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Stocks, Sauces,

and Soups

Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF)


and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Essential Parts


of Stock
There are four essential parts to all stocks:

A major flavoring ingredient


A liquid, most often water
Mirepoix
Aromatics

Mirepoix ( is a French word that refers to the mixture of


coarsely chopped onions, carrots, and celery that
provide a flavor base for stock.
Aromatics, such as bouquet garni and sachet d pices,
are the herbs, spices, and flavorings that create a savory
smell.
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Stocks
A stock is a flavorful liquid made by gently simmering
bones and/or vegetables.
Stocks are often called the chefs building blocks. They
form the base for many soups and sauces.
To use bones for stock, you must first cut them to the
right size and then prepare them by blanching, browning,
or sweating.

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Types of Stocks
Fish Stock is prepared from the bones and trimmings of fish, aromatic
vegetables and seasoning. A shorter preparation time is needed to extract
the nourishing ingredients.
Vegetable Stock is prepared from vegetables sauted in fat and then
extracted with water. It is used in vegetarian cooking.
White Stock has white meat and aromatic vegetables which are partly
and lightly roasted in fat. The color is developed by controlled reduction.
Brown Stock is made from beef, veal or poultry and aromatic vegetables
which are partly and lightly roasted in fat

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Preparing Stocks
Blanching the bones rids them of some of the impurities that can
cause cloudiness in a stock.
To brown bones, roast them in a hot (400F) oven for about an hour,
until they are golden brown.
Sweating causes bone and mirepoix to release flavor more quickly
when liquid is added.
Flavor, color, body, and clarity determine the quality of stock. A stock
should be flavorful, but not so strong that it overpowers the other
ingredients in the finished dish.
To make stock, the ratio of liquid to flavoring ingredients is
standard.
Follow proper food safety practices when cooling stock to minimize
the time the stock spends in the temperature danger zone.
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|Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

Degreasing Stock
Degreasing is the process of removing fat that has cooled and
hardened from the surface of the stock.

Degreasing gives the stock a


clearer and purer color.
Degreasing also removes some
of the fat content, making the
stock more healthful.
Degrease stock by skimming,
scraping, or lifting hard fat.

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Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

Section 6.1 Summary


Stocks contain four essential parts: a major flavoring
ingredient, liquid, aromatics, and mirepoix.
There are many types of stock, including white stock, brown
stock, fumet, court bouillon, glace, remouillage, bouillon, jus,
and vegetable stock.
When using bones for stock, you must cut them to the right
size and prepare them by blanching, browning, or sweating.
Degreasing is the process of removing fat that has cooled and
hardened from the surface of the stock by lifting or scraping it
away before the stock is reheated.
To cool stock, follow good food safety practices and limit the
time the stock spends in the temperature danger zone (TDZ).
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Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

A sauce is a liquid or semisolid product that is used in preparing other


foods.

Sauces add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to another dish.


A saucier is a cook who specializes in making sauces.
There are five classical grand sauces that are the basis for most
other sauces:
Bchamel: Made from milk and white roux
Velout: Made from veal, chicken, or fish stock and a white or blond
roux
Brown or Espagnole sauce: Made from brown stock and brown roux
Tomato sauce: Made from a stock and tomatoes
Hollandaise: This is an emulsion made from eggs, butter, and lemon.

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|Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

Basic Ingredients in Sauces


Sauces need a liquid component. A key ingredient in sauce is the
thickener, which adds richness and body.

Roux is a thickener made of equal parts cooked flour


and a fat, such as clarified butter, oil, or shortening.
Beurre mani is a thickener made of equal parts flour
and soft, whole butter.
A slurry, cornstarch mixed with a cold liquid, can be
used instead of roux.
A liaison is a mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream,
often used to finish some sauces.

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Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

Preparing Different
Kinds of Sauces
Compound butter is a mixture of raw butter and various
flavoring ingredients, such as herbs, nuts, citrus zest, shallots,
ginger, and vegetables.
Coulis is a thick pured sauce.
Salsa is a cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits, and/ or
vegetables. It can be used as a sauce for meat, poultry, fish,
or shellfish.
Jus-li is a sauce made from the juices from cooked meat
and brown stock.
The easiest way to strain sauce is the wringing method. In
this method, place a clean cheesecloth over a bowl, and pour
the sauce through the cheesecloth into the bowl.
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Section 6.2 Summary


There are five classical grand sauces that are the basis for
most other sauces. These are bchamel, velout, brown or
espagnole sauce, tomato sauce, and hollandaise.
Thickeners, such as roux, beurre mani, slurry, and liaison, add
richness and body to sauces.
There are other sauces that are not classified as grand sauces
or as derivatives of grand sauces. These include compound
butters, salsa, and coulis. In addition, some sauces are made
with the natural juices from meat, such as jus-li or au jus.
You should match sauces to the type of food you are serving.
Consider factors such as the main ingredient of the dish and
how the flavors will complement each other.
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Basic Kinds of Soup


There are two basic kinds of soupclear soups and thick soups.

Clear soups include flavored stocks, broths, and


consomms.
Thick soups include cream soups and pure soups,
such as bisques, chowders, cream of tomato, lentil, and
split pea soup.
There are many variations of these basic soups:

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Dessert soups
Fruit soups
Cold soups
Traditional regional soups
Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

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Preparing Soups
Most soups are cooked at a gentle simmer and stirred
occasionally.
Finishing techniques are important when preparing soup
for service. Soups should also be garnished just before
service.
Stock or broth is the basic ingredient in clear soups.
Broth is made from a combination of water; vegetables;
beef, fish, chicken, or veal; mirepoix; and bouquet garni.
One type of clear soup is consomm. This is a rich,
flavorful broth or stock that has been clarified.

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Preparing Soups (cont.)


There are two kinds of thick soupcream soups and
pure soups.
The main difference between a pure and cream soup is
that cream soups are usually thickened with an added
starch, such as roux:
Pure soups are thickened by the starch found in the pured
main ingredient, such as potatoes.
Bisque is a cream soup usually made from pured shellfish
shells, such as lobster, shrimp, or crab.
Chowders are hearty, thick soups made in much the same way
as cream soups.

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Section 6.3 Summary


There are two basic kinds of soupclear and thick. Clear soups
include flavored stocks, broths, and consomms. Thick soups
include cream and pure soups.
Stock or broth is the basic ingredient in clear soups. Consomm is
a rich, flavorful broth or stock that has been clarified.
Cream soups are made with a thickener, such as roux. The main
flavor in cream soups should be the major ingredient.
The main difference between a pure and cream soup is that
cream soups are usually thickened with an added starch.
Pure soups are thickened by the starch found in the pured main
ingredient (such as potatoes).
There are many kinds of soup, including cold soups, fruit soups,
and vegetable-based soups.
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