Nor Huda bt Haris Nor Zafirahanis bt Abd Manan Mohd Ihsan b Faharol Razi

Child development refers to changing in physical size, the growth of body parts, the function of body parts, and human characteristics (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2007)

We can say that, Child development is the development of body size and head, body weight and height, teeth and bones growth.

Hurlock (1978) said that these changes (physical development) effects the personality directly and indirectly.

Directly

= physical development decides the child ability to do something. Indirectly = physical development give influence to the child self-confidence and other children.

In this topic, we will be discussing about the physical development during the prenatal, baby, toddler, child, an early adolescence 

Basic Principle 
Our body development starts from head to feet  After birth, the size of the head develop first follow by body, hands, and foot.  The development direction occur from the centre of our

body to physically.  Physical development aspects in different stages.

y Prenatal
y Germinal (conception through week 2) y Embryonic (weeks 3 through weeks 8) y Fetal (weeks 9 through birth)

y Baby (0 through 2 years old) y Toddler (2

6 years old) y Child (7 12 years old) y Early Adolescence (12 15 years old)

Prenatal

1 Germinal

2 Embryonic

3 Fetal

y An individual development start at the time of

fertilization.
y When a woman reach puberty, an ovum (egg) be release

after 28 days of mature to fallopian tube. This is called ovulation.
y An ovum that fertilize with a sperm is called a zygote. y The prenatal happen about nine (9) months and have 3

phases that are germinal, embryonic, and fetal.

y The period of the germinal lasts about 2 weeks, from

fertilization (zygote) until the tiny mass of cells drifts down and out of the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. y The zygote s first cell duplication is long and drawn out; is not complete until about 30 hours after conception. y Gradually, new cells are added at a faster rate.

y By the fourth day, 60 to 70 cells exist that form a

hollow, fluid-filled ball called a blastocyst. y the cells on the inside, called the embryonic disk, will become the new organism; the outer ring of cells, termed the trophoblast, will provide protective covering and nourishment.

In this photo taken with the aid of a powerful microscope, sperm have completed their journey up to the female reproductive tract and are beginning to penetrate the surface of the enormous-looking ovum. When one of the sperm is successful at fertilizing the ovum, the resulting zygote will begin to duplicate.

Zygote: Seventh to ninth day

y The period of embryo lasts from implantation through

the eighth weeks of pregnancy. y During these brief 6 weeks, the most rapid prenatal changes take place, because the groundwork for all body structures and internal organ is laid down.

y Last half of the first month, the embryonic disk forms

3 layers of cells
y The ectoderm

become the nervous system and skin y The mesoderm develop to muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organ y The endoderm become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands.

y The second month, growth continues rapidly. y The eyes, ears, nose, jaw, and neck form. Tiny buds

become arms, legs, fingers, and toes. y Internal organ are more distinct. y Now, 1 inch long and one-seventh of an ounce in weight and the embryo can sense its world

Embryo: Fourth week

Embryo: Seventh week

y Lasting from the ninth week until the end of

pregnancy, the period of the fetus is the growth and finishing phase. y In this phase, the organs, muscles and nervous system start to become organized and connected. y The brain signals, and in response, the fetus kicks, bend its arm, forms a fist, curls its toes, opens its mouth and many more

y Is the fetus is born during the seventh month of

pregnancy, it will suffer from respiration problem. y But, with today technology, the chance for the fetus to live is high. y In this phase, the height and weight increase.

Fetus: Eleventh week

Fetus: Twenty-second week

Fetus: Thirty-six week

y For the first two years, a baby growth and

development are increase rapidly.
y The height of a baby is about 50cm during birth and

increase about 30% for the first 5 months.
y The weight of the baby is about 3 to 5 kg during birth.

The weight increase about 1 kg after a month.
y The brain s size and complexity also increase. y Teeth begin to growth at bottom jaw in the age

between 6 to 8 month.

y The sequence of the teeth of is at the bottom jaw

follow by upper jaw. This sequence is a must to avoid misplace of the jaw and the perfection of
y After the development of psychomotor, the baby

started to be independence and manage to do some movement.
y The movement also manipulated the interaction

between the parents and environment.
y In the end of year two, a baby is able to do more

complex activities.
y Can you think several activities that can be done by a

baby in this stage?

y In this stage, the physical development become slower y y y y

comparing to the first two years. Their height are double from birth and their weight is four times. Muscles(kasar) had full develop but muscles(halus) are improper development. Researchers said that the development of girls in this stage are more faster that the boys. Changes in psychomotor abilities has a sequence. A child has to know how to walk first then run.

Age (years) 2 3 4 5

Psychomotor development Climbing stairs with help Holding bigger objects: ball Manipulation of small objects: crayon. Throw ball Riding a tricycle. Jumping and running Climbing up and down stairs without help. Using inline skates Writing simple letter and words

*Psychomotor abilities and changes are influence by the parents genetic

y Growth and physical development at current stage is y y y y

more stabile. It is more to improvement of psychomotor abilities. The height of girls increase at the age of 8 until 10 years old and climax at the age of 12. The height of boys increase at the age of 10 until 12 years old and climax at the age of 15. When children reach puberty, they look more faster, tougher, and able to focus on activities or task given.

y The development of muscle (halus), eye coordination

and hand are enough for them to write, learn playing musical instrument, sewing, and many more. y Boys are more towards extreme games.

y Growth and physical development at current phase are y y y y

the same as the baby. Physical changes such as height, body size and shapes are more towards adult. Changing in size for female teenagers occur faster starting one to two years before puberty. When reaching puberty, body shape of a female teenager more towards kewanitaan. For male teenagers who have reach puberty, they will experience changing in voices.

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