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Course Code

Course Title

:
:

EBB 324
Advanced Materials and

Composites
4
Course Unit :
Core
Type of Course :
Name of academics :Dr. Mariatti Jaafar
Dr. Hazizan Md Akil

Dr. Zuhailawati Hussin

(6) Contribution of Assessment: 70% final


examination & 30% course work (15% Test and
15% Quiz/PBL)

Course Objectives/Course
Outcomes (CO)
1. To classify different types of advanced

composite materials
2. To select and justify a suitable advanced
composite materials for specific applications
3. To propose a suitable fabrication
technique of advanced composite materials
for specific applications
4. To apply suitable theory to estimate the
properties of the advanced composite
materials

EBB 324 (Advanced Materials


& Composites)
Topic Contents
Introduction to composite materials
(Definition and classification of composite materials,
natural composites, the benefit of composites)
Introduction to composite materials
(Types of matrix (natural and synthetic), types of
reinforcement (natural and synthetic), factors which
determine properties)

Reinforcement-matrix interface
(Wettability, Interfacial bonding, methods to measure
bond strength)
Polymer matrix composites
(Introduction,
types
of
polymer
matrices
(thermoplastics, thermoset & rubber), processing of
PMC- Hand lay-up, spray-up moulding methods
(match die moulding, bag moulding method, vacuum
bagging, pressure bagging, RTM), pultrusion,
filament winding)
Polymer matrix composites
(Some commercial PMCs- epoxy and polyester matrix
composites, PEEK matrix composites, rubber matrix
composites, etc.)

References
R.F. Gibson, Principles of Composite

Materials Mechanics, McGraw Hill, Inc,


1994.
F.L. Matthews, R.D. Rawlings, Composite
Materials; Engineering & Science, Chapman
& Hall, 1994.
R.P Sheldon, Composite Polymeric
Materials, Applied Science Publisher, 1982
S. C. Sharma, Composite Materials, Narosa
Publishing House, 2000

What is Composites?
Combination of 2 or more materials
Each of the materials must exist
more than 5%
Presence of interphase
The properties shown by the
composite materials are differed
from the initial materials
Can be produced by various
processing techniques

Classifications of
composites
Matrix; PMC, MMC, CMC
Function; electrical & structure
Geometry of reinforcements; fiber

composites & particulate composites

Classification based on
Geometry of reinforcement
Composite
materials

Flak
e

Particulate-

Fibercomposites

Random

Uni-

orientatio
n

directiona
l

Whiske
rs
composites

Twodirectiona
l

Random

Uni

orientatio
n

-directional

Examples of composites

a)
b)
c)
d)

Particulate & random


Discontinuous fibers & unidirectional
Discontinuous fibers & random
Continuous fibers & unidirectional

Classification based on
Matrices
Composite
materials

Matrices

Polymer Matrix
Composites
(PMC)
Thermoset

Thermoplast
ic

Metal Matrix
Composites
MMC)
Rubber

Ceramic Matrix
Composites
(CMC)

Polymer matrix composites


Widely used- ease of processing,

lightweight & desirable mechanical


properties

Metal Matrix Composites


(MMC)
Generate wide interest in research
Not as widely use as PMC
Higher strength, stiffness & fracture

toughness
Can withstand elevated temperature
in corrosive environment than PMC
Most metal and alloy can be used as
matrices

Ceramic Matrix Composites


(CMC)
Able to withstand high temperature

(>1649C) & brittle


Used in aeronautics, military, etc
Carbon and glass are common matrix
used in CMC

Natural Composites
Wood
Consists of cellulose, hemiselulose &
lignin
Cellulose- the strongest component,
65% unidirectional alignment
Lignin behave as adhesive, tighten the
wood components

Natural Composites
Bone
Example; hydroxyapatite reinforced
collagen composites

Pole (Construction
Traditional
Industry)
woodsteelconcretepoly
mer composite (made of
layers of glass fabric + resins)

Advantages of Polymer
Composites
1) won't rust, or corrode
2)require no preservatives
3) light-weight, lighter than
aluminum, wood, steel or
concrete.
4) the lowest possible total
installed cost

Modern vaulting poles


Here is an example of a vaulting pole made
from glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)
composites and carbon fibre reinforced
polymer (CFRP) composites

Benefits of Composites???
Improved properties (thermal,
mechanical, electrical, etc)
Many end-applications

Bahan pembentuk komposit


Matriks
Bahan tetulang/penguat
(Reinforcement)

Antaramuka/antarafasa

Matriks: Fungsi
Mengikat bahan tetulang
Memindah dan mengagihkan beban
kenaan kepada tetulang, ttp
pemindahan beban bergantung
kepada ikatan antaramuka

Matriks
Needs to withstand temperature

variations
Offer weight advantages, ease of
handling

Bahan tetulang: Fungsi


bergantung kepada matriks
matriks logam: utk meningkatkan

kekerasan dan ketahanan rayapan


suhu tinggi
matriks polimer: utk memperbaiki
sifat kekakuan, kekuatan dan
keliatan
matriks seramik: utk memperbaiki
keliatan

Bahan tetulang wujud dalam


bentuk:
Gentian selanjar

Gentian organik- cthnya Kevlar, polietilena


Gentian tak organik- cthnya kaca, alumina,
karbon
Gentian asli- cthnya asbestos, jut, sutera
Gentian pendek
Hablur sesunggut (whiskers)
Partikel
Dawai

Antarafasa: Fungsi
Memindahkan tegasan daripada
matriks kepada bahan tetulang

Sometimes surface treatment is


carried out to achieve the required
bonding to the matrix

Types of matrix (natural and


synthetic)
Natural
Silica sand, limestone (CaCO3), talc, etc
Starch, epoxy based on soy bean,
chitosan, etc

Synthetic
Fumed silica, fused silica, glass, etc
Epoxy, polyester, PP, PE, etc

Types of reinforcement (natural


and synthetic)
Natural
Silica sand, limestone (CaCO3), talc, etc
Natural fibers, wood, etc

Synthetic

Glass fiber, boron fibers, etc


Fumed silica, fused silica, glass, etc

Faktor-faktor yang mengawal


sifat-sifat komposit
Komposisi komponen
-Komposisi setiap komponen (matriks

dan tetulang) mempengaruhi terus


sifat2 akhir komposit.
Xc = Xf Vf + Xm (1 - Vf ) Hukum
Pencampuran/Rule of Mixture
Xc = Sifat komposit
Xf = Sifat gentian
Xm= Sifat matriks

Rongga
ruang udara yang terkumpul atau
terperangkap dalam komposit
dalam komposit, rongga wujud
dalam matriks, antaramuka dan
antara gentian-gentian
kehadiran rongga dalam struktur
komposit menyebabkan
wujudnya titik pemusatan
tegasan- menjejaskan sifat-sifat
akhir komposit

ruang udara yang terkumpul atau

terperangkap dalam komposit


dalam komposit, rongga wujud
dalam matriks, antaramuka dan
antara gentian-gentian
kehadiran rongga dalam struktur
komposit menyebabkan wujudnya
titik pemusatan tegasanmenjejaskan sifat-sifat akhir
komposit

Bentuk, saiz, orientasi dan


taburan gentian
Bentuk gentian (partikel- bulat,

whiskers, bersudut, etc)


Saiz gentian ( pendek, panjang,
selanjar)
Orientasi gentian (satu arah, dua arah,
pelbagai arah)- mempengaruhi sifat
isotropi dan tak isotropi
Taburan gentian (homogenus/uniform,
takhomogenus)

Examples of different
composite geometrical
arrangements

Teknik dan parameter


pemprosesan
mempengaruhi pemilihan bahan

mentah yang sesuai, bentuk akhir


komposit, kandungan rongga dll
mempengaruhi struktur dan
morfologi sesuatu komposit

Antaramuka & Antarafasa


(Interfaces & Interphases)
Figure 1.2

Apabila Antarafasa wujud, terdapat 2


antaramuka yang hadir