TAMU - Pemex

Well Control
Lesson 9 Fracture Gradients

Contents 
Allowable Wellbore Pressures  Rock Mechanics Principles 
Hooke¶s Law, Young¶s Mudulus, Poisson¶s Ratio  Volumetric Strain, Bulk Modulus, Compressibility  Triaxial Tests
2

Contents ± cont¶d 
Rock Mechanics Principles (con¶t.) 
Rock Properties from Sound Speed in Rocks¶  Mohr¶s Circle  Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria
3

Fracture Gradients 
Read: 
³Fracture gradient prediction for the new generation,´ by Ben Eaton and Travis Eaton. World Oil, October, 1997. ³Estimating Shallow Below Mudline Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Fracture Gradients,´ by Barker and Wood.
4

Lower Bound Wellbore Pressure 
Lower bound of allowable wellbore pressure is controlled by: 
Formation pore pressure  Wellbore collapse considerations 

This sets the minimum ³safe´ mud weight.
5

Upper Bound Wellbore Pressure 
Upper bound allowable wellbore pressure may be controlled by: 
The pressure integrity of the exposed formations (fracture pressure)  The pressure rating of the casing  The pressure rating of the BOP 

Chapter 3 deals with fracture gradient prediction and measurement
6

Fracture Gradients 
May be predicted from: 
Pore pressure (vs. depth)  Effective stress  Overburden stress  Formation strength
7

Rock Mechanics 
How a rock reacts to an imposed stress, is important in determining 
Formation drillability  Perforating gun performance  Control of sand production  Effect of compaction on reservoir performance  Creating a fracture by applying a pressure to a wellbore!!!
8

Elastic Properties of Rock

9

Elastic Properties of Rock

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Elastic Properties of Rock 
The vertical stress at any point can be calculated by:
Fa 4Fa Wa ! ! 2 A Td 1 

The axial and transverse strains are:
L1  L 2 Ia ! L1 d1  d2 I tr ! d1
11

Elastic Properties of Rock 

Hooke¶s Law: W = EI 

Young¶s Modulus: E = W/e = (F/A)/((L/L) E = (F*L)/(A*(L)

12

Hooke¶s Law
Elastic imit

ailure

Permanent strain or plastic deformation

13

Typical Elastic Properties of Rock

14

Poisson¶s Ratio 
Poisson¶s Ratio = transverse strain/axial strain  Q = -(Ix/Iz)  Over the elastic range, for ³most metals´, Q ~ 0.3  Over the plastic range, Q increases, and may reach the limiting value of 0.5
15

Volumetric Strain

Vf  Vi IV ! Vi
16

Bulk Modulus and Compressibility values in rock

17

Shear Modulus (G) 
G is the ratio of shear stress to shear strain  G is intrinsically related to Young¶s modulus and Poisson¶s ratio  G = XK = E/[2*(1+Q)]
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Bulk Modulus (Kb) 
Kb is the ratio between the average normal stress and the volumetric strain  Kb can be expressed in terms of Young¶s modulus and Poisson¶s ratio.  Kb = average normal stress/ volumetric strain Kb = E/[3*(1-2Q) = [(Wx+ Wy+Wz)/3]/Iv
19

Bulk Compressibility (cb) 
cb is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus  cb = 1/Kb = 3*(1-2Q)/E = Iv / [(Wx+ Wy+Wz)/3]

20

Metals and Rocks 
Metallic alloys usually have welldefined and well-behaved predictable elastic constants.

21

Metals and Rocks 
In contrast, rock is part of the disordered domain of nature. It¶s response to stress depends on (e.g.): 
Loading history  Lithological constituents  Cementing materials  Porosity  Inherent defects
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Metals and Rocks 
Even so, similar stress-strain behavior is observed.  Triaxial tests include confining stress

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Rock Behavior Under Stress

Beyond B, plastic behavior may occur. From A-B, linear elastic behavior is observed From 0-A, microcracks and other defects are closed

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Young¶s Modulus for a Sandstone
Et = instantaneous slope at any specific stress (tangent method)

Es = secant modulus = (Total Stress/Total Strain) at any point Ei = Initial Modulus = initial slope of curve
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Transverse Strains for SS in Fig. 3.5

Young¶s Modulus & Poisson¶s Ratio are stress dependent.

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Example 3.1 
Using Fig. 3.5, determine Young¶s Modulus and Poisson¶s ratio at an axial stress of 10,000 psi and a confining stress of 1,450 psi. From Fig 3.5, the given stress conditions are within the elastic range of the material (e.g. linear stress-strain behavior)
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Et = dW/dI = (15,000-5,000) /(0.00538-0.00266) Et = 3.7*106 psi

Solution

Q = -Ix/Iz = -(-0.00044/0.00404) = 0.109

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Rock Properties 
Rocks tend to be more ductile with increasing confining stress and increasing temperature Sandstones often remain elastic until they fail in brittle fashion. Shales and rock salt are fairly ductile and will exhibit substantial deformation before failure
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Rock Properties 
Poisson¶s ratio for some plastic formations may attain a value approaching the limit of 0.5 Rocks tend to be anisotropic, so stressstrain behavior depends on direction of the applied load.

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1. An alternate form of Eq. 3.6 gives the dynamic Poisson¶s ratio:

2. Use Eq. 3.7 to determine the dynamic Young¶s Modulus:
2

E ! 0.0268 V b v s (1  Q )
E ! 0.0268 * 2.38 * 7,407 2 * (1  0.240)

E ! 4. 4 * 10 6 psi

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Fracturing is a static or quasistatic process so elastic properties based on sonic measurements may not be valid.

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We can orient a cubic element under any stress state such that the shear stresses along the six orthogonal planes vanish. The resultant normal stresses are the three ³principal stresses´

W2 normal to the page is the intermediate principal stress and is considered to be inconsequential to the failure analysis

W3 = minimum principal stress

Along an arbitrary plane E, a shear stress will exist.
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X max

X max Xa

W1  W 3 ! 2

W1  W3 Xa ! sin 2E 2

2E
W3 Wa W1

Wa !

W  W3 W  W 3  cos 2E 2 2

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f

! c  W f tan [

c = cohesion
[ = angle of internal friction

35

36

!

37

 

W W 2
¡

¤£¢

¥

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Note that the failure plane approaches 45o with increasing confining stress
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Hydraulic Fracturing 
Hydraulic fracturing while drilling results in one form of lost circulation (loss of whole mud into the formation). Lost circulation can also occur into: 
vugs or solution channels  natural fractures  coarse-grained porosity
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For a fracture to form and propagate: 
The wellbore pressure 
must be high enough to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. must be high enough to overcome stress concentration at the hole wall must exceed the minimum in situ rock stress before the fracture can propagate to any substantial extent.
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In Situ Rock Stresses
The simplest model assumes the subsurface stress field is governed solely by the rock¶s linear elastic response to the overburden load. When loaded, the block would strain in the x and y transverse directions according to Hooke¶s Law.

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In Situ Rock Stresses
Wy Wx Wz Ix ! Q Q E E E a d Wy Wx Wz Iy ! Q Q E E E
If the aterial is isotropic,

Ix !

W x  Q y  W z W E

Ix ! Iy ! IH
where the subscript H si nifies horizontal
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In Situ Rock Stresses
Thus

WH WH Wz IH ! Q Q E E E

Constraining the block on all sides prevents lateral strain. Setting IH = 0,

WH Wz 1 Q ! Q E E

Eliminating E and rearranging yields the fundamental relationship

¨ Q ¸ WH ! © ©  Q ¹ Wz ¹ ª º

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In Situ Rock Stresses 
The above stressed block is analgous to a buried rock element if the material assumptions remain valid. Using the book¶s nomenclature for overburden stress and substituting Terzaghi¶s effective stress equation leads to:
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In Situ Rock Stresses
¨ Q ¸ !© ¹ © 1 Q ¹ º ª From Terzaghi ,
z e

! 

s pp

¨ Q ¸ W H  pp ! © © 1  Q ¹ W o  pp ¹ ª º

(with s = 1)

¨ Q ¸ WH ! © © 1  Q ¹ W o  pp  pp ¹ ª º

The poroel sti city const nt m y be pplied to the pore pressure term if desired.
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Fig. 3.13
Rock properties assumed constant with depth

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Fig. 3.14
Wob is the max. principal stress

Failure (fracture) occurs perpendicular to the least principal stress
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Fig. 3.15
WH > Wob can be created by ‡ Tectonic forces ‡ Post-depositional erosion ‡ Glacial action or melting of glacier Fracture Pressure

WH might be locked in while Wob reduces
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Fig. 3.16
Effect of tectonic movements on stresses

Lower Wob

Is figure drawn correctly? Or should rock sample come from right side fault?
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Fig. 3.17

Effect of topography on Wob

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Overburden stress is not significantly changed by abnormal pressure Under abnormal pore pressure, the difference between pore pressure and the least horizontal stress (fracture pressure) get very small.

Small Tolerance
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Subnormal pressures have little effect on overburden stress « « But, result in a decrease in fracture pressure

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Stress concentrations around a borehole in a uniform stress field

Tension

Additional compression

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