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Well Control

Lesson 9 Fracture Gradients

Contents

Allowable Wellbore Pressures Rock Mechanics Principles

Hooke¶s Law, Young¶s Mudulus, Poisson¶s Ratio Volumetric Strain, Bulk Modulus, Compressibility Triaxial Tests

2

Contents ± cont¶d

Rock Mechanics Principles (con¶t.)

Rock Properties from Sound Speed in Rocks¶ Mohr¶s Circle Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria

3

Fracture Gradients

Read:

³Fracture gradient prediction for the new generation,´ by Ben Eaton and Travis Eaton. World Oil, October, 1997. ³Estimating Shallow Below Mudline Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Fracture Gradients,´ by Barker and Wood.

4

**Lower Bound Wellbore Pressure
**

Lower bound of allowable wellbore pressure is controlled by:

Formation pore pressure Wellbore collapse considerations

**This sets the minimum ³safe´ mud weight.
**

5

**Upper Bound Wellbore Pressure
**

Upper bound allowable wellbore pressure may be controlled by:

The pressure integrity of the exposed formations (fracture pressure) The pressure rating of the casing The pressure rating of the BOP

**Chapter 3 deals with fracture gradient prediction and measurement
**

6

Fracture Gradients

May be predicted from:

Pore pressure (vs. depth) Effective stress Overburden stress Formation strength

7

Rock Mechanics

How a rock reacts to an imposed stress, is important in determining

Formation drillability Perforating gun performance Control of sand production Effect of compaction on reservoir performance Creating a fracture by applying a pressure to a wellbore!!!

8

Elastic Properties of Rock

9

Elastic Properties of Rock

10

**Elastic Properties of Rock
**

The vertical stress at any point can be calculated by:

Fa 4Fa Wa ! ! 2 A Td 1

**The axial and transverse strains are:
**

L1 L 2 Ia ! L1 d1 d2 I tr ! d1

11

Elastic Properties of Rock

Hooke¶s Law: W = EI

Young¶s Modulus: E = W/e = (F/A)/((L/L) E = (F*L)/(A*(L)

12

Hooke¶s Law

Elastic imit

ailure

Permanent strain or plastic deformation

13

Typical Elastic Properties of Rock

14

Poisson¶s Ratio

Poisson¶s Ratio = transverse strain/axial strain Q = -(Ix/Iz) Over the elastic range, for ³most metals´, Q ~ 0.3 Over the plastic range, Q increases, and may reach the limiting value of 0.5

15

Volumetric Strain

Vf Vi IV ! Vi

16

Bulk Modulus and Compressibility values in rock

17

Shear Modulus (G)

G is the ratio of shear stress to shear strain G is intrinsically related to Young¶s modulus and Poisson¶s ratio G = XK = E/[2*(1+Q)]

18

Bulk Modulus (Kb)

Kb is the ratio between the average normal stress and the volumetric strain Kb can be expressed in terms of Young¶s modulus and Poisson¶s ratio. Kb = average normal stress/ volumetric strain Kb = E/[3*(1-2Q) = [(Wx+ Wy+Wz)/3]/Iv

19

Bulk Compressibility (cb)

cb is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus cb = 1/Kb = 3*(1-2Q)/E = Iv / [(Wx+ Wy+Wz)/3]

20

**Metals and Rocks
**

Metallic alloys usually have welldefined and well-behaved predictable elastic constants.

21

**Metals and Rocks
**

In contrast, rock is part of the disordered domain of nature. It¶s response to stress depends on (e.g.):

Loading history Lithological constituents Cementing materials Porosity Inherent defects

22

**Metals and Rocks
**

Even so, similar stress-strain behavior is observed. Triaxial tests include confining stress

23

Rock Behavior Under Stress

Beyond B, plastic behavior may occur. From A-B, linear elastic behavior is observed From 0-A, microcracks and other defects are closed

24

**Young¶s Modulus for a Sandstone
**

Et = instantaneous slope at any specific stress (tangent method)

Es = secant modulus = (Total Stress/Total Strain) at any point Ei = Initial Modulus = initial slope of curve

25

Transverse Strains for SS in Fig. 3.5

Young¶s Modulus & Poisson¶s Ratio are stress dependent.

26

Example 3.1

Using Fig. 3.5, determine Young¶s Modulus and Poisson¶s ratio at an axial stress of 10,000 psi and a confining stress of 1,450 psi. From Fig 3.5, the given stress conditions are within the elastic range of the material (e.g. linear stress-strain behavior)

27

Et = dW/dI = (15,000-5,000) /(0.00538-0.00266) Et = 3.7*106 psi

Solution

Q = -Ix/Iz = -(-0.00044/0.00404) = 0.109

28

Rock Properties

Rocks tend to be more ductile with increasing confining stress and increasing temperature Sandstones often remain elastic until they fail in brittle fashion. Shales and rock salt are fairly ductile and will exhibit substantial deformation before failure

29

Rock Properties

Poisson¶s ratio for some plastic formations may attain a value approaching the limit of 0.5 Rocks tend to be anisotropic, so stressstrain behavior depends on direction of the applied load.

30

1. An alternate form of Eq. 3.6 gives the dynamic Poisson¶s ratio:

**2. Use Eq. 3.7 to determine the dynamic Young¶s Modulus:
**

2

E ! 0.0268 V b v s (1 Q )

E ! 0.0268 * 2.38 * 7,407 2 * (1 0.240)

E ! 4. 4 * 10 6 psi

31

Fracturing is a static or quasistatic process so elastic properties based on sonic measurements may not be valid.

32

We can orient a cubic element under any stress state such that the shear stresses along the six orthogonal planes vanish. The resultant normal stresses are the three ³principal stresses´

W2 normal to the page is the intermediate principal stress and is considered to be inconsequential to the failure analysis

W3 = minimum principal stress

**Along an arbitrary plane E, a shear stress will exist.
**

33

X max

X max Xa

W1 W 3 ! 2

W1 W3 Xa ! sin 2E 2

2E

W3 Wa W1

Wa !

W W3 W W 3 cos 2E 2 2

34

f

! c W f tan [

c = cohesion

[ = angle of internal friction

35

36

!

37

W W 2

¡

¤£¢

¥

38

**Note that the failure plane approaches 45o with increasing confining stress
**

39

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing while drilling results in one form of lost circulation (loss of whole mud into the formation). Lost circulation can also occur into:

vugs or solution channels natural fractures coarse-grained porosity

40

**For a fracture to form and propagate:
**

The wellbore pressure

must be high enough to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. must be high enough to overcome stress concentration at the hole wall must exceed the minimum in situ rock stress before the fracture can propagate to any substantial extent.

41

**In Situ Rock Stresses
**

The simplest model assumes the subsurface stress field is governed solely by the rock¶s linear elastic response to the overburden load. When loaded, the block would strain in the x and y transverse directions according to Hooke¶s Law.

42

**In Situ Rock Stresses
**

Wy Wx Wz Ix ! Q Q E E E a d Wy Wx Wz Iy ! Q Q E E E

If the aterial is isotropic,

Ix !

W x Q y W z W E

Ix ! Iy ! IH

where the subscript H si nifies horizontal

43

**In Situ Rock Stresses
**

Thus

WH WH Wz IH ! Q Q E E E

Constraining the block on all sides prevents lateral strain. Setting IH = 0,

WH Wz 1 Q ! Q E E

Eliminating E and rearranging yields the fundamental relationship

¨ Q ¸ WH ! © © Q ¹ Wz ¹ ª º

44

**In Situ Rock Stresses
**

The above stressed block is analgous to a buried rock element if the material assumptions remain valid. Using the book¶s nomenclature for overburden stress and substituting Terzaghi¶s effective stress equation leads to:

45

**In Situ Rock Stresses
**

¨ Q ¸ !© ¹ © 1 Q ¹ º ª From Terzaghi ,

z e

!

s pp

¨ Q ¸ W H pp ! © © 1 Q ¹ W o pp ¹ ª º

(with s = 1)

¨ Q ¸ WH ! © © 1 Q ¹ W o pp pp ¹ ª º

**The poroel sti city const nt m y be pplied to the pore pressure term if desired.
**

46

Fig. 3.13

Rock properties assumed constant with depth

47

Fig. 3.14

Wob is the max. principal stress

**Failure (fracture) occurs perpendicular to the least principal stress
**

48

Fig. 3.15

WH > Wob can be created by Tectonic forces Post-depositional erosion Glacial action or melting of glacier Fracture Pressure

**WH might be locked in while Wob reduces
**

49

Fig. 3.16

Effect of tectonic movements on stresses

Lower Wob

**Is figure drawn correctly? Or should rock sample come from right side fault?
**

50

Fig. 3.17

Effect of topography on Wob

51

Overburden stress is not significantly changed by abnormal pressure Under abnormal pore pressure, the difference between pore pressure and the least horizontal stress (fracture pressure) get very small.

Small Tolerance

52

Subnormal pressures have little effect on overburden stress « « But, result in a decrease in fracture pressure

53

Stress concentrations around a borehole in a uniform stress field

Tension

Additional compression

54

- 3. Wellheads and Casing
- 11. Formation Testing
- Intro to Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradients
- 18. Well Control Equipment
- 9B. Fracture Gradient Determination
- 7. Pore Pressure
- 7A. Pore Pressure Prediction
- 9A. Fracture Gradients - Cont'd
- 17. Special Applications
- Pore n Fracture Pressure in Deepwater
- 10. Logging While Drilling
- 20. Horizontal Wells
- 16. Dual Gradient Drilling
- 5. Pore Pressure
- 7B. Other Abnormal Pressure Detection Methods
- 4. BOPs and Their Control
- Amoco - Wellbore Stability
- 5B. High Pressure Riser
- 12. Special Problems
- 02_pressure school
- Petrophysical Engineering
- 1. Introduction (626)
- 1.11 Fracture Gradients
- 9. Fracture Gradients
- 12B. Hydrates
- Formation Pressure v2-1
- Formation Pore Pressure and Fracture Resistance
- Centroid Concept in Pore Pressure Prediction
- PorePressure Prediction Carbonate Rocks Libya Ndx Gruenwald
- 12A. Shallow Water Flows

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- In Recent Years, There Have Been Considerable
- 12. Special Problems
- Artificial Lift
- 9A. Fracture Gradients - Cont'd
- 17. Special Applications
- 12B. Hydrates
- Ch 1- Rotary Drilling
- ADE Hydraulics Equations
- 10. Logging While Drilling
- 20. Horizontal Wells
- 16. Dual Gradient Drilling
- 12A. Shallow Water Flows
- 4. BOPs and Their Control
- 5A. the Drilling Riser
- 5B. High Pressure Riser
- Plungers
- 7. Pore Pressure
- Plugs and Profiles
- 1. Introduction (626)
- Time Management
- 7A. Pore Pressure Prediction
- 7B. Other Abnormal Pressure Detection Methods_2
- 6. Motion Compensation
- 7B. Other Abnormal Pressure Detection Methods
- 2. Station Keeping

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