Liquid Hydrogen Release

Assistant Researcher : Hamed Aghajani

Supervisors: Prof. Jennifer Wen Dr. Baopeng Xu

Literature Review-Experimental/Numerical
A.D. Little Inc., Lockheed California Co & the US Federal Bureau of Mines [1960] NASA, Witcofski and Chirivella [1984]/ CHAMPAGNE code Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project [1994] / CFD pre-test calculations were performed using the Batelle code BASSIM & Post-test CFD dispersion calculations were performed using the FLUENT and the ADREA-HF Verfondern and Dienhart [1997]/ computer model LAUV on the basis of the shallow-layer equations INSTITUT NATIONAL DE L¶ENVIRONNEMENT INDUSTRIEL ET DES RISQUES [2001]/ Cryogenic Helium Spill Experiments WE-NET project [2002]

Literature Review-Experimental
Nakamichi et al. [1]

Images of the spray issuing from 2mm nozzle with driving pressure of 0.2 MPa. Imagesof (a) subcooled condition (b) saturated conditions View of the Liquid Hydrogen spray from the observation window

Images of the spray acquired by CCD camera Image of (a) injected spray (b) middle stream (c) end of the evaporation process
1 K. Nakamichi, Y. Kihara, T. Okamura, Observation of liquid hydrogen jet on flashing and evaporation characteristics , Cryogenics, vol. 48, pp.26 30, 2008.

Flashing: The Phenomenon of Interest
Liquid¶s sudden pressure drop below its saturation pressure All the heat cannot be contained in the liquid as sensible heat Heat surplus is transformed into latent heat of vaporization. The most energizing molecules of liquid are extracted and reach a vapor state leading to the instantaneous cooling of the remaining liquid reaches a state of thermodynamic equilibrium This is at the origin of the formation of vapor bubbles inside the liquid bulk

Open-source code available at Object-oriented code written in C++ Continuously under development Includes polyhedral mesh support, making it possible to create meshes using any form of cells, as long as the quality of the resulting mesh is high Models are implemented to be run-time-selectable, which makes it easy for the user to switch between turbulence models, numerical schemes etc. The complete parallelization of the code. All solvers written in OpenFOAM can easily be run in parallel, since the code is parallelized at such a fundamental level, removing the need (in most cases) for the user to consider multiple processor simulations.

OpenFOAM: Multi-phase Solvers

Developments (continued)
Numerical simulation of liquid hydrogen jet break-up in air and its evaporation composes of three fluids (liquid hydrogen, gaseous hydrogen and Air) involves at least five coupled tasks: (1) resolving the flow field (Navier±Stokes equations + effect of the sub-grid scale atomizing flow field by LES ) (2) updating the position of the interface (using the VOF method, in which the liquid phase is allowed to evaporate and the gas phase can be compressed due to pressure shocks) (3) resolving the cryogenic thermal field (solving the energy equation taking into account the effect of the combined gas and liquid- phases of the thermal field) (4) calculating the flash fraction (5) separation of evaporated hydrogen from Air.

Developments (continued)
‡ ‡ ‡ The most important feature of flashing liquids seems to be non-equilibrium vapor generating process as the pressure drops. The non-equilibrium vaporization process is controlled by internal bubble nucleation, growth/collapse, and motion Models with different degrees of fidelity Frozen flow model Homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) velocity slip models Homogeneous relaxation model (HRM)
Upstream pressures below 10 bar

Upstream pressures above 10 bar

1 Z. Bilick and J. Kestin, Physical aspects of the relaxation model in two-phase flow , Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 428, 379-397, 1990. 2 P. Downar-Zapolski, Z. Blicki, L.Bolle and J. Franco The non equilibrium relaxation model for one-dimensional flashing liquid flow , Int. J. Multiphase Flow Vol.22, No.3, pp.473-483, 1996.

The equilibrium quality is a function of the enthalpy and the saturation enthalpies at the local pressure The quality, the mass fraction of vapor, is calculated from each cell¶s void fraction, for densities falling inside the saturation dome 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Subtraction of 3 from 6; assuming near isenthalpic phase change


Turbulent and subsonic flow and in atomization regime; Surface tension and Viscous forces are likely to important
t=0.0001 t=0.0002


Domain size: 102mm v10mm Number of hexahedral: 102200 Grid size: 50-100 Micron Equations solved:









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