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Contoh-contoh Soal

Disusun oleh :

Yelmida A

open to atmosphere is used to measure

pressure in a steam pipe. The level of

mercury in open arm is 97.5 mm greater than

that in the arm connected to the pipe. Some

of steam in the pipe condenses in the

manometer arm connected to the pipe. The

height of this column is 34 mm. The

atmospheric pressure is 760 mm of Hg. Find

the absolute pressure of steam.

Solution.

during a certain process is given by :

If the mass of the gas is 6 kg and its

temperature changes from 25C to 125C

find : a. Heat transferred

b. Mean specific

heat of the gas.

Solution.

Mass of the gas, m = 6 kg. Change in

(a)temperature

Heat transferred,

:

Mean

of theQgas

=(b)

25C

tospecific

125C heat of

the gas, cn:

pressure of 20 bar. The fluid is allowed to expand

reversibly behind a piston according to a law pV 2 = C

until the volume is doubled. The fluid is then cooled

reversibly at constant pressure until the piston regains

its original position ; heat is then supplied reversibly with

the piston firmly locked in position until the pressure

rises to the original value of 20 bar. Calculate the net

work done by the fluid, for an initial volume of 0.05 m 3

Solution.

. Mass of fluid

v2 = 2v1

ML1

contained in a cylinder. The piston is moved

compressing nitrogen until the pressure

becomes 1 MPa and temperature becomes

160C. The work done during the process is 30

kJ. Calculate the heat transferred from the

nitrogen to the surroundings.Cv for N2= 0.75

kJ/kg K.

Solution.

. Mass of nitrogen, m = 0.3 kg

. Temperature before compression = 40C or 313 K

. Temperature after compression = 160C or 433 K

. The work done during the compression process, W =

30 kJ

. According to first law of thermodynamics :

Hence, heat rejected during the

temperature rise of 25C when a certain process

occurs. The heat transferred in the process is 30 kJ. The

specific heat at constant volume for the pure substance

comprising the system is 1.2 kJ/kgC, and the system

contains 2.5 kg of this substance. Determine:

(i)The change in internal energy ;

(ii)The work done

Solution.

Temperature rise, (T2 T1) = 25C

The heat transferred in the process, Q

= 30 kJ

Specific heat at constant volume, Cv =

1.2 kJ/kgC

Mass of the substance, m= 2.5 kg

machine, passes through a complete cycle of four

processes. The sum of all heat transferred during a

cycle is 340 kJ. The system completes 200 cycles per

min. Complete the following table showing the method

for each item, and compute the net rate of work output

in kW.

Solution.

. Sum of all heat transferred during the cycle = 340 kJ.

. Number of cycles completed by the system = 200

cycles/min.

property is zero.

Since

MPa, 520C, is cooled until its temperature reaches

400C. Using the compressibility chart, determine

a)the specific volume of the water vapor in m 3/kg at the

initial state.

b)the pressure in MPa at the final state.

SOLUTION

. Known: Water vapor is cooled at constant volume from 20 MPa,

520C to 400C.

. Find : Use the compressibility chart to determine the specific

volume and final pressure and compare the results.

(a) From Table Critical Constants :

Z obtained from Compressibility chart

approximately : 0.83

Since Z = pv/RT, the specific volume at state 1

can be determined as follows:

the water vapor cools at constant specific

volume, and thus at constant vR. Using the

value for specific volume determined in part (a),

the constant vR value is :

At state 2 :

Locating the point on the compressibility

chart where :

the corresponding value for pR is

about : 0.69.

8. Air undergoes a polytropic compression in a piston

cylinder assembly from p1=1 atm, T1= 70oF to p2=5

atm. Employing the ideal gas model with constant

specific heat ratio k, determine the work and heat

transfer per unit mass, in Btu/lb, if (a) n = 1.3, (b) n =

k. Evaluate k at T1

SOLUTION

Known: Air undergoes a polytropic compression

process from a given initial state to a specified

final pressure.

Find: Determine the work and heat transfer,

each in Btu/lb.

Schematic and Given Data:

Analysis : The work can be evaluated in this case from the expression

or

(....... a )

energy balance. Thus

constant, cv is constant. Thus

(....... b)

T2, can be evaluated from :

found using :

(....... C )

polytropic process of an ideal gas for which n =

k..

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