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DEFINITION OF DEFECT:

Imperfection which contribute to a


deviation from the desired quality level.
Defects can be classified in to three types

Type 1:
Defects ,which can be ascertained during visual inspection or
measurement
Type2:
Defects, which can be ascertained only after Machining, Sectioning
or Radiography
Type3:
Defects, which can be ascertained only during Mechanical testing,
Micro structure examination.

Type 1:
1.
External shrinkage (Surface shrinkage)
2.
Cross defects
3.
Open blow holes
4.
Pin holes
5.
Rough surface
6.
Cold shuts
7.
Scabbing

Type2:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Internal shrinkages
Core broken/Blockage/Core warp age
Blow holes
Carbon floatation

Type3:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Poor Microstructure
Undesired Metallurgical properties
Undesired Mechanical properties
Undesired chemical composition


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

VARIOUS FOUNDRY DEFECTS (NON-CONFORMITIES):


Shrinkage/Porosity
Dross
Blow holes
Pin holes
Sand drops
Rough Surface
Cold shuts
scabbing
Carbon floatation
Short pouring
Mismatch
Core broken
Core block / warp age
Chills (Carbides)

SHRINKAGE

It is the discontinuity of the metal.


It is the sagged hole or spongy area lined with ferrite
crystal called dentrites.
Shrinkage defects are more prevalent in ductile iron
than in gray iron.

PHENOMENON OF SHRINKAGE:
When the molten metal solidifies, the atoms in the
molten metal attract each other and get a compacted
form, which results the volumetric contraction.

Stages of Shrinkage
1.Liquid Shrinkage (Primary Shrinkage) - Shrinkage is about
3%- 4%
2.Solidification Shrinkage (Secondary Shrinkage) Shrinkage
is about 2%- 3%
3.Solid Shrinkage or Contraction. Shrinkage is about 0.5%
-1%.
Practically Liquid shrinkage and Solidification shrinkage of
molten metal will be about 6%.

Volumetric Contraction
Theoretical
Temperature of the liquid
After pouring
Primary Contraction
Volume

( Liquid Shrinkage)

Secondary shrinkage
(Solidification shrinkage)
Solid contraction
Practical

Temperature

TYPES OF SHRINKAGE:
1.Surface shrinkage
2.Internal shrinkage

Porosity-Micro porosity
Spongy shrinkage

SHRINKAGE PRONE AREAS:

1.Heavy sections in the casting.


2.Hot spots.
3.Sharp Corners
4.Area, which is distant from the feeders (risers)
5.Sections having abrupt changes.
6.Re-entrant corners.
7.At heavy sections after thin sections.

SHRINKAGE

ROOT CAUSES:
1.Insufficient feeder (riser).
2.Insufficient riser neck.
3.More ingate thickness.

METHOD OF RECTIFICATION
1.ROOT CAUSE:-Insufficient Riser.
Remedial Action
1.Increase the riser modulus.
2.Increase the feed safety margin.
3.Reduce the feeding distance of the
riser.(<2t) t: thickness of the plate.
4.Providing chills.

2.ROOT CAUSE:- Insufficient Riser neck.


Remedial Action
1.Correct the neck size ( 0.67X transfer modulus)
2.Correct the neck length ( 3 x Modulus of the
casting)
3.Padding

3. ROOT CAUSE:- Mould Dilation


Remedial Action
1.Increase the mold hardness ( >85)
2.Improve the clamping system
3.Placing some weights on the mould or increase the mould weight.
4.Reduce the pouring temperature to the possible minimum level.

4.Root Cause : - Slow Pouring

Remedial Action
1.Increase the rate of pouring.
2.Increase the ingate area./Choke area.
3.Increase the pouring temperature to the maximum
possible level.
4.Increase the phosphorus content but it should be <0.1.

5.Root Cause : - Low pouring temperature


Remedial Action
1.Increase the pouring temperature to the maximum possible level.
2.Reduce the metal holding time in the furnace.
3.Reduce the pouring distance.(distance between furnace and
Pouring line).

6.Root Cause : - High/ Low carbon Equivalent


Remedial Action
1.Maintain the CE as nearer as possible to the Eutectic
point (4.3%)
2. Maintaining %C + %Si /7 = 3.9% is preferable for
ductile iron.

7.Root Cause : - Poor Inoculation methods


Remedial Action
Improve the inoculation methods. It can be done
only by trial and errors according to the
mechanical / metallurgical requirements of the
casting.

8.Root Cause : - Poor Inoculation methods


Remedial Action
Improve the inoculation methods. It can be done
only by trial and errors according to the
mechanical / metallurgical requirements of the
casting.

9.Root Cause : - Presence of low phosphorus


Remedial Action
Phosphorus content is directly related to the fluidity of the molten
metal. If the Phosphorus content is less than 0.1% then the fluidity
of the molten metal is also come down. It will affect the flow of
molten metal into the mould.
So maintain the phosphorus level to the possible minimum extent.
High Phosphorus content will induce the formation of steadite.

10.Root Cause : - High Carbon.


Remedial Action
If presence of carbon is more then late graphite
precipitation will also be more. Consequently the
pressure exerts due to volumetric growth of
graphite will also be more. It will create some micro
porosity in the casting at the thicker sections.

11.Root Cause : - Short Pouring.


Remedial Action
Pour the molten metal to the full level of the
mould.

SHORT POURING

12.Root Cause : - Mould Leak


Remedial Action
1.Increase the mould rigidity by harder ramming .
2.Increase the mould rigidity by using stronger mould
binding materials.
3.Correct the cope and drag size suitable to the pattern.
4.Improve the clamping systems
5.Increase the mould weight.

13.Root Cause : - Poor casting design


Remedial Action
1.Reduce the abrupt changes of sections as minimum as
possible.
2.Provide maximum possible radius at the corners and
the fillets.
3.Avoid isolated sections as possible as.
4.Minimize the usage of cores as possible as.

GAS DEFECTS:
Gas defects (blow holes)are generated due
to absorption of gases by the molten metal
during metal pouring or the evolution of the
gases from the cores after completion of
pouring.

GAS DEFFECT

PHENOMENON OF GAS DEFECTS:


While pouring the molten metal into the mould, molten metal will absorb the gases
from the moulds (air aspiration). This gas will come out of the molten metal because of
low density.
Some times core gases will evolve after completion of pouring from the cores .This gas
will come out thru the molten metal and produce small voids on the surface of the
casting.
Internal defects will also be generated due to this core gas. Because the outer surface of
the metal will start solidify immediately after pouring. So the entrapped gas will not be
able to come out of the surface. This type of defect will be visible only after machining.

ROOT CAUSES :
1.Poor gating design will induce turbulence in metal flow
2.Insufficient gas outlets
3.Improper sprue and gate design will allow the air aspiration.
4.High moisture content in the sand
5.Low permeability of sand.
6.Presence of more volatile materials
7.Poor mixing of sand.
8.Usage of excessive coating materials
9.Excess Nitrogen content in the binding material.
10.Inadequate curing of cores.
11.Gases dissolved in the molten metal.
12.Greasy or rusty scraps for melting.
13.Low pouring temperature
14.Poor pre-treatment of pouring/treatment ladles.
15.Slow Pouring.

METHOD OF RECTIFICATION

1.Gating system should be designed in such a way that it minimizes the air
aspiration.
2.Avoid abrupt changes in the gating system.
3.Provide gas out lets wherever possible.
4.Moisture content in the mould to be controlled.
5.If possible, avoid using more fine sand.
6.Content the volatile materials in the moulding sand within 3%.
.Sand mixing should be uniform (homogeneous) mix .
8.Excessive coating materials will evolve the gas when it contacts the
molten metal. So excessive coating should be avoided.
9.Less cured / uncured cores will evolve more gases after completion of
molten metal. So cores should be cured well.

10.Content the nitrogen in the binding material as minimum as possible.


Presence of excess nitrogen will create pinholes at the surface of the
casting.
11.Adopt suitable degassing methods to release the excess gases.
12.Avoid using coated /greasy scraps for melting. It will generate more
gases during melting.
13.Pour the molten metal into the mould at maximum possible
temperature in a minimum possible time.
14.Gas absorption will takes place from the lining sand if ladles are not
cured well. So Curing of treatment/ pouring ladles is very important.

PIN HOLES
This defect is often seen in grey iron castings but also occurs
in nodular cast irons .
Pin holes are normally present just below the casting face.It
will reveal after shot blasting.
Nitrogen pinholes are found usually at the hot spots whereas
the Hydrogen pin holes are found in the areas remote to the
ingate.

PIN HOLES

ROOT CAUSES

1.High residual Magnesium content.( >0.06%)


2.High Aluminium content.( >0.01%)
3.High Silicon content.( >2.9%)
4.High Manganese content.( >0.95)
5.High moisture content in the moulding sand.
6.Low coal dust or carbonaceous material content in the
moulding sand.
7.Long contact time between the flowing material and the
mould material.

METHOD OF RECTIFICATION
1.Establish the safer amount of Mg.Si & Al content.
2.Ensure the sufficient amount of volatile and moisture content in the
moulding sand.
3.Avoid long and complex running system.
4.Nitrigen content to be contained in the resin bonded cores.

<0.013% -for thin sectioned castings

<0.008%-for heavy sectioned castings.


5.Avoid use of nitriding steel scraps

CARBON FLOATATION
When the Carbon equivalent is as high as 4.5%,carbon
floatation will takes place at the h3eavier sections, due to slow
cooling rate.
Localized hot spots at the gate or riser function may slow
down the cooling to the point that gross segregation is found in
the gate function or riser neck.
Incorrect of use of exothermic insulating moulding materials
causes localized over heating and slow down the cooling.
Very high melting temperature.

CARBON FLOATATION

ROUGH SURFACE:
Lackness in degree of smoothness


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

ROOT CAUSE:
Pattern equipment with in accessible areas for moulding sand.
Too small fillet /edge radius.
Very high velocity of Molten metal will erode the mould wall.
Sand with too high or too low moisture.
Too coarse grain size of moulding sand.
Improper Sand preparation.
Poor ramming of coarse.
Insufficient coating of coarse.
Over cured cores.
Uneven or insufficient coating or spraying of moulds.
Very high pouring temperature.

METHOD OF RECTIFICATION
1. pattern equipment should be designed with adequate drafts,
surface finish , edge radii, fillet radii.
2. Non pressurized gating system is preferable.
3. Ensure the adequate quality of sand.
4. Ensure the fineness of the sand.
5. Ensure uniform coating of cores.
6. Ensure sufficient curing.
7. Avoid very high pouring temperature.

SAND DROP:
It is a defect due to dropping of the Sand from
the cope or other area of the mould.

ROOT CAUSE:
It is due to carelessness of the operator or because of rough
handling.
In adequate mould relieving draft induce the mould crack and
facilitate sand drops.
Weak or lose flask bars cause mould distortion will get crack
during moulding.
Misalignment of moulds.
Inadequate green strength, impact strength, tensile strength,
shear strength and deformation properties of the moulding sand.
Inadequate dry strength for dry sand moulding.

MIS RUN
It is a defect which has a lack in completeness of
the molten metal during metal filling

COLD SHUTS

A Cold shut casting is one in which a


definite discontinuity exists due to
imperfect fusion where two streams of
metal have converged.
Sometimes these defects are look like a gas
defects

COLD SHUTS

ROOT CAUSE:
1. Non uniform casting sections resulting interrupted metal flow.
2. Very thin In gates.
3. Low pouring temperature.
4. Inadequate gas outlets.
5. high volatile matter in the moulding sand.
6. Low permeability of sand.
7. Low carbon equivalent-due to low fluidity.
8. Very low phosphorous content.
9. Interrupted pouring.
10.Inadequate pressure head.
11.Short pouring.
12.Very slow pouring.

METHOD OF RECTIFICATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Multiple in gates can be provided for uniform disruptions


of molten metal.
Fast pouring at maximum possible temperature is required.
Ensure the quality of moulding sand for fineness,
permeability and volatile matters.
Maintain maximum possible phosphorous content.(<0.15%)
Maintain carbon equivalent nearer to 4.3%
Avoid interrupted pouring and short pouring.

DROSS DEFECTS :
It is nothing but the inclusions of the
metallic oxides.
Ductile iron is very prone for this defect
rather than gray iron.

PHENOMENON OF DROSS DEFECTS:


Ductile Iron is produced by treating the molten metal with Magnesium
alloy. While treatment Mg reacts with the molten metal.
Mg has greater affinity to react with atmospheric oxygen and with the
sulphur present in the molten metal and covert into Magnesium Oxides
and Magnesium Sulphides.
The severity is induced when the flow of molten metal get turbulence.
Some times presence of Aluminium and Manganese also produces its
sulphides and Oxides.
Dross defects are normally found at the top surface of the casting.
To confirm the dross defects, while examining the section cut piece under
the microscope we can see the quasi flake graphites around the dross.

ROOT CAUSES:
1.High Magnesium /Aluminium and Sulphur
content in the molten metal.
2.Turbulence in the flow of metal.
3.Poor de-sulphurisation methods.
4.Sulphur bearing materials in the moulding
materials.
5.Low pouring temperature.

METHOD OF RECTIFICATION

The dross defect cannot be eliminated fully but we


can minimize the formation of dross further .To
restrict the further formation of dross within the
mould , we should take some appropriate actions
in the following areas.

a.Melting.
1.Maintain a low sulphur in the base metal.
2.Add minimum possible Magnesium / Magnesium alloy.
3.Maintain carbon equivalent nearer to 4.3%.High carbon
equivalent will create segregation of graphite nodules at the
upper surface of casting during solidification which
aggravates the dross defects.
4.Avoid use of alloys containing Aluminium in amounts
higher than the requirement to achieve the necessary
inoculation properties.
5.Effective de-sulphurisation.

b.Moulding

1.Avoid use of Sulphur bearing materials.


(e.g Coal dust).

2.Ensure adequate volatile content in the


moulding sand to prevent Mg reaction
with atmospheric oxygen.

c.Gating
1.Avoid abrupt changes in the gating system
to reduce the turbulence.
2.The ratio of the Down sprue : Runner
bar : ingate can be 1.0 :1.06:1.15.

d.Metal Pouring
1.Avoid pouring of cold metal.
2.Lining the ladles with frequent intervals.
3.Skim the molten metal effectively to hold back
the slag.

SCABBING
It is a defect in which the loosened sand has
been eroded away by the motion of metal
while pouring

SCABBING

PHENOMENON
When the metal enters into the mould
cavity heat is radiated to the top and side
walls of the mould. So the mould starts
disintegrated. When metal touches the
mould wall it penetrates into the weak
mould wall

ROOT CAUSE
1.Poor ramming of mould
2.High moisture content in the moulding sand
3.Poor quality of binding material
4.Slow pouring
5.Insufficient-Ingates
6.Excessive pouring temperature