TAMU - Pemex Offshore Drilling

Lesson 20 Horizontal Wells
1

Lesson 20: Horizontal Wells
 Why Drill Horizontal Wells? Relative Production Rates Relative Costs Types of Horizontal Wells Drilling Problems and Solutions How Popular is Horizontal Drilling?
2

Pearsall Field Oil Rig

Austin Chalk Austin San Antonio

Not to scale

Austin Chalk

3

WHY DRILL HORIZONTAL WELLS?

Increase Production Rates Control Water Production Control Gas Production Control Sand Production Increase Reserves
4

WHY DRILL HORIZONTAL WELLS?
Produce From Thin Reservoirs Connect Vertical Fractures Produce Methane from Coal Seams Increase Injectivity (steam, water, polymers, etc.)
5

Production, Horizontal Well / Vertical Well

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Horizontal Well Drainage Area = vertical drainage area = 30 acres *Steady State

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 9

10 11 12

Horizontal Well Length, 100 ft increments
6

Vertical Well

Horizontal Well

7

Horizontal Drilling Sites
Bryan
Austin Chalk Austin Chalk Fields

Austin Giddings Houston

San Antonio Pearsall Field

8

Horizontal Drilling
Horizontal wells are often drilled perpendicular to vertical fractures in order to intersect and drain as many fractures as possible. Horizontal drilling greatly reduces the risk of bypassing vertically fractured reservoirs.
9

Horizontal Drilling

Oil-filled fractures

10

PRODUCTION RATES: ORYX - Austin Chalk
Vertical Well B/D 12 15 5 Horizontal Well B/D 507 215 107 Horizontal/ Vertical Ratio 42 14 21

Drilled 7 wells over a period of 4 years (1986-1989) Drilled 85 additional wells the next year (1990)
11

ROSPO MARE, ITALY
Oil Production, m3/D

500 250

Horizontal Well

Slant Well Vertical Well

1982

1984

1986

Water

70m

12

PRUDHOE BAY
Vertical Well: Horizontal Well: Production Ratio: Vertical Well: Horizontal Well: Cost Ratio: 3,000 - 4,000 B/D 10,000 - 12,000 B/D 3-4 235 $/ft 520 - 282 $/ft 2.2 - 1.2
13

2-6 degrees/100 ft Long Radius Conventional - Directional 2,800-1,000 ft. radius 20-75 degrees/100 ft 300-125 ft. radius Medium Radius Short Radius Pay Zone 400-700 ft 1.5-3 degrees/ft 20-40 ft. radius

1,000-5,000 ft

1,000-6,000 ft

14

NEW DRILLING TECHNOLOGY
Measurement While Drilling (MWD) Directional Surveying and Control Identification of Markers Identify zones

15

Top Drive
Drill with 90-ft stands instead of 30-ft joints Circulate while pulling drillpipe out of hole Rotate drill pipe while pulling out of hole
16

Mud Motors
Drill without rotating pipe Change hole direction while drilling without making a trip to change the BHA Steerable systems High-torque motors…
17

Geological Marker

MWD tools are used to locate geological markers as a well approaches its target so that the driller can determine the vertical distance between the bit and target.
18

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS IN HORIZONTAL DRILLING
Running equipment in and out of hole: drillstring, casing, cables Preventing/Remedying differential sticking Excessive torque
19

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS IN HORIZONTAL DRILLING (cont’d)
Cleaning the hole and preventing cuttings from settling along the hole bottom Controlling weight on bit to achieve and maintain directional control Cementing casing or liner
20

SUMMARY
Horizontal wells may produce at 3-5 times the rate of vertical wells in the same area. (as much as 20 times higher in special cases) Horizontal wells typically cost 1.5-3 times as much as vertical wells in the same area.
21

SUMMARY

(Continued)

 Horizontal wells are often very attractive in formations with extensive vertical fractures. The use of horizontal wells is growingworldwide. Horizontal wells will increase our recoverable reserves. In the U.S. one rig in ten is drilling horizontal wells. (1995) { ~7% today }
22

LONG-RADIUS WELLS
Used for achieving large horizontal displacements from platforms or drilling pads Used for achieving very long horizontal sections (4000 ft +)

23

LONG-RADIUS WELLS (cont’d)
Build Rate: Build Radius: Length of Horizontal Section: ~2-6 degrees/100 ft ~1,000-3,000 ft 1,000-7,000 ft

24

METHOD
Use conventional directional drilling technology Use rigid bottom hole assemblies, motors & bent subs, stabilizers Or, use Navigation drilling systems with “steerable” drilling motors
25

MEDIUM - RADIUS WELLS
Build Rate: Build Radius: Length of Horizontal Section: ~ 8-20 degrees/100 ft ~ 300-700 ft ~1,000-5,000 ft

26

METHOD
Use modified long-radius drilling technology Use different motors for ANGLE BUILD and ANGLE HOLD sections Use a “TANGENT SECTION” between the two build sections
27

Fig. 1: Medium String Stabilizer Radius Angle Build Assembly Dump Valve
Bent Sub Low-Speed, High-Torque Motor Upper Bearing Housing with Stabilizer

Kickoff Sub

28

SHORT - RADIUS WELLS
Build Rate: Build Radius: Length of Horizontal Section: ~ 1-3 degrees/ ft ~ 20-40 ft 400-1000 ft

29

METHOD
Downhole motor designs are now available Drill vertical “rathole” to identify horizon Build angle with special curvedrilling assembly with a non-rotating shell that gives curvature to the tool
30

METHOD

(Continued)

After building angle to horizontal, use a special angle-hold assembly: this consists of two undergauge stabilizers behind the bit, and flexible drillpipe

31

Drill Pipe (rotating) Clutch Sub (rotating)

Clutch Stabilizer

Fig. 4: Short Radius Curve Drilling Assembly

Curved Drill Guide (non-rotating)

Stabilizer

Bit Sub (rotating)

32

Multi-Lateral Completion Systems from Baker Oil Tools
Has Finally Taken Root

33

Multi-Lateral Drilling and Completions

Some Things are Designed for Easy Re-entry.

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

“Complex well geometries boost Orinoco heavy oil producing rates
Oil & Gas Journal, Feb. 28, 2000

Single horizontal lateral Gull-wing well Stacked multilateral Fishbone well Gull-wing, fishbone well Stacked fishbone well
~9oAPI oil. ~1.2 * 1012 bbls in place. ~250 * 109 recoverable
46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

End of Lesson 20
A

TM
54

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful