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# DEE 2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

CHAPTER 2

DIODES

## 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE & DIODE AS A

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
2.1.1 The schematics diagram and physical structure of a diode
a. Schematic diagram of a diode is same as P-N combination.
b. A diode have 2 pins electronic component which is called anode and
cathode.
c. Anode is a P type material and Cathode is a N type material.
d. The arrow from the diagram shows the current conventional direction.

## 2.1 Schematic diagram, physical and and schematic symbol of a diode

DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

## 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE & DIODE AS A

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
2.1.2 The schematics diagram of a diode in BIAS VOLTAGE
The voltage across the diode call biased voltage.
a. Forward bias
If anode get voltage more positive from cathode, or cathode get
voltage more negative from anode.
b. Reverse bias
If anode get voltage more negative than cathode or cathode get
more positive than anode.
(a)

(b)

2.1 Forward bias (a) and Reverse bias (b) circuit diagrams
DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

## 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE & DIODE AS A

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
2.1.3 The I-V Characteristics Curve for Diode
When a diode in forward and reverse bias condition and each of
the bias and current value are measured, then I-V Curve will
appear like in diagram.

## 2.1.3 The I-V Characteristics Curve for Diode Cont.

a. Forward current (Id)
The current passed through the diode when the diode in forward
bias condition. Id measured in mA.
b. Reverse current (Is)
The small current passed through the diode when the diode is in
reverse bias condition. Is measured in A(starting 0.1A).
c. Knee voltage
Limit voltage when forward current is suddenly increased. Knee
voltage is similar with barrier voltage. (Si = 0.7 V, Ge = 0.3 V)
d. Breakdown Voltage
Limit voltage where reverse current suddenly happen. Huge
current that exceed the limit can cause the malfunction of PN
junction.
e. Burning level
When Id,Vd exceeds Pmax
DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

## 2.2 DIODE IN RECTIFIERS CIRCUITS

2.2.1 Block Diagram Of Power Supply
AC
VOLTAGE

TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER

FILTER

REGULATOR

VOLTAGE
DEVIDER

DC
VOLTAGE

## 2.2 : Block diagram for DC power supply

Summary :The a.c. voltage, typically 240V is connected to transformer, which steps that ac
voltage down to the level for the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a
full-wave rectified voltage that it initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to
produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc voltage that not only has much less ripple
voltage but also remains the same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies
somewhat or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage
regulation is usually obtained using one of a number of popular voltage regulator IC
units.
DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

## a. Half Wave Rectifiers

b. Full Wave Rectifiers
c. Bridge Rectifiers

## 2.2 DIODE IN RECTIFIERS CIRCUITS

a. Half Wave Rectifiers

OPERATION:
During input signal positive cycle
Diode D forward bias. D act as closed switch so current can go
through. Voltage drop at RL is equal to positive cycle input signal
positive magnitude
During input signal negative cycle
D reverse bias and act as open switch so current cannot go
through. Voltage drop at RL during negative cycle is equal to zero
DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

## 2.2 DIODE IN RECTIFIERS CIRCUITS

a. Full Wave Rectifiers

OPERATION:
During input signal positive cycle
M terminal will be positive and N negative. Diode D1 and D3 will be forward
bias meanwhile diode D2 dan D4 get reverse bias. Current will be flow along
M, E, A, B, C, F, N. One positive cycle will occur at RL load.
During input signal negative cycle
M terminal will be negative and N will be positive. Diode D2 and D4 will
be forward bias meanwhile diode D1 and D3 become reverse bias. Current
will be flow along N, F, A, B, C, E, M. Due to current
flow is same as
positive cycle input signal, the result is also same as positive cycle.
DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

## 2.2 DIODE IN RECTIFIERS CIRCUITS

a. Bridge Rectifiers

OPERATION:
During input signal positive cycle
M terminal will be positive and N negative. Diode D1 and D3 will be forward
bias meanwhile diode D2 dan D4 get reverse bias. Current will be flow along
M, E, A, B, C, F, N. One positive cycle will occur at RL load.
During input signal negative cycle
M terminal will be negative and N will be positive. Diode D2 and D4 will be
forward bias meanwhile diode D1 and D3 become reverse bias. Current will be
flow along N, F, A, B, C, E, M. Due to current flow is same as positive cycle
input signal, the result is also same as
positive cycle.
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## 2.2 DIODE IN RECTIFIERS CIRCUITS

2.2.3 Equations of Average Current, Average Voltage and
Roots Means Square Voltage

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## 2.2.3 Equations of Average Current, Average Voltage and

Roots Means Square Voltage - Cont.

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EXAMPLE 1

## A half wave rectifier build in 60 Vrms in the secondary of the

transformer. Calculate:i.What is the output voltage.
ii.Average voltage of the circuit

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Solution :
i. Output voltage, Vo
Known that, Vo = Vp sec 0.7V
From formula, Vp sec = 2 x Vrms
= 2 x 60
= 84.85 V
Therefore, Vo = Vp sec 0.7V
= 84.85 0.7
= 84.16V
ii. Average voltage, Vavg
Known that, Vavg = Vo

= 84.16

= 26.7 V

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EXAMPLE 2
Determine:i. Output voltage
ii. Average voltage
iii. Average current

100

2:1

Vp(sec)

Vp(pri)

## DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

1k

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Solution :
i. Output voltage, Vo
Known that, Vo = Vp sec 0.7V
2
From formula, Vp sec = (N sec) (Vp pri)
N pri
= (1) x (100)
2
= 50 V
Therefore, Vo = 50 0.7V
2
= 24.3 V
ii. Average voltage, Vavg
Vavg = 2Vo

Iavg = Vavg

= 15.5

= 2 (24.3)

1K

= 15.5 V

RL

## DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

= 15.5mA

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EXAMPLE 3
In a centre-tap full wave rectifier, load resistance is 2K.
The a.c. supply across the primary winding is 220V.
Taking transformer turn ratio N1/N2 = and
Neglecting diode resistance. Determine:i. Output voltage
ii. Average voltage
iii. Average current

220V

## DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

2k

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Solution :
i. Output voltage, Vo
Known that, Vo = Vp sec 0.7V
2
From formula, Vp sec = (N sec) (Vp pri)
N pri
= (2) x (220)
1
= 440 V
Therefore, Vo = 440 0V
2
= 220 V
ii. Average voltage, Vavg
iii. Average voltage, Vavg
Known that, Vavg = 2Vo
Iavg = Vavg

= 2(220)

RL
= 140 = 70mA
2K

= 140 V
DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

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EXAMPLE 4:
A full wave rectifier with a 120 Vrms sinusodial input had a load
resistor of 1K. If silicone diodes are employed, determine:120Vrms

## i. Average voltage available at the load.

ii. Average current

## DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

2k

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Solution :
i. Average voltage, Vavg
Vavg = 2Vo

## Known that, Vo = Vp sec 1.4V

From formula, Vp sec = 2 x Vrms
= 2 x 120
= 169.7 V

## ii. Average Current

Iavg = Vavg

RL
= 107.15 = 107.15mA
1K

## So, Vo = Vp sec 1.4V

= 169.7 1.4V
=168.3 V
Average voltage, Vavg
Vavg = 2Vo

= 2 x 168.3 = 107.15 V

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## 2.2.5 DArsonval Meter

Movement with Half-Wave
Rectification.

## the dArsonval meter movement, we must rectify

the alternating current by use of diode rectifier .
Figure 2.2.5 is the DC voltmeter circuit modified
to measure AC voltage.
The diode, assume to be ideal diode, has no effect
on the operation of the circuit .
For example if the 10 V sine-wave input is fed as
the source of the circuit, the voltage across the
meter movement is just the positive half-cycle of
the sine wave due to the rectifying effect of the
diode.
2.2.5: DC Voltmeter Circuit
Modified to Measure AC
Voltage.

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## 2.2.6 DArsonval Meter

Movement with Full-Wave
Rectification.
The full-wave rectifier provide higher sensitivity
rating compare to the half-wave rectifier.
Bridge type rectifier is the most commonly used,
Figure 2.2.6.

## Figure2.2.6 : Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Used in AC

Voltmeter Circuit.
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Contd

Operation;
(a) During the positive half cycle (red arrow), currents flows
through diode D2, through the meter movement from positive to
negative, and through diode D3.
- The polarities in circles on the transformer secondary are for the
positive half cycle.
- Since current flows through the meter movement on both half
cycles, we can expect the deflection of the pointer to be greater than
with the half wave cycle.
- If the deflection remains the same, the instrument using full wave
rectification will have a greater sensitivity.
(b) Vise-versa for the negative half cycle (blue arrow).
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## 2.3 DIODE IN OTHER ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT

APPLICATIONS
2.3.1 CLIPPER
First clipper circuit
a. Diode is forward biased during positive half cycle
. This makes the positive potential 0.7V

## DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

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2.3.1 CLIPPER
First clipper circuit Cont.
b. Output swings from 0.7V positive to 50V negative

## DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

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2.3.1 CLIPPER
Second clipper circuit
a. Diode is forward biased during positive half cycle
. This makes the negative potential 0.7V

## DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

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2.3.1 CLIPPER
Second clipper circuit Cont.
b. Output swings from 24V positive to 0.7V negative

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2.3.1 CLIPPER
Third clipper circuit
a. Since diodes are in series, each branch will drop 0.7V + 0.7V =
1.4V

## DEE2023 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

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2.3.1 CLIPPER
Third clipper circuit Cont.
b. Output swings from +1.4V positive to -1.4V
negative

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## 2.3 DIODE IN OTHER ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT

APPLICATIONS
2.3.1 CLAMPER
First clamper circuit
a. DC potential is pk 0.7V = 14.3V
This becomes the zero reference line for the AC, so it will go
15V above and 15V below this line

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2.3.1 CLAMPER
First clamper circuit Cont.
b. Output swings from +29.3V positive to -0.7V
negative

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## 2.3 DIODE IN OTHER ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT

APPLICATIONS
2.3.1 CLAMPER
Second clamper circuit
a. DC potential is pk 0.7V = 29.3V
This becomes the zero reference line for the AC, so it will go
30V above and 30V below this line

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2.3.1 CLAMPER
Second clamper circuit Cont.
b. Output swings from +0.7V positive to -59.3V
negative

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## 2.3 DIODE IN OTHER ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT

APPLICATIONS
2.3.1 CLAMPER
Third clamper circuit
a. This one charges the capacitor during the positive alternation,
and this will then discharge during the negative alternation.
b. This makes the output at maximum a straight line of 40V (2Vpk)
c. However, since the diode is not perfect we need to use the first
approximation (simplified diode)
This means we need to subtract 0.7V for the one diode that
charges the capacitor (39.3V)
And lest we forget, subtract the potential for the second
diode as well (38.6V)

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2.3.1 CLAMPER
Third clamper circuit Cont.
b. Output is pulsating wave (ripple) that rises to a maximum
potential of 39.3V and descends to a minimum potential of
38.6V

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