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RIVER HYDRODYNAMICS

AND SEDIMENT
TRANSPORT
Presentation by
P.RAHUL REDDY
G.ANUSHA
P.MRUTHYUNJAY

WHAT IS A SEDIMENT ??
Sediment refers to the
conglomerate of materials, organic
and inorganic, that can be carried
away by water, wind or ice

FACTORS OF ORIGIN
Land and fluvial erosion at edges
Glacier melting phenomenon
Volcanic eruptions of geological
formations
Scouring at river bottom

SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
(or SEDIMENT LOAD TRANSPORT)

SUSPENDE
D LOAD

INSTRUMENTS TO CALCULATE
SEDIMENT LOAD:

HELLY SMITH SAMPLER

BOTTLE AND TRAP SAMPLER

OPTICAL

BACKSCATTER
POINT SENSOR

NUCLEAR

SENSORS

WHY SEDIMENT DEPOSITION


IS IMPORTANT?
Forms

spawning zones
Promotes aquatic habitat
Controls the course of the
river

FACTORS INFLUENCING SEDIMENT


TRANSPORT
In general sediment transport is influenced
by
Geology
Geomorphology
Organic elements

External factors influencing


sediment transport
1. Water

flow

2. Water

level

3. Human

influence

WATER FLOW
Flow is required to initiate the
transport

Whether sediment will be eroded, transported or deposited is


depended on the particle size and the flow rate of the water

WATER FLOW FACTORS


STOKES

SETTLING RATE

BOUNDARY

STRESSES

LAYER SHEAR

STOKES SETTLING RATE:


vs = (g * (p f) * Dp2) / 18
vs = settling velocity
g = gravitational constant
p = particle density
f = fluid density
Dp = particle diameter
= fluid viscosity

BOUNDARY LAYER SHEAR STRESS

= f * u2
= shear stress
f = fluid density
u = characteristic velocity of
turbulent flow

SHEAR VELOCITY
u = Sqrt(g * h * S)
u = shear velocity
g = gravitational constant
h = river depth
S = river slope

WATER LEVEL
Water level is mainly influenced by
weather conditions , seasonal
effects and Local topography

HUMAN INFLUENCE
Anthropogenic factors, such as dams
and altered land use will affect both
the sediment load and sediment
transport rate

The Elwha Dam was removed as part of the Elwha River Restoration project. This project
removed two major dams to improve natural sediment transport levels along the river, as
well as opening the waterway to salmon migration and spawning.

SEDIMENT
LEVELS
Too much?
Too
little?

TOO MUCH

High TURBIDITY

Algal blooms

Deposition build up

Disrupt natural aquatic migration

Sediment deposition is considered extreme when it


exceeds the recommended or established TMDL.

TOO LITTLE

New habitats cannot be formed

No growth of submerged vegetation

Alter Ecosystem

Mainly caused due to man made structures such


as Dams , barriers.

CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT:
Contaminated sediments are the accumulated riverbed
materials that contain toxic or hazardous substances that
are detrimental to aquatic, human or environmental
health.
The most problematic contaminants in both bedded and
suspended sediment are metals and persistent
bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs), such as pesticides and
methyl mercury.

SCOUR

SCOUR Monitoring equipment

SONAR

MAGNETIC SLIDING COLLAR

FLOAT OUT DEVICE

GROYNE
Agroyneis a rigidhydraulic
structurebuilt from an ocean shore or
from a bank that interrupts water flow
and limits the movement ofsediment

Groyne at Ennore beach,


Chennai

BREAKWATERS
Breakwatersare structures
constructed on coasts as part ofcoastal
defence or to protect an anchorage from
the effects of
bothweatherandlongshore drift

DROP STRUCTURE
Adrop structure, also known as agrade
control,sill, orweir, is a manmade structure,
typically small and built on minor streams,
or as part of a dam'sspillway, to pass water
to a lower elevation while controlling the
energy and velocity of the water as it passes
over.

REFERENCES:
http://www.fondriest.com/environmentalmeasurements/parameters/hydrology/sedimen
t-transport-deposition/#std1

www.vliz.be
A textbook on Hydraulic structures by
S.K.GARG

THANK YOU