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TERMODINAMIKA TEKNIK KIMIA I

Contoh-contoh Soal

Disusun oleh :
Yelmida A

1. A U-tube mercury manometer with one arm


open to atmosphere is used to measure
pressure in a steam pipe. The level of
mercury in open arm is 97.5 mm greater than
that in the arm connected to the pipe. Some
of steam in the pipe condenses in the
manometer arm connected to the pipe. The
height of this column is 34 mm. The
atmospheric pressure is 760 mm of Hg. Find
the absolute pressure of steam.
Solution.

2. The specific heat capacity of the system


during a certain process is given by :
If the mass of the gas is 6 kg and its
temperature changes from 25C to 125C
find : a. Heat transferred
b. Mean specific
heat of the gas.
Solution.
Mass of the gas, m = 6 kg. Change in
(a)temperature
Heat transferred,
:
Mean
of theQgas
=(b)
25C
tospecific
125C heat of
the gas, cn:

3. A cylinder contains 1 kg of a certain fluid at an initial


pressure of 20 bar. The fluid is allowed to expand
reversibly behind a piston according to a law pV 2 = C
until the volume is doubled. The fluid is then cooled
reversibly at constant pressure until the piston regains
its original position ; heat is then supplied reversibly with
the piston firmly locked in position until the pressure
rises to the original value of 20 bar. Calculate the net
work done by the fluid, for an initial volume of 0.05 m 3
Solution.
. Mass of fluid

Considering of the process 1-2,

v2 = 2v1

Work done by the fluid from 1 to 2 = Area 12


ML1

4. 0.3 kg of nitrogen gas at 100 kPa and 40C is


contained in a cylinder. The piston is moved
compressing nitrogen until the pressure
becomes 1 MPa and temperature becomes
160C. The work done during the process is 30
kJ. Calculate the heat transferred from the
nitrogen to the surroundings.Cv for N2= 0.75
kJ/kg K.
Solution.
. Mass of nitrogen, m = 0.3 kg
. Temperature before compression = 40C or 313 K
. Temperature after compression = 160C or 433 K
. The work done during the compression process, W =
30 kJ
. According to first law of thermodynamics :
Hence, heat rejected during the

5. A closed system of constant volume experiences a


temperature rise of 25C when a certain process
occurs. The heat transferred in the process is 30 kJ. The
specific heat at constant volume for the pure substance
comprising the system is 1.2 kJ/kgC, and the system
contains 2.5 kg of this substance. Determine:
(i)The change in internal energy ;
(ii)The work done

Solution.
Temperature rise, (T2 T1) = 25C
The heat transferred in the process, Q
= 30 kJ
Specific heat at constant volume, Cv =
1.2 kJ/kgC
Mass of the substance, m= 2.5 kg

6. A fluid system, contained in a piston and cylinder


machine, passes through a complete cycle of four
processes. The sum of all heat transferred during a
cycle is 340 kJ. The system completes 200 cycles per
min. Complete the following table showing the method
for each item, and compute the net rate of work output
in kW.

Solution.
. Sum of all heat transferred during the cycle = 340 kJ.
. Number of cycles completed by the system = 200
cycles/min.

he system completes 200 cycles/min

Now, dE = 0, since cyclic integral of any


property is zero.

e completed table is given below :

Since

7. A closed, rigid tank filled with water vapor, initially at 20


MPa, 520C, is cooled until its temperature reaches
400C. Using the compressibility chart, determine
a)the specific volume of the water vapor in m 3/kg at the
initial state.
b)the pressure in MPa at the final state.
SOLUTION
. Known: Water vapor is cooled at constant volume from 20 MPa,
520C to 400C.
. Find : Use the compressibility chart to determine the specific
volume and final pressure and compare the results.
(a) From Table Critical Constants :

With these values for the tr and pr , the value of


Z obtained from Compressibility chart
approximately : 0.83
Since Z = pv/RT, the specific volume at state 1
can be determined as follows:

b) Since both mass and volume remain constant,


the water vapor cools at constant specific
volume, and thus at constant vR. Using the
value for specific volume determined in part (a),
the constant vR value is :

At state 2 :
Locating the point on the compressibility
chart where :
the corresponding value for pR is
about : 0.69.

Analyzing Polytropic Processes of Air as an Ideal Gas


8. Air undergoes a polytropic compression in a piston
cylinder assembly from p1=1 atm, T1= 70oF to p2=5
atm. Employing the ideal gas model with constant
specific heat ratio k, determine the work and heat
transfer per unit mass, in Btu/lb, if (a) n = 1.3, (b) n =
k. Evaluate k at T1

SOLUTION
Known: Air undergoes a polytropic compression
process from a given initial state to a specified
final pressure.
Find: Determine the work and heat transfer,
each in Btu/lb.
Schematic and Given Data:

Analysis : The work can be evaluated in this case from the expression

or

(....... a )

The heat transfer can be evaluated from an


energy balance. Thus

when the specific heat ratio k is


constant, cv is constant. Thus

(....... b)

(a) For n = 1.3, the temperature at the final state,


T2, can be evaluated from :

Using (a), the work is then

70 oF, k= 1.401 and cv = 0.171 BTU/lb.oR . Alternatively, cv c


found using :

(....... C )

Substituting values into Eq.(b),

That is, no heat transfer occurs in the


polytropic process of an ideal gas for which n =
k..