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Memory

Types of Memory
• Two types of memory use:
– ______________: involves conscious effort
– ______________: does NOT involve effort
– These two types of memory describe the
______________

Types of Memory
• Two types of memory content:
– _________________: memory for facts and events
• ______________= memory for personal events
• ______________= memory for facts and the basic
meanings of words and concepts

– _________________: memory for how to do things
– These two types of memory describe the
_____________

Your recollection of how to use your clicker is an
example of ____________ memory, whereas your
recollection of the events from your first day of class this
semester is an example of ____________ memory.

A.
B.
C.
D.

procedural; semantic
semantic; procedural
procedural; episodic
episodic; semantic

http://www.com/system/application/resources/img/jigsaw_puzzle.androidmeup.Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates ________ memory.png explicit flashbulb implicit sensory . C. D. B. A.

Overview of Memory Processes • Encoding – Initial processing of information that leads to a representation in memory • Storage – Retention of encoded material over time • Retrieval – Recovery of stored information at a later time – ___________ – ___________ .

The Information-Processing Model of Memory • _________________ – Represents physical features of sensory stimuli for a few seconds or less • Iconic memory = visual • Echoic memory = sounds • _________________ – Includes working memory • Refers to what is going on in short-term memory • Involves active processing of information in short-term memory – Limited capacity – Lasts only briefly without rehearsal • _________________ – Nearly unlimited capacity .

The Information-Processing Model of Memory .

What Factors Influence Recall? • Demonstration 1 – Word List • Demonstration 2 – Word List .

Demonstration 1 List 1 List 2 List 3 .

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What Does Demonstration 1 Tell Us About Memory? Serial Position Effect • _________________ – Enhanced recall of information at the beginning of a list – _____________ • _________________ – Enhanced recall of information at the end of a list – _____________________ .

Demonstration 2 List 1 List 2 List 3 .

What Does Demonstration 2 Tell Us About Memory? • The _____________is not evident if there is a delay and/or interference .

Demonstration 3 • How many pieces of information can a person remember? .

Chunking .

we can hold more pieces of information • _____________ = reconfiguring items by grouping them on the basis of similarity or some other organizing principle – Combining items into larger patterns . with ______________.What Does Experiment 3 Tell Us About Memory? • We can hold _______ pieces of information in shortterm memory – _______ pieces of information • But.

Before and After Chunking… Before: After: .

What Factors Influence Memory? • Demonstration 4 • On each slide you must follow the directions for the target word – # of upper case letters – Rhyme with ? – Use in a sentence .

EXAMPLE hello # Upper Case? .

tooth # Upper Case? .

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trees Rhyme with Dinner? .

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.desk Write a sentence using the word.

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basket # Upper Case? .

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.kettle Write a sentence using the word.

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seven Rhyme with heaven? .

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nose # Upper Case? .

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book Rhyme with cook? .

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paper Write a sentence using the word. .

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section Write a sentence using the word. .

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names # Upper Case? .

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example Rhyme with speaker? .

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balloon # Upper Case? .

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page Write a sentence using the word. .

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fan Rhyme with screen? .

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key Rhyme with sea? .

goose
# Upper Case?

print
Write a sentence using the word.

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football # Upper Case? .

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.sidewalk Write a sentence using the word.

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carpet Rhyme with largest? .

Recall Target Words .

How many did you remember? List 1 List 2 List 3 .

D. E.How many words did you remember from List 1? A. C. G. H. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . B. F.

C. G. E. F. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .How many words did you remember from List 2? A. B. D. H.

F. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . H.How many words did you remember from List 3? A. C. G. B. D. E.

What Does Demonstration 4 Tell Us About Memory? Levels-of-Processing Theory – Shallow processing (visual encoding) – Deep processing (semantic encoding) .

Levels-of-Processing Theory .

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Why Do We Forget? – Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve .

Interference .Why Do We Forget? .

Why Do We Forget? .Amnesia .

Jerry is experiencing ____________ amnesia. D. He cannot remember anything that has happened since the accident.Jerry suffered a brain injury when a steel beam fell on his head. C. A. B. retrograde anterograde retroactive proactive .

How Does Brain Damage Affect Memory? • The case of H.M. including his hippocampus • Could not form new memories – ______________________ • Also lost some old memories – ______________________ • Normal intelligence and working memory . – Case study of 27-year-old man with epilepsy – Brain surgery removed part of brain.

’s Brain Surgery .H.M.

M.Studying H.’s Brain at UCSD .

Biological Aspects of Memory • _________________ – Procedural memory and classically conditioned responses • _________________ – Sensory memories • ______________________________ – Declarative memory (facts. names) – Memories of emotional significance (amygdala) . dates.

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Study Smarter: What does memory research suggest about how to study effectively? 1. 2. 3. Show What You Know Test Prep LearningCurve .