Ahmad Asnawi bin Ashaari Mohd Ihsan bin Faharol Razi Muhamad Faiz bin Rahmad

y Social Learning Theory consist three elements
y Individual process

intrinsic motivation y Environment external stimulus y Behaviour individual s action

y According to social learning theory, learning is the

interaction between an individual s intrinsic motivation and behaviour with the environment.

I

I = Individual E = Environment B = Behaviour

E

B

y Albert Bandura was born December 4,

1925, in the small town of Mundare in northern Alberta, Canada. y Received his bachelors degree in Psychology from the University of British Columbia in 1949 y In 1953, he started teaching at Stanford University and he collaborated with his first graduate student, Richard Walters, resulting in their first book, Adolescent Aggression, in 1959

y Albert Bandura's social learning theory stressed the

importance of observational learning, imitation, and modeling. Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do, (Bandura, 1977). y His theory integrates a continuous interaction between behaviors, cognitions, and the environment.

y Albert Bandura stated that learning should go through

the process of modeling, i.e. learning through observation and imitation process. y Bandura asserted people who have been observed (model), and the learning through the observation of the model s behaviour is known as Modelling.

Pupil A

Observation

Pupil B recites poem

Praise by teacher

Imitation Tendency of pupil A to recite poem strengthened

y Attention

various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, complexity, functional value. One s characteristics (e.g. sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) affect attention. y Retention remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal.

y Reproduction

reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and selfobservation of reproduction. y Motivation having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as a past (i.e. traditional behaviorism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model).

y Of the hundreds of studies Bandura was

responsible for, one group stands out above the others -- the bobo doll studies. He made of film of one of his students, a young woman, essentially beating up a bobo doll. In case you don t know, a bobo doll is an inflatable, egg-shape balloon creature with a weight in the bottom that makes it bob back up when you knock him down. Nowadays, it might have Darth Vader painted on it, but back then it was simply Bobo the clown.

y The woman punched the clown, shouting

sockeroo! She kicked it, sat on it, hit with a little hammer, and so on, shouting various aggressive phrases. Bandura showed his film to groups of kindergartners who, as you might predict, liked it a lot. They then were let out to play. In the play room, of course, were several observers with pens and clipboards in hand, a brand new bobo doll, and a few little hammers.

y And you might predict as well what the

observers recorded: A lot of little kids beating the daylights out of the bobo doll. They punched it and shouted sockeroo, kicked it, sat on it, hit it with the little hammers, and so on. In other words, they imitated the young lady in the film, and quite precisely at that.

y Main learning is observation and imitation. y Idioms, proverbs and language can be learned

from the model. y Pupils will imitate certain skills from teacher as their model, and will be able to master if there were satisfaction and appropriate reinforcement.

y Teacher s presentation should be skilful and

interesting so as to become a role model for the pupils to follow. y Teacher s demonstration should be clear and interesting so that pupils can imitate the procedure easily and accurately. y Teacher can also invite pupils who perform well to become role models to repeat the demonstration inside or outside the classroom.

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