6. Motion Compensation | Piston | Mechanical Engineering

1

TAMU - Pemex
Offshore Drilling
Lesson 6
Motion Compensation
2
Motion Compensation

Reentry

Tensioners

Heave Compensators

Passive Motion Compensation

Active and Semiactive Systems
3
Re-entry
It is possible to re-enter a borehole
without using guidelines!
1. Use land-based navigation
equipment to get the vessel in
the vicinity of the well
or better still: Use GPS
(Global Positioning System)
4
Re-entry, cont’d
2. Lower reentry string to a safe
distance above the wellhead
3. Use position location equipment
to complete the job:
(i) Television camera
(ii) Acoustic device - pinger or transponder
(iii) ROV - Remote Operated Vehicle
5
Heave Compensation

How do you maintain a constant tension
on the marine riser - when the vessel
heaves?

How do you maintain a constant weight
on the bit - when the vessel heaves?
6
Deadweight Riser Tensioning System
Dead Weight
(~constant
tension)
Dead Weight
Slip Joint
Marine Riser
Early design - OK up to 100,000 lbf. Attached to lower half of telescoping joint. Adds weight & is bulky...
7
Pneumatic Riser
Tensioning System
8
Pneumatic/Hydraulic Heave
Compensation System
Pneumatic/Hydraulic Tensioners:

Take up much less room than
dead weights

Facilitate changing the tension by
changing the air pressure

Can be used for the marine riser,
the guidelines and the drill string
9
Pneumatic/Hydraulic Heave
Compensation System
Passive Systems are
the most popular

Require essentially no energy input

Use an “air spring” with a variable
spring constant

Can keep the tension within ~ 15%
or even less.
10
Pneumatic/Hydraulic Heave
Compensation System
Active Systems

Require external energy through
each load cycle

Provide a highly consistent force

But -- Have a high initial cost

Have a high operating cost
11
Air reservoir
reduces
pressure
changes
F = PA
To support
larger load,
increase the
pressure
An AIR spring ...
Passive
System
12
13
Consider Change from P
1

and V
1
to P
2
and V
2

P
1
and P
2
are absolute pressures
n = 1 for isothermal expansion or contraction
n = 1.41 for adiabatic expansion or contraction
1
2
1
2
P
P
F
F
n
V
V
P
P
and

,
`

.
|
·
2
1
1
2
14
Change in Volume

P
1
and P
2
are absolute pressures

Isothermal Volume Change: PV = const.
(slow; constant temperature)
Adiabatic Volume Change: PV
1.41
= const.
(fast; no heat flow)
15
V
V ∆
Relative
Change in
volume
37 1
8 0
41 1
1
1
41 1
2
1
1
2
.
V .
V
V
V
P
P
.
.
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

R
a
t
i
o
,


P
2

/

P
1
ADIABATIC
1.4
1.0
0.7
-0.1 +0.2
ISOTHERMAL
25 .
8 .
1
V 0
V

V
V
P
P

1
1
2
1
1
2
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
16
Theoretical reservoir
size vs. pressure
fluctuation.
Allowable Pressure Fluctuation, %
V
o
l
.

o
f

R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

/

V
o
l
.

o
f

C
y
l
i
n
d
e
r

15
30 0
15
30
Fig. 4-7
17
Example
Consider a 14-inch piston with a 10-foot
stroke. We shall hook two units (cylinders)
to the reservoir. Determine reservoir size
for 15% force variation.
Reservoir Volume = R m A L
4) - 7 Figure (from 5 R

cylinder of volume
reservoir of volume
l Theoretica
·

,
`

.
|
· R
= 5
18
Example cont’d
Reservoir Volume = R m A L
= 5 * 2 * 10 * 1.07 = 107 ft
3
m = 2 = number of cylinders
L = 10 ft = piston stroke
A = π /4 (14/12)
2
= 1.07 ft
2
= piston area
V
RES
= R m A L
19
Equation (on p. 170)
Theoretical force variations as a function of
piston position and heave can be
determined by a modification of the
previous pressure - volume equation:
2
L
L
2
L
- and
100 1
L A m V
V
100 1
F
F
E
n
1
2
≤ ∆ ≤
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
∆ −
·

,
`

.
|
− ·
20
Where:
E = theoretical percentage error in force
applied to the load
= force applied to the load relative to
the force with the piston centered
A = piston area, ft.
2

L = full piston stroke, ft.
V = reservoir volume +
∆ L = length of the stroke from the
center of the piston, ft.
3
2
ft ,
mAL
1
2
F
F
100 1

100 1
1
2
]
]
]
]


,
`

.
|
∆ −
·

,
`

.
|
− ·
n
L A m V
V
F
F
E
2
L
L
2
L
- ≤ ∆ ≤
21
Heave Down
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

C
h
a
n
g
e

i
n

L
o
a
d
0
15
-15
-20
20
15
-15
0
0
10
Heave Up, ft
Reservoir Volume
= 5 * vol. swept by piston
Adiabatic
22
Lower sheaves are attached to the cylinder (and vessel), upper sheaves are attached to the piston rod
20 ft
5 ft
1,500 psig WP
Typical
Tensioner
23
Motion
Compensator
Principles of
Operation
Purpose:
Keep bit on
bottom
with low bit
weight change
Air pressure can support entire weight of drillstring. e.g. 200,000 - 40,000 = 160,000lbf. Reduce air press.
24
Rucker Heave
Compensator
Dual Pistons
- on the
travelling
block
Large air
cylinders
below deck
Flexible hoses
25
Figure 7-9
Vetco dual
piston Heave
Compensator
L.P. hydraulic
fluid throttled
for damping
Piston
balancing
may be
problem
26
Figure
7-10
Split travelling block
Hydraulically
operated pistons can
be locked in any
position with
remotely operated
valves.
Air operated units must be mechanically locked in position because of compressible fluid in cylinders.
Single
Piston Rod
Western Gear
Heave
Compensator
27
Figure 7-13. Active Heave Compensator
28
Semiactive Heave Compensator
29
Bumper Subs

Fit into the drill collar string, but do
not have the ruggedness of drill
collars. To obtain a reasonable
operating life from bumper subs,
action has to be taken on the
following points of concern:

1. Always run the bumper subs at the
“neutral point” in the string.
30
Bumper Subs, cont’d

2. Bumper subs are designed to
stroke, and if operated at a single
position, they will wear at that
position.

3. Running the subs in tension
minimizes the area through which
the torque will be transmitted, and
will cause excessive wear and fatigue.
31
Bumper Subs

4. Running the joint in compression
increases torque reversals and fatigue
in the tool. It also increases “bit
chatter” and instantaneous peak
torque, causing unnecessary wear to
the tool and the string. This is the fault
of the operation, not the sub.
32
Bumper Subs

5. From items 3 and 4 above, it is
evident that once the string has
been run, the weight on the bit is
fixed. This weight should not be
changed until the string has been
pulled and the number of drill collars
below the bumper sub changed.
33
Bumper Subs

6.Do not separate the bumper subs in a
drillstring for heavy drilling operations.

7.Special care and maintenance are
required to obtain a reasonable
operating life.
*Remember: bumper subs fit into the same
part of the drillstring where drill collars and
stabilizers have been destroyed. This is a
severe test of workmanship & maintenance.
34
Unbalanced
Bumper
Subs
35
Buoyant Riser Module
36
Cantilever
Jackup
Rig
Float out to
location
Then lower
legs to
seafloor
Then jack up
37
Jackup Rig

Side View
38
Jackup
Rig
Deck
Plan
39
End of
Lesson 6

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