-OFF RATE

BUR and DOR are the rates at which the well deviates from
the vertical - usually in degrees per 100 ft drilled (/100 ft)
The rate is chosen based on the drilling experience in the
location and tools available
Normally, in conventional well, the rate between 1o 3o/100 ft
are used
Since the rate is constant, these section of the well form the
arc of a circle
BUR more than 3o/100 ft is often called dogleg

## TANGENT or DRIFT ANGLE

Tangent (drift) angle is the inclination of the long
straight section of the well after the BU or DO
section of the well in degrees from the vertical
Generally, the tangent angle will be between 10o to 60o.
Why?
Difficult to control the trajectory of the well at angles
below 10o
Difficult to run wireline tools into wells at angles
greater than 60o

## Take a common well trajectory Build and Hold

Profile

Required information:
AHD of the KOP
TVD and horizontal displacement of the target
BUR for the BU section
TVD and horizontal displacement at which the BU stops
and tangent section commences
Direction in which the well is to be drilled after the KOP, in
degrees from North (defined by position of rig and target)

EXAMPLE
The planning procedure for the build and hole
trajectory is best illustrated by considering the
following example
Basic Data:
KOP
TVD of target
Horizontal Disp of Target BUR
-

2,000 ft
10,000 ft
3,000 ft
2 degrees/100 ft

EXAMPLE (contd)
1. Find radius or R of the build up
section:

36000
36000
R

2866.24 ft
2 BUR 2 2
2. Note that angle TEY = BOE.
From this information the distances
BX, XE, BE, EY can be calculated.

EXAMPLE (contd)
3. Calculate the tangent angle,
of the well (angle TEY):

3000 R
tan x
8000
x 0.96
R cos x
sin y
8000
y 20.99

x y 21.95

EXAMPLE (contd)
A

## 4. Calculate AHD at the end of build section, AE = AB + BE

2R
BE
1097.5 ft
360
AE 2000 1097.5 3097.5 ft
5. Calculate TVD at the end of build section, AX = AB
+ BX

BX R sin 1071.39 ft
AX 2000 1071.39 3071.39 ft

EXAMPLE (contd)
A

XE OB OP R R cos
207.77 ft

## 7. Calculate AHD of target,

AT = AE + ET

3000 XE
ET
7470.3 ft
sin
AT 3097.5 7470.3 10567.8 ft

EXERCISE
A well will be drilled with a Type 1(Build & Hold)
profile.
KOP
TVD of target
Horizontal Disp of Target BUR
-

2500 ft
8000 ft
3500 ft
2.5 degrees/100 ft

## Calculate drift angle, TVD and horizontal

displacement at the end of build up section, and
the AHD of the target.

Q&A