Rectifier

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Rectifier

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CHAPTER 2

DIODES

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

2.1.1 The schematics diagram and physical structure of a diode

a. Schematic diagram of a diode is same as P-N combination.

b. A diode have 2 pins electronic component which is called anode and

cathode.

c. Anode is a P type material and Cathode is a N type material.

d. The arrow from the diagram shows the current conventional direction.

DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

2.1.2 The schematics diagram of a diode in BIAS VOLTAGE

The voltage across the diode call biased voltage.

a. Forward bias

If anode get voltage more positive from cathode, or cathode get

voltage more negative from anode.

b. Reverse bias

If anode get voltage more negative than cathode or cathode get

more positive than anode.

(a)

(b)

2.1 Forward bias (a) and Reverse bias (b) circuit diagrams

DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

2.1.3 The I-V Characteristics Curve for Diode

When a diode in forward and reverse bias condition and each of

the bias and current value are measured, then I-V Curve will

appear like in diagram.

a. Forward current (Id)

The current passed through the diode when the diode in forward

bias condition. Id measured in mA.

b. Reverse current (Is)

The small current passed through the diode when the diode is in

reverse bias condition. Is measured in A(starting 0.1A).

c. Knee voltage

Limit voltage when forward current is suddenly increased. Knee

voltage is similar with barrier voltage. (Si = 0.7 V, Ge = 0.3 V)

d. Breakdown Voltage

Limit voltage where reverse current suddenly happen. Huge

current that exceed the limit can cause the malfunction of PN

junction.

e. Burning level

When Id,Vd exceeds Pmax

DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

2.2.1 Block Diagram Of Power Supply

AC

VOLTAGE

TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER

FILTER

REGULATOR

VOLTAGE

DEVIDER

DC

VOLTAGE

Summary :The a.c. voltage, typically 240V is connected to transformer, which steps that ac

voltage down to the level for the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a

full-wave rectified voltage that it initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to

produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc voltage that not only has much less ripple

voltage but also remains the same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies

somewhat or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage

regulation is usually obtained using one of a number of popular voltage regulator IC

units.

DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

b. Full Wave Rectifiers

c. Bridge Rectifiers

a. Half Wave Rectifiers

OPERATION:

During input signal positive cycle

Diode D forward bias. D act as closed switch so current can go

through. Voltage drop at RL is equal to positive cycle input signal

positive magnitude

During input signal negative cycle

D reverse bias and act as open switch so current cannot go

through. Voltage drop at RL during negative cycle is equal to zero

DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

a. Full Wave Rectifiers

OPERATION:

During input signal positive cycle

M terminal will be positive and N negative. Diode D1 and D3 will be forward

bias meanwhile diode D2 dan D4 get reverse bias. Current will be flow along

M, E, A, B, C, F, N. One positive cycle will occur at RL load.

During input signal negative cycle

M terminal will be negative and N will be positive. Diode D2 and D4 will

be forward bias meanwhile diode D1 and D3 become reverse bias. Current

will be flow along N, F, A, B, C, E, M. Due to current

flow is same as

positive cycle input signal, the result is also same as positive cycle.

DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

a. Bridge Rectifiers

OPERATION:

During input signal positive cycle

M terminal will be positive and N negative. Diode D1 and D3 will be forward

bias meanwhile diode D2 dan D4 get reverse bias. Current will be flow along

M, E, A, B, C, F, N. One positive cycle will occur at RL load.

During input signal negative cycle

M terminal will be negative and N will be positive. Diode D2 and D4 will be

forward bias meanwhile diode D1 and D3 become reverse bias. Current will be

flow along N, F, A, B, C, E, M. Due to current flow is same as positive cycle

input signal, the result is also same as

positive cycle.

10

2.2.3 Equations of Average Current, Average Voltage and

Roots Means Square Voltage

11

Roots Means Square Voltage - Cont.

12

EXAMPLE 1

transformer. Calculate:i.What is the output voltage.

ii.Average voltage of the circuit

13

Solution :

i. Output voltage, Vo

Known that, Vo = Vp sec 0.7V

From formula, Vp sec = 2 x Vrms

= 2 x 60

= 84.85 V

Therefore, Vo = Vp sec 0.7V

= 84.85 0.7

= 84.16V

ii. Average voltage, Vavg

Known that, Vavg = Vo

= 84.16

= 26.7 V

14

EXAMPLE 2

Determine:i. Output voltage

ii. Average voltage

iii. Average current

100

2:1

Vp(sec)

Vp(pri)

1k

15

Solution :

i. Output voltage, Vo

Known that, Vo = Vp sec 0.7V

2

From formula, Vp sec = (N sec) (Vp pri)

N pri

= (1) x (100)

2

= 50 V

Therefore, Vo = 50 0.7V

2

= 24.3 V

ii. Average voltage, Vavg

Vavg = 2Vo

Iavg = Vavg

= 15.5

= 2 (24.3)

1K

= 15.5 V

RL

= 15.5mA

16

EXAMPLE 3

In a centre-tap full wave rectifier, load resistance is 2K.

The a.c. supply across the primary winding is 220V.

Taking transformer turn ratio N1/N2 = and

Neglecting diode resistance. Determine:i. Output voltage

ii. Average voltage

iii. Average current

220V

2k

17

Solution :

i. Output voltage, Vo

Known that, Vo = Vp sec 0.7V

2

From formula, Vp sec = (N sec) (Vp pri)

N pri

= (2) x (220)

1

= 440 V

Therefore, Vo = 440 0V

2

= 220 V

ii. Average voltage, Vavg

iii. Average voltage, Vavg

Known that, Vavg = 2Vo

Iavg = Vavg

= 2(220)

RL

= 140 = 70mA

2K

= 140 V

DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

18

EXAMPLE 4:

A full wave rectifier with a 120 Vrms sinusodial input had a load

resistor of 1K. If silicone diodes are employed, determine:120Vrms

ii. Average current

2k

19

Solution :

i. Average voltage, Vavg

Vavg = 2Vo

From formula, Vp sec = 2 x Vrms

= 2 x 120

= 169.7 V

Iavg = Vavg

RL

= 107.15 = 107.15mA

1K

= 169.7 1.4V

=168.3 V

Average voltage, Vavg

Vavg = 2Vo

= 2 x 168.3 = 107.15 V

20

Movement with Half-Wave

Rectification.

the alternating current by use of diode rectifier .

Figure 2.2.5 is the DC voltmeter circuit modified

to measure AC voltage.

The diode, assume to be ideal diode, has no effect

on the operation of the circuit .

For example if the 10 V sine-wave input is fed as

the source of the circuit, the voltage across the

meter movement is just the positive half-cycle of

the sine wave due to the rectifying effect of the

diode.

2.2.5: DC Voltmeter Circuit

Modified to Measure AC

Voltage.

21

Movement with Full-Wave

Rectification.

The full-wave rectifier provide higher sensitivity

rating compare to the half-wave rectifier.

Bridge type rectifier is the most commonly used,

Figure 2.2.6.

Voltmeter Circuit.

22

Contd

Operation;

(a) During the positive half cycle (red arrow), currents flows

through diode D2, through the meter movement from positive to

negative, and through diode D3.

- The polarities in circles on the transformer secondary are for the

positive half cycle.

- Since current flows through the meter movement on both half

cycles, we can expect the deflection of the pointer to be greater than

with the half wave cycle.

- If the deflection remains the same, the instrument using full wave

rectification will have a greater sensitivity.

(b) Vise-versa for the negative half cycle (blue arrow).

23

APPLICATIONS

2.3.1 CLIPPER

First clipper circuit

a. Diode is forward biased during positive half cycle

. This makes the positive potential 0.7V

24

2.3.1 CLIPPER

First clipper circuit Cont.

b. Output swings from 0.7V positive to 50V negative

25

2.3.1 CLIPPER

Second clipper circuit

a. Diode is forward biased during positive half cycle

. This makes the negative potential 0.7V

26

2.3.1 CLIPPER

Second clipper circuit Cont.

b. Output swings from 24V positive to 0.7V negative

27

2.3.1 CLIPPER

Third clipper circuit

a. Since diodes are in series, each branch will drop 0.7V + 0.7V =

1.4V

28

2.3.1 CLIPPER

Third clipper circuit Cont.

b. Output swings from +1.4V positive to -1.4V

negative

29

APPLICATIONS

2.3.1 CLAMPER

First clamper circuit

a. DC potential is pk 0.7V = 14.3V

This becomes the zero reference line for the AC, so it will go

15V above and 15V below this line

30

2.3.1 CLAMPER

First clamper circuit Cont.

b. Output swings from +29.3V positive to -0.7V

negative

31

APPLICATIONS

2.3.1 CLAMPER

Second clamper circuit

a. DC potential is pk 0.7V = 29.3V

This becomes the zero reference line for the AC, so it will go

30V above and 30V below this line

32

2.3.1 CLAMPER

Second clamper circuit Cont.

b. Output swings from +0.7V positive to -59.3V

negative

33

APPLICATIONS

2.3.1 CLAMPER

Third clamper circuit

a. This one charges the capacitor during the positive alternation,

and this will then discharge during the negative alternation.

b. This makes the output at maximum a straight line of 40V (2Vpk)

c. However, since the diode is not perfect we need to use the first

approximation (simplified diode)

This means we need to subtract 0.7V for the one diode that

charges the capacitor (39.3V)

And lest we forget, subtract the potential for the second

diode as well (38.6V)

34

2.3.1 CLAMPER

Third clamper circuit Cont.

b. Output is pulsating wave (ripple) that rises to a maximum

potential of 39.3V and descends to a minimum potential of

38.6V

35

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