Dr. Sharita K.


Consultant Psychiatrist Saifee Hospital, Bhatia Hospital, Sir H. N. Hospital, & Dr. L. H. Hiranandani Hospital

Everyday is an ordeal in this unequal world

l gical arassme t is a f rm f em l yee ab se arisi g fr m et ical be avi r a lea i g t f t e w rker victimizati y It is a gl bal r blem t at is still k w a erestimate y a r ce seri s egative c seq e ces a affect t e i ivi al s w rk erf rma ce, ealt em ti al, syc l gical, a be avi ral; a verall q ality f life
y Psyc

y Glo al Progra e of Occupational Health A venture y the World Health Organization (WHO) y Ai s to provide Occupational Health for all

Types of Harassments
y Bull i g

Physical a sychological harassi g behavior er etrate agai st a i ivi al, by one or more ersons y Ps c l gic l r ssm t Humiliating or abusive behavior that lowers a erson s selfesteem or causes them torment - verbal comments, actions or gestures- mobbing y Racial arassm t Targeting of an individual because of their race or ethnicity words, deeds, and actions that make the target feel degraded due to their race of origin or ethnicity y Religi us arassment Verbal, sychological or hysical harassments used against targets because of s ecific religion - forced and involuntary conversions

Types of Harassments
y Sexual harass ent

Harass ent co only seen in the or place and schools. Involves un anted and un elco e, ords, deeds, actions, gestures, sy ols, or ehaviors of a sexual nature that a e the target feel unco forta le y Stalkin Unauthorized follo ing and surveillance of an individual privacy is unaccepta ly intruded upon, and the victi fears for their safety y Hazin To persecute, harass, or torture in a deli erate, calculated, planned, anner - typically the targeted individual is a su ordinate- illegal in any instances y Backlash la ing' - the harasser or other people in the Or 'victi environ ent la e the victi for the harass ent

What is psychological harassment in the work place?

y Psychological harass ent is vexatious ehaviour that

2. 3. 4.

anifests itself in the for of conduct, ver al ents, actions or gestures characterized y: co They are repetitive (single serious incidence - if it under ines the person's psychological or physical integrity and if it has a lasting har ful effect) They are hostile or un anted They affect the person's dignity or psychological integrity, and They result in a har ful or environ ent

What is vexatious behaviour?
y It is hu iliating or a usive ehaviour that lo ers a

person's self-estee or causes hi tor ent. It is also ehaviour that exceeds hat the person considers to e appropriate and reasona le in the perfor ance of his or y Psychological harass ent ay co e fro a superior, a colleague, a group of colleagues, a custo er, or a supplier

Common ways of expression of Harassment
y Making rude, degrading or offensive remarks y Making gestures that seek to intimidate y iscrediting the erson - s reading rumors, ridiculing him, humiliating him, calling into question his convictions or his rivate life, shouting abuse at him or sexually harassing him y elittling the erson - forcing him to erform tasks that are belittling or below his skills, simulating rofessional misconduct

Common ways of expression of Harassment
y Preventing the erson from ex ressing himself yelling at him, threatening him, constantly interrupting him, prohibiting him from speaking to others y Isolating the person - no longer talking to him at all, denying his presence, distancing him from others y estabilizing the person - making fun of his convictions, his tastes or his political choices y riticizing someone s work or private life y Threatening someone verbally or in writing

Common ways of expression of Harassment
y Forcing a person to do hu iliating tas s y Ceasing to give or to a person y Forcing a person to perfor y y y y

co pletely useless

and/or a surd tas s Questioning so eone s a ility or s ills Insulting a person y using o scene or degrading ter s Ad inistratively harassing or excessively controlling a person s or Contesting or casting dou t on a person s decisions

Common ways of expression of Harassment
Assigning ne duties ithout training De otion Excessive onitoring of person s or Exclusion fro eetings, projects, training courses Assigning tas s that are hazardous or unfit for the person s health y Intentionally underrating or ignoring proposals y Lac of co unication
y y y y y

Common ways of expression of Harassment
y y y y y y y y

Lac of recognition Re ote or unjustified transfers Retaining infor ation essential for perfor ing the jo Threats of disciplinary action Threats of dis issal Unjustifia le lo erit rating Wor overloads that are i possi le to eet Unjustified disciplinary action

Common ways of expression of Harassment
y y y y y y y y

Da age to personal elongings Sexual harass ent Ver al a use Spreading false infor ation Ridicule, especially in front of colleagues or superiors Provocation Instigation of colleagues against the victi Gossiping

Exceptions y Situations unpleasant for an e

ployee, ut ay not constitute psychological harass ent, especially if: the legiti ate (i.e. not discri inatory/ ar itrary and not a usive) use of anage ent right in cases of pro otion, de otion, suspension, etc. usual and ongoing evaluation of e ployee perfor ance, attendance or discipline at or expressing disagree ent or stating a contrary ut reasona le point of vie


y First Researcher

Heinz Ley ann, a S edish

psychologist y Borro ed the ter o ing fro the ani al sciences - research or of Konrad Lorenz (No el Laureate for the theory of i printing ) y Mobbing literally eans to for a cro d around so eone in order to attac hi /her - defines the ehaviour of so e ani al species of assailing one e er of the group hich, for various reasons, is to e expelled

Prevalence of Psychological violence in Health Sector (2001) Ver al A use Most co on
y y y y y y y

Australia 67% South Africa 60.1% Portugal 51.1% Thailand 47.7% Le anon 40.9% Brazil 39.5% Bulgaria 32.2%

Prevalence of Psychological violence in Health Sector (2001) Bullying and Mo ing Second area of concern
y y y y y y

Bulgaria 30.9% Le anon 22.1% South Africa 20.6% Portugal 16.5% Brazil 15.2% Australia 10.5%

Prevalence of Intimidation at Work in European Union (EU)
y Wor ing Conditions 2000 y y y y y

Third European Survey 1 in 10 or ers (9%) are su jected to inti idation Finland 15% UK 14% France 10% Portugal 4%

Workers subjected to Intimidation in EU
y Public dmin. y y y y y y y

efense 1 ducation Health 12 Hotels estaurants 12 Transport 12 holesale etail Trade eal state 7 onstruction 5 griculture 3 (2


Different terms used across the world
y y y y y y y y

Bullying Wor A use Mistreat ent Bossing Victi ization Inti idation Psychological Terrorization Psychological Violence

Workplace Bullying
Repeated, unreasonable behaviour directed towards an employee/ group of employees that creates a risk to health and safety 1. Unreasonable behaviour means behaviour that a reasonable person, having regard to all the circumstances, would expect to victimize, humiliate, undermine or threaten 2. Behaviour includes actions of individuals or a group. system of work may be used as a means of victimizing, humiliating, undermining or threatening 3. Risk to health and safety includes risk to mental or physical health of the employee

Types of Workplace Bullying
y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Pressure bullying rganisational bullying orporate bullying Institutional bullying lient bullying erial bullying econdary bullying Pair bullying Gang/group bullying (mobbing) Vicarious bullying egulation bullying esidual bullying yber bullying

Bullying is an 'Epidemic'
y Ne

for s of violence at or on the rise orld ide International La our Organization (ILO) June 2006 y Violence at or - fro ullying and o ing, to threats y psychologically unsta le co- or ers, sexual harass ent and ho icide reached epide ic levels in so e countries GENEVA (ILO Ne s)

Mobbing v/s Conflict
y A certain degree of co petition is nor al and useful co ponent of y 1. 2. y y y

everyday or life Mo ing differs fro nor al conflicts for 2 ain reasons: It is characterized y unethical actions, and It is counterproductive for all Nor ally, individuals enter the or environ ent ith specific expectations e.g. salary, co petence develop ent, career progression, etc. Co petition is instru ental in reaching these goals In o ing the cli ate eco es foggy, co unication is a iguous, and the interaction is hostile

Healthy Conflicts Clear roles & tasks Collaborative relations Common & shared objectives Explicit interpersonal relations Healthy organization Occasional clashes & confrontations Open conflict & discussion Straightforward communication

Mobbing Situations Role ambiguity Uncooperative behaviour Lack of foresight Ambiguous interpersonal relations Organizational flaws Long-lasting & systematic ethical action Covert actions/ denial of conflict Oblique & evasive communication

Open & frank strategies Equivocal strategies

Effects on Health For Employee
y y 1. 2. 3.

Potential to cause or contri ute to any psychological, psychoso atic, and ehavioral disorders Factors deter ining health effects include duration and the intensity of the stress sti uli the genetic, fa ily history of the individual, and the personality traits of the victi

Psychological Symptoms
y Anxiety reactions y Apathy y Avoidance reactions y Difficulty in y Hyper arousal y Insecurity y Inso nia y Intrusive thoughts y Irrita ility y Lac of initiative y Recurrent night ares y Mood s ings

concentration y Depressed ood y Fear reactions y Flash ac s

Psychosomatic Symptoms
y Arterial hypertension y Asth a attac s y Cardiac pro le s y Coronary heart disease y Der atitis y Hair loss y Headaches y Joint & y y y y y

uscle pains Loss of alance Migraine Sto ach pains Sto ach ulcers Tachycardia

Behavioral Symptoms
y Auto-aggressive reactions y Hetero-aggressive y Increased s o ing y Sexual dysfunctions y Social isolation

reactions y Eating disorders y Increased alcohol inta e y Drug inta e

Effects on Quality of Life (QoL)
y Avoiding social y y y y y y

eetings Co plaints of physical disco fort and sic ness Detach ent fro fa ily ties Disengage ent fro life roles and responsi ilities Intolerance of fa ily pro le s Difficulty in ualifying for other jo s Litigation

Effects on Quality of Life (QoL)
y Loss of friendship relations y Loss of inco e y Loss of shared projects y Marital pro le s & divorce y Medical expenses y Out ursts of rage y Violence y Worsening of child s perfor ance at school

Increased Costs For Employer
y y y y y y y y y

Additional retire ent costs Da age to co pany i age Decrease of co petitiveness Decrease of product uality Disa ility Increase of persons unfit for or Increased staff turnover Interpersonal cli ate deterioration Litigation costs

Increased costs
y Loss of ualified staff, reduced individual and group y y y y y y

productivity Reduced otivation, satisfaction, and creativity Reduction in nu er of clients Repeated transfers Replace ent costs Sic ness a senteeis Training ne staff

Effects on Society and Country
y Benefits and elfare costs due to pre ature retire ent y High costs of disa ility y High costs of une ploy ent y Loss of hu an resources y Medical costs and possi le hospitalization y Potential loss of productive or ers

Pro a ility to e harassed increases due to: A. A ad anage ent style B. Inade uate organization of or C. An unfavora le or environ ent

A. Management Style
Inertia of anage ent and higher level staff creates a cli ate of fear, distrust, excessive co petition and a e 2. Ne Manage ent ethods introduction of a ore extensive concept of co petition no clear rules of colla oration leading to scope for a use of po er

B. Work Organization
Chronic understaffing and heavy or constraints 2. Badly defined tas s or disorganized or 3. Excessive Hierarchy 4. Insufficient instructions and lac of infor ation

C. Work Environment
The International work environment a highly flexible organization in working hours, employment and work status, along with downsizing and restructuring 2. The development of outsourcing and multiplication of subsidiary companies produce situations leading to the neglect of employees

y "Every e ployee has a right to a or environ ent free fro psychological harass ent. E ployers ust ta e reasona le action to prevent psychological harass ent and, henever they eco e a are of such ehaviour, to put a stop to it. Canadian Labour Standards Act

y Best

eans of co ating psychological harass ent y E ployer's responsi ility to ta e preventive steps y All parties such as health professionals, decision a ers, anagers, hu an resource directors, supervisors, legal co unities, unions, and or ers ust unite to help

Primary Prevention
y Information and ducation on harassment and its

y y y y

workers must be adequately informed management must be educated in conflict resolution awareness campaigns may be implemented anti-mobbing policy may be developed

y Guidelines containing information on the nature and

extent of the problem and its effects on health and quality of life y ode of thics charter with indications that the company will not tolerate unethical acts and discrimination y Contracts Terms should be included for regulating the matter

Secondary Prevention
effective measures to take control y confidant: a person, either an employee or someone outside the company, can be charged with the task on listening y A mediator: mediation is defined as a process in which an impartial third party, the mediator, offers people in conflict the opportunity to meet in order to negotiate a solution and to establish the terms of an arrangement to work with mutual respect
y Timely

Tertiary Prevention
y Steps to help recover their health and dignity y arly diagnosis of health effects to reduce the

consequences at all levels (individual, family, and social) y Group Therapy groups that bring together people who have suffered from mobbing in different situations. Sharing similar experiences in a group allows the victims to realize that they are not the ones responsible for the event, to recognize the aggression, and if necessary, modify their own behavior

Sound Management Practices for Employers
y Pro ote respectful interpersonal co y Manage the e ers of staff fairly y Ta e uic and appropriate action to

unication anage conflicts; do not allo

the situation to deteriorate y Clearly define the responsi ilities and tas s of each e ployee y Put in place in his underta ing a procedure to allo persons to report cases of harass ent confidentially y Resort, in certain cases, to specialized resources to help put a stop to a psychological harass ent situation and to prevent other such situations fro arising

Promoting a Healthy Environment - A Checklist for Employers
y Provide useful infor ation on y y

y y

or ers Consider sending anagers and other staff to training courses in ho to address and prevent or place ullying Provide off-site, supported counseling services for staff: for e ployees to anage the e otional conse uences of ullying, and ith anaging their ehaviour and in to ullies to assist the dealing ith the ental health issues that cause it Encourage staff to ta e regular rea s during the day and annual leave hen it falls due Provide social activities for staff hich encourage their fa ilies/friends to e involved

anaging stress and depression for

Promoting a Healthy Environment - A Checklist for Employers
y Ensure social environ ent in the or place is safe for people ith y y y y y y

illness Don't a e negative assu ptions a out people ith ental illness hen they are applying for jo s or or ing ithin your institute Increase your o n no ledge of ental illnesses and discri ination issues Tal through hat the person's needs ay e - e.g. physical environ ent needs such as a uiet or space or or ing fro ho e You ay need to negotiate flexi le or ing hours - e.g. starting or later due to edication side effects Negotiate flexi le leave arrange ents in case of illness Negotiate extra supervision or support person hich your staff e er ay re uire


What should you do in the event of psychological harassment at work?
y Tal a out the pro le y Express clearly and fir ly your disapproval to the source y Bring the y y y y y

atter to the e ployer Chec for reporting procedures Collect evidence Identify allies Share your experiences ith others Re uest a transfer

Laws Against Bullies Global Stand (ICN), World Health y The ILO ith the International Council of Nurses
y y y y y y

Organization (WHO) and Pu lic Services International (PSI) fra e or guidelines to co at or place violence in the health sector European countries ere the first to legislate on this pro le European and Scandinavian countries, including France, Ger any, Italy, S eden, Spain, the Netherlands, and Nor ay, have introduced various regulatory responses United Kingdo , Ireland and Australia courts currently address ullying under existing legislation In 2002 - France odified its Labour Code to i pose an o ligation on e ployers to prevent psychological harass ent Que ec, Canada Labour Standards Act (LSA) effective June 1, 2004, prohi iting psychological harass ent In the United States, or place ullying is not yet recognized y the legal syste although a fe states have initiated ills

Stand in India
y Mention of Psychological Harass ent in the Bureau of Indian Standards Organizational Accounta ility at the Wor place (June 2007) y Section 7 on Core Ele ents and Inhu ane treat ent

7.9 Harass ent, A use

y Legislation is long overdue and adly needed y To start, a legal definition of ullying ould help

e ployers develop policies rules and regulations alone ill not solve the pro le . y An effective strategy ust also include education, it ent conflict resolution echanis s, and a co fro e ployers that is ased on good usiness practice

Many ho live ith violence day in and day out assu e that it is an intrinsic part of the hu an condition. But this is not so. Violence can e prevented. Violent cultures can e turned around. In y o n country and around the orld, e have shining exa ples of ho violence has een countered. Govern ents, co unities and individuals can a e a difference. Nelson Mandela Fore ord to World Report on Violence and Health (2002) World Health Organization, Geneva

Than You

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